Tag: Syria

Check constructmaterials for Syria in 1998.

Syria Politics, Economy, and Society

Syria Politics, Economy, and Society

Government and politics

Syria has been a republic since 1963. In 1971, President Hafiz Al-Assada decreed a provisional Constitution, then in 1973 the current Constitution that defines Syria as a Democratic, People’s and Socialist Republic was approved in a referendum, based, among others, on the principles of equality before the law, freedom religious and private property. Every seven years a president is elected, who must be Muslim. And every four, a People’s Assembly and a Council of Ministers. Under the Constitution, the president has powers to appoint and remove vice presidents, the prime minister, and ministers. He is also commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, general secretary of the Baath Arab Socialist Party, and president of the National Progressive Front.

The legislative bodies are the People’s Assembly and the Local Administration Councils. The three powers of the Syrian state are controlled by the Baath, which is assured of decisive participation in the powers of the state thanks to the country’s Constitution. It is allowed the participation of six other minor political parties that together with the majority Baath make up the so-called National Progressive Front (FNP), these parties are the only ones authorized to express the political ideas of Syrian citizens.

Likewise, it is the Baath Party that dominates the aforementioned Front, these parties make up the Parliament that is controlled directly by the President of the Republic, since the Executive power reserves most of the legislative powers and of review of the activities of the Legislative.

The Syrian Constitution invests the Baath Party with the leadership functions of the state government and the life of Syrian society. The President, who has great powers to run the government, is elected for 7 years to fulfill his functions, in addition to this he is also the Chairman of the Baath Party and the leader of the National Progressive Front.

The president of Syria also has the powers to appoint ministers, declare war, propose laws to the Legislative branch, and direct the armed forces. In the referendum for the election of the President in 2007, Bashar al-Assad was reelected with 97% of the votes. Syrians ratify Bashar Al Assad as president by 97%], Terra Actualidad, May 29, 2007.

Economic development

Syria’s economy is based on oil extraction, therefore, it is subject to fluctuations in the international price of oil ; in addition, it tends to turn to Iran as a supplier, due to the fact that domestic production is in deficit. The main refineries are in Homsand Baniyas. It also has reserves of natural gas, rock salt and phosphates. The agriculture (wheat and cotton) generates 27% of GDP and livestock, mainly goat and sheep is aimed at the export of wool. The textile, food, metallurgical and cement industries account for 22% of GDP. The rights to pass foreign oil through its pipelines generate large revenues.

In May of 2009 it is reported in the area of services that commercial real estate prices are on the rise in Damascus and infrastructure reports that Syria Islamic Bank lends € 100M to expand the Deir Ali power plant.


Syria has several international airports, among which those in Damascus, Aleppo and Latakia stand out. It also has an extensive bus network that connects the entire country, both towns and cities. Moreover, the main cities are connected by the railway network.

Social development


According to andyeducation, the Islamic religion is predominant: Muslims mainly obey Sunni orthodoxy (74%), although there are also Druze, Alawites, Shiites and Ismailis. Christianity (10%) in its different confessions (Orthodox, Maronites, Catholics of the Armenian rite, Syriacs, etc.) is confined to the peripheral provinces and some urban neighborhoods.


The artistic and cultural achievements of ancient Syria are numerous. Archaeologists have found that Syrian culture rivaled that of Mesopotamia and Egypt, especially around Ebla. Additionally, many Syrian artists have contributed to Roman Hellenistic thought and culture. Cicero was a student of Antiochus of Ashkelon in Athens. Also the books of Posidonius greatly influenced Livy and Plutarch.

Syrians have also contributed to Arabic literature and music and have a great tradition of oral and written poetry. Syrian intellectuals emigrated to Egypt played a fundamental role in the Al-Nahda, or cultural and literary renaissance of the Arabs in the 14th century. The most famous Syrian authors are Adonis, Haidar Haidar, Ghada al-Samman, Nizar Kabbani, Zakariyya Tamer and Saadallah Wannous.


Given the influence of the different peoples established in Syrian territory more or less with a certain stability, the art in this nation presents different currents, sometimes opposing, which give it great originality. Two trends appear since the Neolithic, the first of an autochthonous character with wood sculpture and high relief. The second is more associated with neighboring civilizations, such as hieratic zoomorphic sculpture.

They are World Heritage of Unesco:

  • 1979 – Old City of Damascus
  • 1980 – Siege of Palmyra
  • 1980- Old town of Bosra
  • 1986 – Old City of Aleppo

One of the most important writers and playwrights in Syria is Saadallah Wannous (1941 – 1997), who was born in a town near Lbahr Hsain in Tartous. He was educated in the Latakia schools. He studied journalism in Cairo (Egypt) and served as editor of the cultural pages of the newspapers Alsafir in Lebanon and Althawra in Syria. He also worked as director of the public authority for theater and music in Syria. In the sixties he traveled to Paris to study art of the theater. He died Of maypole 15 of 1997 after a long battle with cancer that lasted five years.

