Tag: Peru

Check computergees for Peru in 2006.

The 10 most dangerous bridges in the world

The 10 most dangerous bridges in the world

Suspension bridges, motorway bridges, pedestrian bridges – there are many types of bridges, but which bridges are the most dangerous and where can they be found?

10th place – the “Indoboard Bridge” (Indonesia)

This bridge has to be listed among the top ten most dangerous bridges in the world, because as its name suggests, it is more like an indoboard than a trustworthy way of crossing a raging river. A lot of balance is required here every day because this bridge in Indonesia serves as a way to school for many children every day.

Place 9 – The Ghasa Suspension Bridge (Nepal)

This suspension bridge leads over the Jomsom Sadak gorge and connects a small village with the outside world. It is several hundred meters long and is at a dizzying height. Not only do people cross this bridge every day, but shepherds also drive their cattle over it. As a local, you may have gotten used to these circumstances sooner or later, but tourists need a lot of courage to start their way over this narrow bridge.

8th – Qu’eswachaka suspension bridge (Peru)

The Qu’eswachaka Bridge is a rope bridge that is made every year by hand and is made of braided grass and spans the Río Apurímac, so that residents in the area have a connection to the outside world. It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since December 2013 and, due to its unsafe construction, also one of the 10 most dangerous bridges in the world.

7th – Sarawak Bridge (Malaysia)

This bridge, made of bamboo and thin struts, must never be entered by more than two people at the same time, otherwise it would collapse under the weight. On the left and right there is a kind of railing, also made of bamboo, but when you step on the swaying bridge it becomes immediately clear that this would hardly hold up in case of doubt. Fall between the bamboo sticks, inevitably land in the river below and get to know the local animals.

6th place – Kotmale Oya Bridge (Sri Lanka)

Leading through the impenetrable jungle, this bridge also serves to cross a river. The Kotmale is the fourth largest in his country and leads about 70 kilometers through Sri Lanka. If you fall through the holey boards that make up the bridge, you will be swept away by the torrents of the current. So it is a real adventure to cross this river.

5th place – bridge over the Alps (Austria)

There are also some worrying bridges in Europe that only the bravest people can walk on. This building in Austria may only be entered with a helmet, has tensioned ropes on the left and right, which serve as railings and stable wooden boards form the step surface, but these are much too narrow to offer enough space. The awe-inspiring sight of the mountain peaks below and between you will make you rethink this excursion.

4th – Canopy Walkway (Ghana)

This unusual bridge is located in the Kakum National Park in Ghana and consists only of a wooden beam and a network, which should ensure stability on both sides. Nevertheless, the Canopy Walkway does not inspire confidence, especially since you are on this bridge far above the tree tops of the park and can no longer see the other people among you. When you finally reach the end of the bridge, which is located on a tree trunk around which a kind of platform has been built, you will probably think of a climbing park.

3rd place – suspension bridge over the Baliem river (New Guinea)

Unbelievable but true here is the fact that this bridge runs both horizontally and vertically and therefore represents a real challenge for everyone. The wooden boards, some of which are far apart, can sometimes only be crossed by large steps. So be careful: here you have two options for getting to know the river below you.

Place 2 – Hussaini Bridge (Pakistan)

The boards are crooked, the ropes are loose and look like they are about to tear. Either way, you are dependent on the ropes on the left and right to hold on, otherwise it is not possible to cross this many hundred meter long bridge that runs just above the water.

1st place – tightrope walking over the Mekong (China)

This construction is not so much a bridge, but rather a construction made up of many tight ropes. One rope serves as a footboard, the other hangs over your head to cling to. Do not worry, tourists rarely get lost here, rather it serves many children as a way to school in the morning. This fact makes it the most dangerous bridge number 1.

tightrope walking over the Mekong

Peru Business

Peru Business

According to abbreviationfinder, PE is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Peru.

Business

Following a crisis in the 1980s, a rigorous stabilization and restructuring program was introduced during the 1990s with comprehensive economic reforms, such as the privatization of virtually all state-owned companies, liberalization of markets, creation of a freer and safer investment climate, investment in export-led growth and wide opening. to the outside world. The result was a dramatic reduction in inflation and at times high growth rates, but also great instability and a sharp increase in unemployment and the informal sector. During the 1990s, the economy has stabilized and GDP has continued to grow. Since the mid-1990s, unemployment has also decreased slightly. It is mainly the mining industry that is the dynamic sector in the business sector, followed by construction as well as agriculture and fishing.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Peru

Agriculture

About half of Peru’s agricultural land is located in the Andean highlands, where cultivation of maize and potatoes for self-sufficiency dominates, but large-scale livestock farming also occurs.

Commercial and export-oriented agriculture is mainly conducted on the coast and in the rainforest area, including coffee and tea for the domestic market. On the eastern slopes of the Andes are also grown the coca bush, whose leaves are a traditional stimulant but also used for the production of cocaine. Cocoa cultivation is important for poor small farmers but varies widely; legal cultivation covers about 100,000 ha.

The restructuring policy in the 1990s meant that export crops and large farming units were favored while traditional small farms were disadvantaged. At the same time, fruits and vegetables, especially asparagus, have tended to replace Peru’s traditional export crops of sugar cane and cotton.

Peru is particularly exposed to El Niño, which causes drought in some regions and floods in others.

Forestry

The eastern slopes of the Andes and the adjacent rainforest region in the east make up over 60 percent of the land area and have a huge yet unexploited timber resource.

Primarily, the forest is used as fuel, and the timber extracted goes to domestic consumption, among other things. in the form of wood for the construction industry, furniture manufacture and pulp. The timber resources in the east have as the only transport route the river system via Iquitos and further down the Amazon to the Atlantic.

