Tag: Latvia

Check computerannals for Latvia in 2003.

Latvia Mountains and Rivers

Latvia Mountains and Rivers

Removed a small strip of land near the Lithuanian border, where the basic soils consist of Mesozoic layers from the Jurassic and archaic soils of the Permic, the rest of Latvia, which forms a strip of the great Russian lowland, is formed by dolomites of the Middle and upper Devonico, which follow one another from north to south with decreasing antiquity and are generally very little displaced. However, unlike what is noted in Estonia, ancient soils come to light, given that they were covered, between the end of the Tertiary and the beginning of the Quaternary, by a powerful blanket of glacial deposits, made up of fine mixed clays. with angular pebbles of various sizes, which have given the morphology of the town its current appearance. In places where the bottom moraine was able to settle regularly and where the melt waters could gather in basins, such as in the Riga-Jelgava depression (which is drained by the Lielupe River and clearly divides Latvia into two parts) and in the lowlands of Valmiera ( in NE Latvia) and Lubāna (between the hills of central Livonia and those of Letgallia), the terrain is now flat and formed as it is by glacial silt, it is generally well cultivated. Where instead there was a pause between a series of advances and retreats and even more where moraine lobes of glaciers met with their centers of origin placed in different directions, hills were formed there, having an appearance laughing at the frequency of lakes. Hydrography, after the glacial streams had opened passages in the most depressed areas, has had to adapt to this young morphology and the waterways are sometimes forced to make very long laps, as in the case of the Gauja, or to engrave the relief giving the places such a pleasant appearance as to induce the residents to use the denominations of Switzerland Livonian and Curonian. Forms connected with the glacial action, but never so frequent as to give the landscape, for vast stretches, a distinctive character, are the asar (where the too impetuous waters have brought the sands down, leaving a set of stones), the kames (rounded and regular shapes that originated from fluvio-glacial sands finely deposited in layers) and the drumlins ; peat bogs are also frequent, in places where there were poorly drained depressions. It should be added that along the coast, when the glaciers had retreated, there were two notable transgressions, probably in relation to the isostatic settlement, and the sea (about 8900-7900 years before the present era) covered some areas coastal, depositing fine sands, not very fertile, especially in western Courland.

To the west of the Riga-Jelgava depression three groups of hills can be distinguished, those of western Courland, west of the Venta, with Mount Krievu (190 m); the hills of eastern Courland, between Venta and Abava (Monte Kirmes, 200 m) and the hills of Talsi (175 m), between the Abava and the sea. To the east of the depression four main groups can be distinguished: the hills of Semigallia, along the left bank of the Daugava; the hills of Letgallia (289 m), which occupy the south-eastern corner of the country; the hills of central Livonia, which constitute the most important relief as they occupy an area of ​​3500 sq km. having an altitude higher than 200 m.; they are limited by the Daugava, Gauia and Aiviekste rivers and contain the highest elevation in Latvia (Mount Gaizinš, 314 m); finally, the hills of eastern Livonia, which continue in Estonia with Mt Munamägi (324 m), the highest elevation in the Baltic States, should be remembered. The coasts are generally low and sandy, bordered by dunes, with coastal lagoons and lakes, so much so that the main ports have had to find a place near the mouths of the rivers.

