Tag: Vietnam

Check constructmaterials for Vietnam in 1998.

Vietnam Tourist Information

Vietnam Tourist Information

Going on the road, you should have a package with documents in your hands: a voucher, an insurance policy, an air ticket and a passport. It is necessary to arrive at the airport two hours before departure in order to have time to go through customs control.

Vietnam Location. According to thesciencetutor, the official name is the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, a state in Southeast Asia located on the Indochina peninsula. Area of ​​the country: 332 thousand square meters Most of the territory is occupied by mountains, up to 3143 m high. In the west it borders with Laos and Cambodia, in the north with China, from the east and south it is washed by the South China Sea.

Vietnam Capital. Hanoi.

Vietnam Language. Vietnamese language.

Vietnam Visa. For citizens of Ukraine it is necessary to issue an entry visa. A visa to Vietnam is issued directly at the border on the basis of a pre-arranged invitation.

Required documents: a photograph, a completed application form, a foreign passport, the validity of which expires no earlier than three months on the day the trip ends;

Vietnam Features of customs control.The import of foreign convertible currency is not limited, but amounts over 3000 USD must be declared, because. the export of currency from the country is allowed only within the amount declared upon entry. The export of the national currency is prohibited. You can import duty-free 400 cigarettes, 100 cigars or 500 g of tobacco, 1.5 liters of strong alcoholic beverages or 2 liters of alcoholic beverages with a strength of up to 22 °, two 100-gram cans of black or red caviar, 5 kg of tea, 3 kg of coffee, as well as other goods with a total value not exceeding VND 5,000,000. The import of household and computer equipment is subject to mandatory declaration: all undeclared equipment will be allowed to be exported only if customs duties are paid or there is a receipt for its purchase in the country. It is strictly forbidden to import drugs and narcotic medicines without a medical prescription for their use (punishment – up to the death penalty), explosives, firearms, materials that offend local culture (printed materials, CDs, audio and video recordings), as well as pornography. It is forbidden to export art and antiques, jewelry and handicrafts without proper documentation.

Vietnam Time. Difference with Kiev time: +5.

Vietnam climate. Tropical, hot and humid. The average January temperature in the north of the country is 23 ° C, in the south 35 ° C. Vietnam is located in the region of the subequatorial monsoon climate, but due to the large length of the country from north to south, the climatic conditions on its territory are somewhat different.

North of Vietnam: winter lasts from November to April, the average temperature is + 12… + 20C. In February and March, there is sometimes fog and drizzling rain. Summer starts in April and lasts until October. In summer, the temperature rises to + 30C, sometimes it rains in the evening or at night.
Center: transitional climate with long rains in November and December and dry and hot summer months.
South: the temperature during the year practically does not change and stays within + 25… + 30C. The season depends on the rains: the dry season lasts from November to May, the rainy season – from late May to October. Between July and November, typhoons are likely on the coast.
Mountainous areas: in the resorts of Dalat (1500 m), Buon MA, Phuot and Sapa, it is quite cool at night throughout the year, and in winter from October to March, the temperature drops to + 4C. Even in the hottest months of March and April, the temperature rarely exceeds +26C.

Vietnam Main resorts. The main resorts of Vietnam are located on the East coast and stretch from north to south, washed by the South China Sea. The most visited resorts:
Nha Trang (Nha Trang) – Located 450 km. from Saigon. Coconut palms provide protection from the sun, both for bathers and strollers along the almost 6 km of Nha Trang beach. The clear turquoise water offers many diving opportunities. In addition to the city beach, there are many secluded places on the islands of Nyachang Bay. After exciting excursions and boat trips, you can take healing baths from natural mud and water sources, feel the incredible smell of the eucalyptus grove. The rainy season is in October and November. Visiting time is all year round.

Phan Thiet – 200 km. from Ho Chi Minh. Phan Thiet has all the conditions for a relaxing family holiday and holidays with children – comfortable hotels, convenient beaches and shops selling original handicrafts. Phan Thiet is known for its huge sand dunes (shimmering gold in the light of the setting sun), pristine beaches, and beautiful scenery. Visiting time is all year round.

Danang is located 1010 km from Saigon (70 minutes by plane). One of the most popular seaside resorts in Vietnam. This is the fourth largest city in Vietnam, attracting tourists with clean beaches and luxurious hotels. Rainy season in November and December.