Fishing

From being of little significance in the early 1950s, Peru’s fishing expanded to become one of the world’s largest in 1970. Subsequently, it declined as a result of overfishing. Measures were taken to allow a recovery to occur. with a closed season. Catches are highly dependent on cold bottom water rising up to the surface, which increases food availability and attracts fish hours. The ocean phenomenon of El Niño has repeatedly disturbed this, which has led to catastrophic fishing seasons. The fishing industry is mainly dependent on anchoveta for the production of animal feed and fertilizer. In order to broaden the catch base, large quantities of sardines, shrimp and mackerel fish are now also being fished.

Mineral

Peru has rich mineral resources, ties other gold, copper, zinc, silver, lead, tin and iron, and is one of the world’s leading producers and exporters of several minerals. In the early 1990s, the mining industry was in crisis, partly as a result of high tax cuts in previous decades, but the state managed to revitalize the sector by opening up for foreign investment. The mining industry contributes about 7 percent to GDP and together with the oil industry accounts for about 60 percent of the country’s export income. The industry is dominated by a few large companies, but there are also about 40 medium-sized and 500 small companies that account for 30 percent of production and a significant portion of exports. In 2002, operations began in Antamina, one of the world’s largest copper and zinc deposits.

After the stagnation of the 1980s, the oil sector also expanded during the 1990s. The former state oil sector underwent extensive privatizations during the 1990s. Oil is extracted in the northern coastal area, on the continental shelf and in the increasingly dominant eastern rainforest region. During the 1980s, large natural gas resources were discovered in eastern Peru, and in 2004 natural gas began to be extracted in the southern parts of the country.

Energy

Peru has large energy resources in the form of fossil fuels. In addition to oil, there are also large natural gas deposits in eastern and southern Peru. The southern gas fields have been linked to Lima via a pipeline across the mountain range.

The height differences of the Andes and the water-rich rivers offer the possibility of great expansion of water energy. One problem, however, is the poorly developed infrastructure, which means that about 5 million Peruvians do not have access to the electricity grid. Although only a small part of the country’s potential water energy is developed, it covers 70 percent of the country’s electricity needs.

Industry

For a long time, the mining industry is Peru’s most important industry. Primarily, copper is refined. Lead, silver, zinc and iron are usually exported as raw materials. The manufacturing industry’s share of GDP has fallen from around 20 percent in the mid-1990s to just under 15 per cent in 2015, mainly due to increased competition from abroad following liberalization of trade policy. The industry, which is concentrated in the metropolitan area, is primarily based on raw materials extracted or produced in the country, such as the refining of minerals, petroleum, agricultural products and fish.

Foreign trade

Due to deregulation and an overvalued currency, imports gradually increased during the 1990s, leading to large trade and current account deficits. It was not until 2002 that the country – for the first time in twelve years – could show a trade surplus. Peru has subsequently had a positive trade balance. Exports are dominated by raw materials such as minerals and agricultural products. According to Countryaah, China and the United States are by far the country’s most important trading partners. On the import side, Brazil is also important and on the export side Switzerland.

Tourism and gastronomy

Peru is one of South America’s foremost tourist countries. In 2015, the country was visited by 3.5 million tourists, and tourism contributes about 10 percent to both GDP and employment. The country has several major tourist destinations such as the cities of Lima and Cuzco, the city of Machu Picchu and the highlands including Lake Titicaca.

The capital of Lima gives a contradictory impression, with stately churches and palaces from the colonial era and several internationally renowned museums with collections from the country’s rich ancient American cultures, but also with a rather declining urban environment and worn suburbs. In the area north of Lima there are remains of the ruins of the high cultures, such as Chavín de Huántar, and several of the coastal cities have interesting colonial architecture.

In the highlands, the historic heart of Peru, is the city of Cuzco 3 400 m above sea level, with churches and monasteries from the Renaissance and Baroque, in several cases on pedestals from the Inca of artificially joined boulders without masonry or joints. On the heights of the city are the Inca temples with breathtaking views of the landscape.

The big destination, however, is Machu Picchu, the rediscovered inner city with ruins of temples, palaces and residences, about 70 km northwest of Cuzco. A narrow-gauge railway leads there, but you can also hike along the inca trail, which also passes other interesting ancient sites. Hiking in these areas also provides interesting experiences of the rich bird and plant life.

From Cuzco you can also take a train across the Andean plateau to Puno and Lake Titicaca, where you can visit villages that float on the reeds off the beach. In the south is Nazca with strange giant figures and symbols commissioned as huge contours of the landscape, and in the south-east of the country lies Manú National Park with large predators, tapirs and rare birds.

Many features from Ancient American times remain in Peruvian cuisine, which usually has a fairly strong seasoning. The Inca Indians and even their predecessors cultivated a large number of different potato varieties, and the potato is still today the main ingredient in many dishes. Mixtures of a variety of ingredients are a feature of the country, the preference for thick chupes, eggs and milk products another.

The herb palillo is used extensively to give the dishes an appealing yellow color. Meat (chicken, pork or goat meat in combination with corn and potatoes) is often cooked in an oven. A specialty for the country is spit with spicy ox or calf hearts, anticucho. Along the coast there are countless varieties of ceviche, raw marinated fish with lime, onions, tomatoes and corn.

Maíz morado is a purple-colored form of corn, which is used for, among other things, desserts. Otherwise, the desserts are usually based on milk, eggs, almonds, nuts and spices. The Nougat (turrón) is famous. For food you can drink wines from the Ica region south of Lima, or also the light beer from Lima, Cuzco or Arequipa. The Indian corn beer chicha can be treacherous due to high alcohol content. The wine growers also make a grape brandy, pisco, which is an important ingredient in drinks.