Tag: Poland

Check computergees for Poland in 2006.

Poland Geography

Poland Geography

Poland – key data

Area: 312,685 km² (of which land: 304,255 km², water: 8,430 km²)

Population: 38.4 million (July 2011 estimate, CIA). Composition: Poland 96.7%,German 0.4%, Belarusians 0.1%, Ukrainians 0.1%, others and no information 2.7% (2002 census).

Population density: 123 residents per km²

Population growth: -0.062% per year (2011, CIA)

Capital: Warsaw (1.71 million residents, 2008)

Highest point: Rysy, 2,499 m

Lowest point: point near Raczki Elblaskie, -2 m

Form of government: Poland has been a republic since 1918. The current constitution has been in force since 1997. The Polish bicameral parliament consists of the lower house (Sejm, 460 members) and the Senate (100 senators). Poland has been a member of theEuropean Union.

Administrative division: 16 voivodships: Warmia-Masuria (Warmi? Sko-Mazurskie), Lublin (Lubelskie), Greater Poland (Wielkopolskie), Mazowieckie (Mazowieckie), Świ? Tokrzyskie (Świ? Tokrzyskie), Lower Silesia (Dolno? L? Skie), Subcarpathian region (Podkarpackie), Opole (Opolskie), Lesser Poland (Ma? Opolskie), Podlaskie, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Pomerania (Pomorskie), Lubuskie, Silesia (? L? Skie), Lodsch (? ódzkie), West Pomerania (Zachodniopomorskie)

Head of State: President Bronisław Komorowski, since April 10, 2010

Head of Government: Prime Minister Donald Tusk, since November 16, 2007

Language: the official language in Poland is Polish (native language for 97.8%). 2.2% other languages ​​(mainly German, Ukrainian and Belarusian) 2002 census

Religion: Roman Catholic 89.8% (75% practicing), Orthodox 1.3%, Protestant 0.3%, other religions 0.3%, no information 8.3% (2002 census)

Local time: CET. Between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October there is summer time in Poland (CET + 1 hour).
The time difference to Central Europe in both winter and summer 0 h.

International phone code: +48

Internet identifier:.pl

Mains voltage: 220 V, 50 Hz

The Republic of Poland is a state in the east of Central Europe. Poland borders Germany to the west, the Baltic Sea to the north, the Kaliningrad region and Lithuania to the northeast, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, and the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic to the south. The total area of ​​the country covers 312,678 square kilometers; its north-south extension is 650 kilometers, the distance from west to east is 690 kilometers. Visit cellphoneexplorer for Brief Information About Poland.

Poland is characterized by five major landscapes: the Baltic Sea coast, the lake districts, the lowlands, the low mountain ranges and the high mountains.

Similar to Germany In Poland, the sea, the Baltic Sea in the north and the mountains, the Sudetes and Carpathians in the south, form the natural national borders. To the Baltic coast, it is followed by a belt of lake plateaus, which is replaced by flat lowlands in the middle of the country. In the south, the mountain ranges extend with their distinctive manifestations. Viewed from above, the Polish landscapes appear almost like strips running parallel and strung together.

The more than 500 kilometers long Baltic Sea coast consists mainly of wide beaches with very light, sometimes white sand. The beach slopes gently towards the sea and behind it stretches a dune landscape overgrown with pine forest. Characteristic of the Polish coast are the sandy and narrow spits small bays separated from the sea, which have similarities with lagoon and beach lakes. The Fresh Lagoon, located in the east of the Gdańsk Bay, is almost completely separated from the Baltic Sea, while the Hela peninsula protrudes deep into this bay without, however, forming a self-contained lagoon. The Polish Lake Districts are divided into the Pomeranian Lake District, the Greater Poland Lake District and the Masurian Lake District. The first two lake areas are predominantly covered by beech forests, while the Masurian Lake District to the east is covered with mixed spruce forests due to its continental climate. The Great Masurian Lakes, connected by canals, are also a popular travel destination because of their flora and fauna, some of which come from Siberia.