Da Lat – healing mountain air (the city is located at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level) and the absence of the exhausting heat of the valley immediately made this city a favorite vacation spot for tourists from different countries. Dalat has many natural and artificially created lakes separated by rows of coniferous trees, which are the main feature of this area.

o.Phu Quoc (Phu Quoс) – is located 65 km. off the Southwest coast of Vietnam and is the largest among its islands. The area is equal to Singapore – about 600 sq. km. The fabulous nature of Phu Quoc is striking in its splendor – the island has 99 mountains and hills covered with relict forests with lush vegetation, as well as many charming waterfalls and raging rivers, and, of course, amazing sandy beaches with crystal clear sea water.

Vietnam main religion. The main religion in Vietnam is Buddhism, other religions are not prohibited.

Vietnam Cuisine. Vietnamese cuisine is famous for its unusual and refined taste. It doesn’t look like Chinese or Korean or Japanese. Traditional favorites of Vietnamese cuisine among the locals are fish, chicken and pork dishes along with cooked vegetables and rice or noodles. The national cuisine is quite different in different regions of Vietnam: in the North, Central and South. Each of them has its own unique Vietnamese cuisine recipes and cooking traditions. In Vietnam, tourists can enjoy national cuisine both in gourmet restaurants and in democratic street cafes – food everywhere is quite cheap and of high quality.

Vietnam Souvenirs. From Vietnam, masks and water dolls are usually brought as souvenirs; it is best to buy them in Hanoi. Hoi An is famous for silk fabrics and silk products. And don’t forget: you have to bargain everywhere!

Vietnam Transport.Vietnam has a developed land transport system. The transport network of national and regional roads is just as good as the local roads connecting provinces, metropolitan areas and cities in the country. Foreigners are advised to rent cars with a local driver. Every province has bus stations with good service. Large cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh have daily bus services on main lines. In many big cities and provinces you can use taxi services. In a taxi, in most cases, you should agree on the price of the trip in advance, before getting into the car. The basis of public transport is made up of taxis and a variety of motorcycle and cycle rickshaws (“cyclo” or “cyclo”). The fare in them should be agreed in advance and bargaining in this case is simply necessary. Air transport in the country is developing quite intensively. 19 airports of the country and all external lines are served by Vietnam Airlines. Due to the small size of the country, flights in all directions are short, the level of service is quite high.

Vietnam currency.The monetary unit officially used in Vietnam is the dong (d or VND). This currency can neither be brought into the country nor taken out of the country. New dong (VND or D), nominally equal to 10 hao and 100 sous. In circulation there are banknotes in denominations of 500,000, 100,000, 50,000, 20,000, 10,000, 5,000, 1,000, 500, 200 and 100 dong, as well as coins in 5,000, 2,000, 1,000, 500 and 200 dong (coins are gradually withdrawn from circulation). All banknotes are issued in several versions, only banknotes issued after 2003 have a high degree of protection against counterfeiting. Banks are open from 07:30-08:00 to 15:30-16:30. Day off – Saturday and Sunday. Currency can be exchanged at large banks and specialized exchange offices (1 US dollar = 18,000 dong), as well as in the market, where the exchange rate is usually somewhat more profitable, but the risk of encountering scammers is higher. The US dollar has almost universal circulation, but only new banknotes are usually accepted for payment – it is almost impossible to pay with old banknotes. In the capital and other major cities, you can pay in euros, yen, yuan or baht. Traveler’s checks in US dollars or euros can be cashed at any major bank. Credit cards are becoming more common – they are accepted in large shops, hotels and restaurants in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi (the most widely used are “Master Card” and “Visa”, the commission is usually about 3%). ATMs (located in the buildings of banks, large shops and hotels) issue only dongs. In the capital and other major cities, you can pay in euros, yen, yuan or baht. Traveler’s checks in US dollars or euros can be cashed at any major bank. Credit cards are becoming more common – they are accepted in large shops, hotels and restaurants in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi (the most widely used are “Master Card” and “Visa”, the commission is usually about 3%). ATMs (located in the buildings of banks, large shops and hotels) issue only dongs. In the capital and other major cities, you can pay in euros, yen, yuan or baht. Traveler’s checks in US dollars or euros can be cashed at any major bank. Credit cards are becoming more common – they are accepted in large shops, hotels and restaurants in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi (the most widely used are “Master Card” and “Visa”, the commission is usually about 3%). ATMs (located in the buildings of banks, large shops and hotels) issue only dongs. The commission is usually around 3%. ATMs (located in the buildings of banks, large shops and hotels) issue only dongs. The commission is usually around 3%. ATMs (located in the buildings of banks, large shops and hotels) issue only dongs.