Syria Politics, Economy, and Society

Syria Business

Syria Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SY is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Syria.


In 2011, the internal protests in the country developed into real civil war (see also Syrian civil war). As a result, the country’s economy and infrastructure have been wasted.


Inflation rate 28.10%
Unemployment rate 50%
Gross domestic product (GDP) $ 50,280,000,000
GDP growth rate -36.50%
GDP per capita $ 2,900
GDP by sector
Agriculture 20.00%
Industry 19.50%
Service 60.80%
State budget
Revenue 7.635 billion
Expenditure 9.38 billion
Proportion of the population below the national poverty line 11.9%
Distribution of household income
Top 10% k. A.
Lower 10% k. A.
Industrial production growth rate -2.40%
Investment volume 17.8% of GDP
National debt 94.80% of GDP
Foreign exchange reserves $ 407,300,000
Tourism 2011
Number of visitors 5,070,000
Revenue $ 1,816,000,000


Before the civil war, Syria had a mixed economy where agriculture, retail and some light industry are privately owned, while the state controlled most of the other business. In 2011, the country had a per capita GDP of USD 3,050. Agriculture (including forestry and fishing) accounted for 18 percent of GDP and employed 17 percent of the labor force; the corresponding figures for the industry (including the mining and energy industries) were 27 and 16 percent, respectively. About 50 percent of the country’s income comes from oil and gas production.

Even before the civil war, the country’s economic development was hampered by a number of factors; the confrontation policy against Israel and the military involvement in Lebanon led to military spending devouring more than half of government spending during periods. In addition, there were internal unrest and corruption and inefficiency in government and state-owned companies.


Topography and climatic conditions have been crucial for agriculture. An important cultivation area is the narrow land strip along the Mediterranean coast between Lebanon and Turkey, where mainly olives, fruits, tobacco and cotton are grown. The valley of the Nahr al-Asi valley is another important agricultural district. A new cultivation area in the northeast, al-Jazira, has been created through the construction of the Tabaqa Dam in the Euphrates. This has enabled large-scale irrigation, mainly for cotton cultivation. The ongoing expansion of irrigation as well as investments in modern technology are expected to both increase and stabilize production. Pastures cover just over 40 percent of the land area, and livestock farming is of great economic importance.

Several years of drought have posed major problems for the agricultural sector, and many farmers have been forced to move into the cities. The drought has also led to a shortage of food in some areas, especially in the northeastern part of the country.

Natural resources and energy

Syria’s most important raw materials are oil and gas, but the deposits are considered small. Production of heavy, sulfur-containing oil began in 1968. Production has been at a low level, but new discoveries of light oil with low sulfur content at Dayr az-Zawr have increased both production and export. In the 1980s, natural gas was also found and during the 00s, exports of natural gas increased.

Syria has invested a lot to increase electricity generation. Despite this, the country suffers from chronic energy shortages and is often affected by interruptions in electricity generation. In addition to oil and natural gas, hydropower also contributes to electricity generation. The Tabaqa Dam (completed in 1978) in the Euphrates is the country’s largest electric power plant. However, problems with the water flow in the Euphrates have meant that the power plant has failed to deliver the expected amount of electricity.


Following rapid industrialization in the 1950s, mainly in textile production, Syria’s industrial production stagnated during the 1970s. Many heavier industries were nationalized between 1958 and 1965, but since 1970, private investment has been encouraged. The country’s industry is still dominated by large state companies. In some industries, e.g. however, private companies have become an increasingly important role.

The most important industrial sectors are fertilizer, iron and cement industry, textile, food, glass and paper production, as well as the installation of tractors, refrigerators and TV sets. The most important industrial cities are Aleppo, Damascus, Hama and Hums.

Foreign trade

Syria’s foreign trade showed a surplus from the mid-1990s to the mid-1990s. Subsequently, the country has experienced a growing deficit, mainly as a result of falling oil exports and increased imports of consumer goods. Prior to 1990, the Soviet Union and other eastern states were the main exporting countries, but after 1991 Syria’s exports were increasingly directed at EU and other Middle Eastern countries. However, as a result of extensive smuggling, there is considerable uncertainty about trade statistics.

According to Countryaah, Syria mainly exports oil, food and textiles. Imports mainly comprise machinery and transport equipment, food and industrial goods. The most important trading partners are Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon and Germany.