The lake districts are bounded in the south by the broad Polish lowland, the densely populated area of ​​which is divided into three regions: the Wielkopolska lowland in the west, the Central Silesian arable plain to the south and the Masurian lowland in the east.

The south-east of Poland is formed by the predominantly plateaus Uplands shaped. They are divided into the Lesser Poland highlands with the Kraków-Czestochowa Jura, the Kielce and Sandomierz highlands with the Holy Cross Mountains, and the Lublin hill country. In the south-west and south of Poland, the Sudetes and Carpathians form the country’s natural borders. In contrast, the Beskids stretch through almost the whole of southern Poland. The Tatras are divided into the High Tatras and the Western Tatras. In the High Tatras lies the Rysy, Poland’s highest peak, at 2,499 meters.

Poland’s most important and longest rivers are the Vistula with 1,047 kilometers, the Oder with 854 kilometers, the Warthe with 808 kilometers and the Bug with 772 kilometers.

Best travel time for Poland

A country of this size has enough places that can be visited all year round. Most vacationers visit Poland from May to October if that weather is warmer. The peak tourist season is July and August when schools and universities are on vacation and most Polish workers and employees take their annual vacation. During this time, Poland can be very crowded, especially in the particularly attractive regions such as the Baltic Sea beaches, the Masurian Lakes, the Carpathian Mountains, Warsaw and Krakow.

In July and August, of course, the means of transport are also full and often booked out well in advance. Accommodation is harder to find and sometimes more expensive than in the low season. Fortunately, many schools that are empty during the holidays act as youth hostels, as do dormitories in the big cities. Most theaters are closed in July and August.

If you want to avoid the tourist crowds, travel either in late spring / early summer (mid-May to June) or between summer and autumn (September to October). These times are comfortably warm, ideal for sightseeing and outdoor activities such as hiking, biking, horse riding and canoeing. In addition, many cultural events take place.

The rest of the year, from mid-autumn to mid-spring, is colder and darker. Nevertheless, during this time you can visit urban sights or enjoy the cultural life in Poland. Of course, hiking and other outdoor activities (apart from skiing) are less enjoyable during this period. Most campsites and youth hostels are closed during this time.

The ski season is between December and March. The Polish mountains are spectacular, but the infrastructure (hotels and chalets, elevators and drag lifts, cable cars) is still not that well developed. The Polish winter sports centers are Zakopane and the Tatra Mountains.

Poland Geography

Poland Business

Poland Business

According to abbreviationfinder, PL is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Poland.

Economics and business

Although only 2 percent of GDP comes from the earthquake, Poland is in many ways still an agricultural country. However, since the transition to the market economy in the early 1990s, other sectors of the business sector have developed faster, such as the light manufacturing industry and the trade and service industries. However, the traditional heavy industry and the engineering industry, including the shipbuilding industry, have drastically decreased in importance.

During most of the 1990s, economic growth was good, on average 5 percent, and the country coped with the international financial crisis in 2008 better than many other European countries. During the 2010s, growth continued to be good (3 percent). The positive economic development depends, among other things, on on an increase in exports since EU accession in 2004, fiscal stimulus packages and cheap imports of oil and natural gas. Concern for Poland’s future economic development is that the country has a backlog of infrastructure and that a relatively small amount of research has been invested. In 2010, 0.75 percent of GDP was spent on research (the EU average was 2 percent).

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Poland

Background

During the period 1945–49, the Polish economy was focused on rebuilding the almost completely devastated industry during the war. Subsequently, (as in all other Eastern Bloc countries) the planning economy was introduced, and following an early Soviet model, a unilateral investment in the construction of a heavy industrial sector (primarily the iron, steel and engineering industries) was initiated. At the same time, the country’s former leading industry, agriculture, as well as the consumer goods industry were neglected. Without investment and modernization, agriculture and other parts of the industry became ineffective.

In the 1970s, to improve the abuses and bring about a renewal in business, large loans were taken in the West. Poland overcame its assets, and around 1980 there were obvious difficulties in providing for its residents. This, in conjunction with developments in other Eastern Europe, contributed to the fall of communism, and an economic system shift occurred at the New Year 1990. Free prices were introduced and several subsidies were abolished. Złotyn was devalued and made convertible and foreign competition was admitted to the Polish market. Extensive privatization of Polish business was also begun. On a smaller scale, this privatization has gone fast, while the process for large, state-owned companies has been slower.