Vietnam Tipping. Tipping is optional, but it is recommended to tip tour guides, drivers at the end of the tour, in hotels in Vietnam and at train stations.

Vietnam Public holidays and non-working days. Banks and institutions are closed throughout the country on the dates below, but most shops remain open. The exception is the tet holiday, when even private restaurants are closed.
January 1 (New Year);
February 3 (Communist Party Establishment Day 1930);
Tet (Vietnamese Lunar New Year, celebrated for four days between mid-January and mid-February, there are no exact dates, as the dates shift every year);
April 30 (unification day);
May 1 (International Workers’ Day);
May 19 (Ho Chi Minh’s birthday, 1890);
September 2 (Independence Day, 1945);
September 3 (Ho Chi Minh Death Day).

Vietnam Shops, markets.Vietnam has an incredibly rich and varied selection of shopping and the lowest prices. The opportunity to spend money here is endless. In the local souvenir markets and bazaars, you will find handicrafts made of silk and wool, clothing, cosmetics, medicinal herbs and traditional oriental spices, gold and silver jewelry, wicker furniture and much, much more. In Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, there are many modern shopping centers with European goods. In private shops and shops you can buy good products made of natural silk and rare wood, mother-of-pearl and silver, stone, bone and metal. There are specialized boutiques with goods made from natural silk, art galleries, souvenir and gold shops. Shops are open almost every day, seven days a week from 7:30 to 17:30 – officially, and unofficially – until late in the evening.

Vietnam Recommendations. According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, mandatory vaccinations for a trip to Vietnam are not required. But it is recommended to follow a number of important rules:
1. Never drink raw water. Always buy water in plastic bottles – it is sold almost everywhere. Before buying, carefully inspect the bottle – check the safety of the plastic cork and the protective shell around it.
2. Do not eat unwashed vegetables and fruits. Wash them with boiled or disinfected water.
3. Do not drink drinks and freshly squeezed fruit juices with ice – ice can contain disease-causing bacteria.
4. Don’t buy food from street stalls, try to dine at restaurants and cafes that are obviously popular with locals and other tourists.
5. Avoid excessive sun exposure, bring sunscreen and UV-absorbing glasses.
6. If you are going to travel through the jungle in the Mekong Delta, then you should take prophylactic against malaria. Lariam is considered the safest remedy. Reception should be started one week before the trip, during the trip and within four weeks after returning, one tablet per week.

Vietnam Emergency phones. Police 113, Traffic police 114, Ambulance 115.
Embassy of Ukraine in Hanoi: Address: 25-D-25-E Lang Ha St., Hanoi, Viet Nam
Tel.: +10-84 (4) 943-27-64 Fax: +10-84 (4) 943-27-66 E-mail: [email protected] City
codes: 8 – dial tone – 10 – 84 – <city code> – <called subscriber number>

Vietnam Electrical network: In cities – 220 V. But in some regions – 110 V. It makes sense to take a universal adapter with you. Because sockets come in different shapes. There are almost no power outages.

How to call Kyiv from Vietnam. Dial country code, area code, and subscriber number: 0038+044+….

Vietnam Tourist Information

Great Vietnam trip

Great Vietnam trip

This eventful journey begins in the capital Hanoi with its bustle of people, wide boulevards, charming alleys and swarms of alleys in the Old Town. In contrast to city life, you get to know life in a small village, before we make a wonderful boat trip in the fantastically beautiful Halong Bay with its sugar-top islands. Then we fly to central Vietnam with a visit to the ancient imperial city of Hue and the charming coastal city of Hoi An. In the southern parts of the country, we experience the metropolis of Saigon with excursions to both the guerrilla tunnels in Cu Chi and the Mekong Delta. We travel by bus, plane and boat and get to experience the cultural and geographical diversity that Vietnam constitutes. The trip can be supplemented with a few days of sunbathing and swimming in Mui Ne.

Great Vietnam trip 2

Day 1: Travel to Vietnam (Hanoi)
Flight to Vietnam’s capital Hanoi. Meals are included on board the long-haul flight.

Day 2: Arrival in Hanoi
Upon arrival at Noi Bai International Airport, we are welcomed by our local guide who will arrange for a hotel check-in. Then there is free time to relax after the long flight. Overnight in Hanoi.