The northern end of Courland is formed by the sandy Cape Kolkas (Domesnäs), near the strait by which Latvia is separated from the Estonian islands, once infamous for the large number of shipwrecks found there. I drography. – By far the most important watercourse is the Daugava (western Dvina, in Russian Zapadnaja Dvina; in German Düna), which, for just under two thirds of its course (in all 1000 km.) In Russian territory, then acts as a border between the two southernmost provinces of Latvia, Semigallia and Letgallia, and divides the country into two parts. It enters Latvia 10 kilometers upstream of Piedruja, bathes Daugavpils (98 msm and 263 km. From the mouth) and after having received from the right the long tributary Aiviekste, emissary of Lake Lubāna, bends towards NNE., Runs along some rapids (slope 81 per thousand between the confluence of Aiviekste and Koknese), then flows into the sea in the southernmost part of the Gulf of Riga, after having bathed the latter city. It is 170 to 320 m wide. until the confluence of the Aiviekste, from 300 to 450 up to Riga and from 800 to 1400 in the last 12 km. Given the highly variable slope, the long period during which it is covered by ice (on average 107 days each year in Daugavpils and 37 in Riga), and also the highly variable regime (average flow rate of 661 cubic meters per second in Riga, with a maximum in April-May, at the time of the melting of the snow, and a minimum in January), it is not very suitable for navigation. Courland is for the most part tributary to the Venta (length 300 km; basin 11,200 sq km), which originates in Lithuania, flows from S. to N., forms a beautiful waterfall near Kuldīga (in contact between the dolomites and sandstone), it receives from the right the Abava (which runs through the picturesque region of Curonian Spit Switzerland) and has its mouth near Ventspils. At least partially independent course, after a meander broke the coastal dune and allowed a direct flow into the Gulf of Riga, there is also the Lielupe (or Aa of Courland), a very slow river that drains the waters of the Jelgava depression, 111 km long, formed by the union of the Mūsa with the Mēmele and swollen by copious tributaries, which form a fan-like network. NE Latvia. instead it is tributary of the Gauja (or Aa livone), which originates from the lake of Alauksts, bathes very picturesque regions (Switzerland Livone) and after 380 km. of very tortuous course flows into the Gulf of Riga, 30 km. to E. from the mouth of the Daugava, which it is probable was once a tributary through the depression of the White Lakes.

Latvia also has a thousand lakes, which cover 1.4% of the territory. The largest is that of Lubāna, which occupies a depressed area and is the residue of a larger lake surface, which originated in the diluvial period; it has an area of ​​81 sq. km., a basin of 2800, a maximum depth of only 2.5 m. and an average of 1.5, so that it was decided to drain it, also because it frequently overflows; its emissary is the Aiviekste. The Rēzna and Rušāni lakes in the hilly part of Letgallia also have the same origin, which is the region with the largest number of them. In northern Livonia the most important lake is that of Burtnieki, now only about forty square kilometers wide, but once much larger, while in Courland the best known and most studied lake is that of Usma (surface area 38.9 square kilometers, perimeter km.73.6, depth m. 15.1), fourth by surface but first by volume of water, located at the edge of the marine transgression zone; Mauritius, one of the five found in it, has been transformed into a natural park. The lakes, mostly elongated in shape, also have a diluvial origin, which occupy ancient glacial valleys (such as that of Ciecere in Courland), while the alluvial ones are usually not very large and with variable surface. There are also numerous coastal lakes, residues of ancient Baltic gulfs, transformed into lagoons and now in the process of disappearing (Lake Engure, Liepāja, etc.), while those around Riga (Juglas and Kīšu ezers) occupy more probably ancient river beds.

Latvia Rivers

Old Town of Riga (World Heritage)

Old Town of Riga (World Heritage)

According to extrareference, the foundation of Riga in 1201 goes back to Bishop Albert I von Buxhövden. The later Hanseatic city of Riga is the second oldest city to be founded on the Baltic Sea after Lübeck. The old town documents the long history of the Hanseatic city, which is also known for its Art Nouveau buildings, wooden houses and fortifications. The center of the historic town center is the market square with the town hall, the house of the Blackheads and the Roland column. The cathedral was built in the 13th century.

Old Riga: Facts

Official title: Historic city center of Riga
Cultural monument: Old town with the cathedral and episcopal tombs such as those for Bishop Berthold (d. 1198), the Petrikirche and the Johanniskirche, the Eckens convent, the Dannenstern house, the “Three Brothers” ensemble, the Sweden Gate, the only still preserved city gate in Riga, and the Art Nouveau buildings in Alberta iela, Albertstraße, such as No. 7/9 based on a design by Alfred Aschenkampff
Continent: Europe
Country: Latvia
Location: Riga
Appointment: 1997
Meaning: in the former Hanseatic city the most important concentration of Art nouveau buildings in Europe