During the first years of the 1990s, the country’s GDP fell sharply, but in 1992 came a turning point for business: industrial production showed an upturn for the first time in four years, and then GDP has gradually increased. A contributing reason for this was the increase in exports since joining the EU in 2004.

Agriculture

About half of the country’s area is usable land. Poland is among the world’s largest producers of rye, buckwheat, currant and raspberry. Other important crops are wheat, potatoes and apples. Livestock management and animal production are of greater economic importance than cultivation. It specializes in dairy products, beef, pork, chicken meat and eggs.

By far the largest proportion of agriculture is still small and mainly produces food for household needs. Only 1.5 percent of agriculture has over 200 hectares of land; these account for 90 percent of production.

Forestry

About 1/3 of the area of Poland is forested. Coniferous forest dominates and is used in the pulp and paper industry as well as in the furniture industry. In recent years, significant new planting has taken place.

Fishing

The total catch of the Polish fishing fleet in 2009 was approximately 224,000 tonnes, mainly crustacean, herring and cod. In the same year, about 36,000 tonnes of fish were grown, mainly carp and rainbow. The fisheries sector contributes below 0.01% to GDP.

Polish fishing covers three sectors:

  1. Coastal fishing conducted by smaller boats, often by part-time fishermen, and mainly fishing for cod, flatfish and herring.
  2. Fishing in the real Baltic Sea, which is mainly carried out by trawlers and which mainly fishes for herring and herring. Baltic fishing accounts for an overwhelming majority of the total Polish fishing catch. The catch is landed primarily in Polish ports and sold to the fish processing industry.
  3. Deep-sea fishing with trawl in the North-East and North-West Atlantic as well as in the Antarctic. The catch is dominated by krill (shrimp), but also acadian kingfish (Sebastes fasciatus), herring, cod and graylingare fished. The catch is cleared on board, landed in foreign ports and exported, mainly to the EU and Japan.

Poland imports almost as much fish as you fish. Imports are dominated by herring products and by raw salmon, which are processed and then exported again, mainly to Germany and Denmark.

Raw material resources and energy supply

Mining, mainly coal mining, has played a leading role in Poland’s business for centuries, but accounted for only 2 percent of GDP in 2010. The absolute majority of companies in the mining industry are now privately owned, although the state has significant (albeit decreasing) ownership in the fossil fuel production sector. Although the Katowice area in Górny Śląsk has suffered many closures in recent years, the area together with Wałbrzych in Dolny Śląsk is still the backbone of the country’s coal production. Lignite deposits are found in three areas in western Poland. Large deposits are also found of sulfur in the Kielce area in southeastern Poland and of copper in Głogów in western Poland.

Poland is the leading producer of coal in the EU, and one of the largest producer countries of lignite in the world. Total coal production in 2010 amounted to just over 130 million tonnes and the production trend is slowly declining. The dependence on coal for the country’s economy and energy supply is unlikely to change significantly in the foreseeable future, but production is moving in a more environmentally friendly direction towards less carbon dioxide emissions.

Poland is also one of the world’s leading producers of rhenium, silver and copper. Production of industrial minerals such as crushed aggregate, gravel, cement, feldspar, gypsum, limestone, salt and sulfur is significant. Economically, coal, cement and copper account for 2/3 of the production value of minerals.

Coal is the country’s most important energy raw material and export product and accounts for almost all electricity production. Next to coal, oil and natural gas are the most important sources of energy. Total production in 2010 amounted to just over 5 million barrels of crude oil and just under 6 billion cubic meters of natural gas. Crude oil is extracted in the Baltic Sea and on the Polish mainland, but over 95 percent of the country’s oil needs are covered by imports from the Russian Federation. Domestic natural gas production covers an estimated 1/3 of the total demand (2010), the remainder being imported mainly from the Russian Federation but also from Germany.