Day 3: Excursion to the village An Vi
The day is devoted to an excursion to the village of An Vi-Hung Yen, an hour’s journey south of Hanoi. Here we get the opportunity to learn about the expanded family structure, ancestral worship of Vietnam and more. Then take a bike ride in the beautiful landscape, stop at orchards and go over herb fields. Then we come to a market with fruit, vegetables, cattle, clothes, etc. Here we also have lunch at the home of an ordinary Vietnamese family. Overnight in Hanoi. (Breakfast and Lunch)

Day 4: Hanoi
After breakfast, there will be a city tour of Hanoi, including Dinh’s historic complex. We arrive at Ba Dinh Square, where Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam’s independence on September 2, 1945. Here we first visit Ho Chi Minh’s mausoleum. We also see the nearby Buddhist One-Pillar Pagoda, one of the main symbols of Hanoi. Then we come to the “Hotel Hilton”, the prison where American pilots were held captive during the Vietnam War. In the afternoon we visit Hoan Kiem Lake. Then we take a cyclo (pedicab) journey through Hanoi’s older quarter dating from the 13th century. During the day we also see a water puppet show. Overnight in Hanoi. (Breakfast and Lunch)

Day 5: Hanoi – Halong Bay
After breakfast we go to Halong Bay, this wonderful bay, which is truly one of Vietnam’s most impressive scenic sights. A five-hour cruise gives us a fantastic view of the picturesque landscape mixed with the sky and about 3,000 limestone islands that rise in a fantastic way from the emerald-colored water. Overnight stay on the boat. (Breakfast, lunch and dinner)

Day 6: Halong Bay – Hue
In the morning we continue our cruise in Halong Bay. We return to Hanoi to catch the flight to Hue. Overnight in Hue. (Breakfast)

Day 7: Hue – Hoi An
Today we travel by river boat along the Perfume River and visit the Thien mu pagoda and Minh Mang’s palace-like tomb monuments. After lunch we visit the Hues Citadel and the Forbidden City. Then we transfer to Hoi An. Overnight in Hoi An. (Breakfast and Lunch)

Day 8: Hoi An
The day is free for your own walks. The coastal city of Hoi An has a long history and was once one of Vietnam’s most important trading cities, where mainly merchants from China, but also more long-distance traders from, for example, Japan and Europe, sought to conduct international trade. Many foreigners, especially Chinese, came to settle in the city. This has left its mark on the local architecture, which usually goes in the South Chinese style or combines domestic and foreign elements. Hoi An with its rich cultural heritage and car-free city center is one of the most pleasant and peaceful cities in Vietnam. The city is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Hoi An has a gaska relaxed atmosphere and there are many small boutiques and cozy restaurants. During the day you can also choose to visit one of the city’s nearby beaches. You can also take a boat trip on the river or rent a bicycle to explore the surroundings. Overnight in Hoi An. (Breakfast)

Day 9: Hoi An – Da Nang – Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
We go to Da Nang to visit the fascinating Cham Museum and the Marble Mountains. After lunch we fly to Ho Chi Minh City. Overnight in Ho Chi Minh City. (Breakfast and Lunch)

Day 10: Cu Chi & Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
After breakfast we go on a day trip to the Cu Chi tunnels 60 kilometers northwest of Saigon. During the Vietnam War, the tunnel system was the Vietcong guerrilla’s most important base in South Vietnam and reached virtually all villages in the Cu Chi area. On site, we are shown, among other things, how the various traps of the guerrillas worked. Those who want can go down into one of the tunnels adapted for tourists (and safe). Back in Saigon, we go on a city tour and see some of the city’s architectural sights such as the War Memorial Museum, the Reunification Square (The Old Presidential Palace in Saigon), Notre Dame Cathedral and the Main Post Office. Overnight in Ho Chi Minh City. (Breakfast and lunch)

Day 11: Mekong Delta
We go to Ben Tre Province 85 km from Saigon to take a boat trip in the Mekong Delta. The area is known for its coconut farms and we visit, among other things, a coconut candy manufacturer on one of the islands in the river delta. Ben Tre was hit hard during the Vietnam War but is now a popular excursion destination. Overnight in Ho Chi Minh City. (Breakfast and lunch.)

Day 12: Ho Chi Minh City – Mui Ne
After breakfast we take a bus to the seaside resort of Mui Ne which is about four hours drive northeast of Ho Chi Minh City. Mui Ne is known for its fine sandy beaches and huge dunes. There is also a golf course and a large number of restaurants to choose from. Not far from the seaside resort is the port city of Phan Thiet for those who want to see more of the life in Vietnam. Overnight in Mui Ne. (Breakfast)

Day 13 – 14: Mui Ne
The day for beach life and own walks. Overnight in Mui Ne. (Breakfast)

Day 15: Return from Ho Chi Minh City
In the afternoon transfer to the airport just outside Ho Chi Minh City and flight to Sweden. Meals are included on board the long-haul flight. (Breakfast)

Day 16: Arrival at the boarding place
Meals are included on board the long-haul flight.

Great Vietnam trip

Vietnam Business

Vietnam Business

According to Countryaah, Vietnam is one of Southeast Asia’s fastest growing economies. In 2017, the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) amounted to USD 223.78 billion. In 2017, the World Bank’s list of countries’ GDP ranked Vietnam in 40th place. Of the nine other ASEAN countries, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines then had a higher GDP. However, on the World Bank’s list of GDP per capita for 2017, Vietnam was in 140th place. Of the nine other ASEAN countries, only Cambodia and Myanmar had a lower per capita GDP than Vietnam.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, VM is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Vietnam.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Vietnam

Trends from 1954 to 2005

In 1954, North Vietnam introduced a centralized Soviet-style planning economy. After the reunification in 1976, this was also partly introduced in the south. In 1986 began a series of market economy reforms under the name Doi Moi, ‘renewal’. Although reforms in many areas have been small and met with some considerable resistance in the bureaucracy, the economic results have been formidable. For example, in just a few years, the country went from being a major importer of rice to becoming the world’s third largest rice exporter. Annual growth in the economy has been strong. Since the starting point was very low, the country has been very poor until the 2000s.

The area around Ho Chi Minh City is the country’s most important economic center, followed by the Hanoi – Hai Phong area. Also Da Nang is experiencing rapid economic growth. In the mountainous areas in the north, in the central highlands and in the coastal areas along the southwest bank of the Gulf of Tonking, poverty is widespread. Eight percent of the population lives below the poverty line.

More than half of the labor force was employed in the primary industries in the period from 1954 to 2005, and Vietnam was still far from an agricultural community. However, the industrial sector grew significantly compared to other poor countries. The service sector was still relatively weak. In the international context, Vietnam could traditionally be categorized as an equal society with relatively even distribution of income. However, signs of increased income inequality have become clearer after 2005.

Agriculture and fishing

Primary industries contribute 15.3 percent of GDP and employ 25.7 percent of the working population (2017).


The main agricultural products are rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper, cashew nuts, soybeans, peanuts, bananas, corn, sweet potatoes, cassava, jute, cotton and sugar cane. Rice is grown on 82 percent of the arable land. 52 percent of rice production takes place in the Mekong Delta in the south and 18 percent in the Song Hong Delta (Red River) in the north. Vietnam is the world’s fifth largest producer of rice after China, India, Indonesia and Bangladesh and the world’s third largest exporter after India and Thailand. The country is the world’s second largest producer and exporter of coffee after Brazil.

Water buffaloes are widely used as migratory animals. Otherwise, pigs, poultry, cattle and some goats are kept. The increase in pork and poultry production has been particularly strong during the reform years.


39.7 percent of Vietnam is covered by forests, but only two percent of these are densely populated. Deforestation has been great due to harvesting, fuel harvesting and land clearing for agricultural purposes, including coffee plantations and sweat farming. Authorities have declared deforestation the biggest challenge since the reunification, and a forest planting campaign has been launched. Timber is exported, including to China.


Fish is, after rice, the most important food for the population. Like agriculture, it also provides important export revenue, and catches have increased significantly during the reform years. Both coastal and river fishing, as well as the breeding of both fresh and saltwater fish. The fishing fleet consists mostly of smaller boats that can only fish in coastal waters. As a result, coastal waters have been affected by overfishing.

Historical background

Several areas in the highlands were developed during the reform period for the cultivation of various sales growth. In the 1950s, after the French colonial power left a large class of landless peasantry, the North Vietnamese authorities organized agriculture into cooperatives and state farms. After Saigon’s fall in 1975, the same thing happened in the south. In the 1980s, the country depended on importing food, and it was close to the famine disaster in 1986.