The production of renewable energy is in the shadow of primary energy production from fossil fuels. 10 percent of domestic energy production is based on renewable sources, of which 95 percent comes from the biofuel sector. Nuclear energy production is missing.

Industry

During the 1950s, a strong investment was made in the heavy industry. A large part of the Polish industry is currently located in the Katowice area, mainly. adjacent to the large coal mining district in Górny Śląsk. Here, since the 1840s, one of Europe’s largest industrial concentrations has been built up. By 1990, 30 major metallurgical industries had emerged next to 70 mines. The country’s by far the largest steel mill is located in Nowa Huta near Kraków. In addition, there is an extensive chemical industry in the Katowice area. The iron and metal sector is Poland’s dominant industry branch. The energy sector and the textile industry (traditionally located in Łódź) are other important industries. Along the Baltic Sea coast there are large shipyards, in Płock there is the petrochemical center of the country and in Poznań railway equipment is manufactured. Within the heavy sector of the industry, the privatization process has been slow and has led to major staff reductions. Despite large investments and foreign acquisitions, parts of the heavy industry still have profitability problems.

Foreign trade

According to Countryaah, Poland’s foreign trade has undergone major changes in recent years. Until 1987, foreign trade was a state monopoly, and trade with the Soviet Union and the rest of the Eastern Bloc was dominant. As a number of trade restrictions were removed in 1990, trade with the West increased significantly; In 2017, the other EU countries’ share of exports and imports was about 70 percent. Trade with the Soviet Union was discontinued almost entirely in 1990, but in 1992 some recovery with the successor countries was noted, and the Russian Federation is now one of the country’s most important trading partners. The sharp increase in imports from the West initially gave Poland a large trade deficit, but during the 2000s exports increased and the deficit decreased. The most important individual trading partners are Germany. Among the export goods are engineering industrial products, furniture, food and coal.

Tourism and gastronomy

Since the mid-1990s, Poland has had a stable tourist influx of about 15 million tourists a year. However, as a result of the weak international economy, the number dropped to just under 13 million at the end of the 1990s. Almost 40 percent came from Germany, 12 percent from Ukraine and 7 percent from Belarus. The tourists are attracted by a beautiful and varied nature: in the north there are many miles of white beaches along the Baltic Sea, while mountain areas for example. winter sports are available in the south and southwest. Most famous is the Tatra Mountains.

A peculiar nature type is the Masurian lakes in the northeastern parts. There are thousands of lakes located in a very coniferous forest belt. Poland offers several cities with well-preserved medieval city centers, and the city centers that were destroyed during the war are rebuilt in the old style. Mainly mention is Kraków, but Warsaw and Gdańsk also have interesting inner cities. Other cities worth visiting are Wrocław, Poznań and Szczecin. Of particular interest is the brick castle Malbork, located at one of Wisla’s estuary arms. The castle is northern Europe’s largest medieval fortification.

Occupations and political upheavals have meant that Polish cuisine, which has its roots rooted in its own cabbage, exhibits distinctly Slavic and Jewish features. Pork, cabbage, mushrooms, soups, cumin and dumplings form the basis of the robust diet, characterized by old peasant traditions. The breakfast usually consists of bread, cheese and jam, sausage and eggs. The lunch is often a lighter goal. The main goal includes soup as a mandatory part; some of the most common are barszcz (beetroot soup), żurek (rye flour soup with sour cream), kapuśniak (soup with sauerkraut and potatoes) and krupnik (barley grain soup with vegetables and meat). Many of the fish dishes are characterized by Jewish heritage (marinated herring, herring in sour cream, cooked carp with horseradish).Bigos (sauerkraut stew with different kinds of meat, game and sausage) is the national dish in front of others. Boiled meat, e.g. golonka (pork belly with horseradish), pots that combine vegetables and meat and meat that is filled with e.g. Mushrooms are common. Among the game are wild boar, hare and deer. Vegetables (usually cauliflower) are eaten with a preference with chopped eggs and melted butter. Bread is often seasoned with cumin or poppy seeds, the latter also found in sweeter pastries, such as honey, nuts and jam.