After reforms were introduced in 1988 that eventually gave farmers free land to own land, private households have become the normal form of organization in agriculture. Cooperatives still exist in several places, most in the north, while state farms exist only in mountain areas in border areas. Although many families still suffer from malnutrition, the country as a whole is self-sufficient in food. Agricultural products also contribute important export revenues. Only 20 percent of the total area is cultivable. Access to land is therefore scarce. In relation to the population, Vietnam has one of the least available agricultural areas in the world. The average size per unit is also among the smallest in the world. The country is further plagued by floods; especially in the north where Song Hong (Red River) frequently floods its dikes.

A large-scale reconstruction of rubber plantations destroyed during the Vietnam War has been carried out with, among others, Malaysian and Taiwanese assistance.

Mining and energy

Vietnam has some significant deposits of oil, natural gas, iron ore, bauxite, coal and apatite. Particular attention is paid to the development of oil and gas extraction. Crude oil is the country’s most important export product. In East Asia, only China has larger oil reserves than Vietnam, with reserves amounting to 630 million tonnes. The most important oil producing fields are Bach Ho (White Tiger), Rang Dong (Dawn), Hang Ngoc, Dai Hung (Big Bear), and Su Tu Den (Ruby). Coal mined mainly in the province of Quang Ninh in the north-east, about 1/3 of the production is exported.

The country has problems producing sufficient electrical energy. In 2014, production was 141 TWh, distributed between 59 TWh from hydropower plants, 47 TWh from gas power plants and 35 TWh from coal power plants. Expanded production capacity was 32 GW. The country still has large untapped hydropower resources, but the hydropower plants are affected by a somewhat uneven rainfall.


The industry contributes 33.3 percent of GDP and employs 40.3 percent of the working population (2017). The main industrial products are food, textiles, clothing, footwear, furniture and other wood products, electrical appliances, machinery, cement, steel, fertilizers, glass, oil and mobile phones.

Historical background

Vietnam has been among the world’s poorest countries in terms of GDP per capita, having a relatively well-developed industry. Several foreign companies have established motorcycle assembly plants for the domestic market. Assembly plants for cars and trucks are also growing rapidly, but the domestic market for these types of vehicles is currently limited. The production of textiles, clothing and footwear for export has increased rapidly during the reform period, but has gradually faced fierce competition in the world market from Chinese products. The production of furniture and other wood products and of electrical appliances for export has also increased significantly since 1986.

With the help of foreign capital, several new modern steel mills and petroleum refineries have been built. In 2004, the state-owned enterprises, the foreign-owned enterprises and the private Vietnamese-owned enterprises each accounted for one-third of the industry’s production value. All of the foreign-owned enterprises in Vietnam are established after 1988. The three largest foreign investor countries are Singapore, South Korea and Japan. Since the authorities introduced new rules in 2000 that made it easier to register locally owned private companies, the growth of this type of business has been significant. Main industrial centers are Ho Chi Minh City, followed by Hanoi and Hai Phong. A number of smaller cities have specialized in niche industries such as silk, porcelain and furniture.

Foreign Trade

Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007.

Vietnam’s exports amount to USD 214.1 billion (2017), while imports amount to USD 202.6 billion. With this, the country has a foreign trade surplus of USD 11.1 billion.

The four main export markets are:

  • United States(20.1 percent)
  • China (14.5 percent)
  • Japan (8.0 percent)
  • South Korea (6.8 percent)

The main export products are crude oil, rice, coffee, rubber, clothing, footwear, electrical products, machinery, seafood, furniture and other wood products.

The four main import markets are:

  • China (25.8 percent)
  • South Korea (20.5 percent)
  • Japan (7.8 percent)
  • Thailand (4.9 percent)

The main import products are machinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and footwear industry, electronics, plastics and motor vehicles.

Transport and Communications

The road network is at 195 468 kilometers, of which 148 338 kilometers with a fixed tire. Development assistance has helped to upgrade the main road network, including the connection between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Motorcycles are the most common means of transport in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.

The railway network is at 2600 kilometers (2014), but is struggling with poor track structure, lack of modern signaling facilities and old locomotives and wagons. Between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, there is a 1725-kilometer railway line known as the “reunion express”. Hanoi also has rail links with Hai Phong and China (across Dong Dang and Lao Cai).

River traffic along the Mekong and Song Hong (Red River) with bee rivers is still important for transport. The main ports are Hai Phong, Da Nang and Ho Chi Minh City. Southeast of Ho Chi Minh City, there are terminals for both container and cruise ships.

The main international airports are Tan Son Nhat at Ho Chi Minh City, followed by Noi Bai at Hanoi. Tan Son Nhat was the world’s busiest airport for a short period during the Vietnam War. In total, there are 46 airports in Vietnam.