Old town of Riga: history

1198 first documentary mention of the city
1209 first mention of the Petrikirche
1211 Start of construction of the cathedral
1282 Joins the Hanseatic League
1297 first mention of the Johanniskirche
1415 Mention of the oldest house from the “Three Brothers” ensemble
1547 Big city fire
1582-89 Reconstruction of the Church of St. John
1667-94 Reconstruction of the Church of St. Peter
1694-95 Construction of the Dannenstern house
05/10/1721 Lightning strike in the tower of the Petrikirche, which then burns to the ground
1733 Consecration of the Reformed Church
1899 first building in Art nouveau style on Albertstrasse (Alberta iela)
1953-58 Restoration of the “Three Brothers” ensemble
since 1991 Riga again the capital of independent Latvia
1999 True to the original reconstruction of the magnificent House of the Blackheads, built in 1334 and destroyed in the war, on the town hall square on the occasion of the 800th anniversary of the city
2010 Appointment of Riga as European Capital of Culture 2014 (with Umeå)

“Riga, which has long been famous, I saw you: mountains of sand all around, Riga itself is in the water.”

Riga has held a prominent position in Europe for eight centuries and is the center of the country’s economy and culture. Literature and art provide information about the legendary founding of the city. In one of the popular folk tunes one hears the verses.

Riga is mentioned in the Indrikus Chronicle as early as 1198. According to my historian, the beginning of the settlement probably goes back to the 10th to 11th centuries. However, the year 1201 is considered the official year of the city’s foundation, which is associated with the name of the Bremen canon Albert. A typical Hanseatic city developed over the course of the city’s history. The silhouette of the old town is determined by the expanse of the Daugava and the towering medieval towers. The medieval heart of the city has expanded over the centuries with the aesthetics of an architecture that embraces the Romanesque as well as the postmodern. Art nouveau, which you will not find anywhere else in the world in this form, as well as medieval architecture and that of the 19th century, is a defining feature of the cityscape: They all reflect the creative human spirit in their own way as masterpieces. The city is like an open-air museum, to which each epoch has added something characteristic – instead of standing still, striving for development. This is expressed in numerous significant buildings of unique value. These include the cathedral with the monastery buildings and the cloister, the construction of which began in 1211 and ended with the church tower built in Baroque style, the church of St. John with its Renaissance design, the church of St. Peter from the 13th century, its wooden one The tower built at the time of its completion was the tallest of its kind in Europe at more than 120 meters. Not to be forgotten are the “Three Brothers” ensemble in Gothic and Baroque styles, the German Theater built in 1863.

The respect for the cultural heritage of past generations has been characteristic of urban development for centuries. An old legend tells that Riga will sink in the floods of the Daugava as soon as the city is completed, and the residents of the Latvian metropolis always remember this tradition.

The city’s orientation towards Western Europe came in the early Middle Ages with the German settlers, whose influence was diminished over the centuries by Poles, Swedes and Russians. Due to its geographical location, Riga has always been an important and growing center of industry and trade. As a member of the Hanseatic League, the city was part of a European trade network. But it was also an important center of science and culture. Famous musicians such as Franz von Liszt, Robert Schumann and Richard Wagner found a grateful audience for their music within Riga’s walls.

Riga, to be compared with the melodious sound of music, has retained human dimensions: the city is green, flowed through by playful Art Nouveau and has remained livable thanks to the harmonious juxtaposition of different architectural styles, and the old town is a pearl of urban architecture: a city that can be understood that is valued and carefully preserved.

Old Town of Riga (World Heritage)

Latvia Business

Latvia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, LV is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Latvia.

Latvia’s economy is part of the EU’s economic community, and the country also has strong ties with Russia and the other former Soviet states. Exports make up more than half of gross domestic product. Forestry and agriculture, alongside the production of metal products and electronics, are some of the most important spheres. Due to its location, transit services are also important.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Latvia

After Latvia was annexed by the Soviet Union, central planning was introduced, and the country was closely integrated into the Soviet economy. The transition to a market economy after independence in 1991, including privatization of former state-owned enterprises and trade liberalization, did not take place without difficulties with, among other things, hyperinflation, high unemployment and a decline in the gross domestic product.

In the first period after independence, Latvia also had difficulties establishing new trade relations, which among other things led to a large shortage of fuel and raw materials, and many businesses were closed down. Both the industrial sector and agriculture had to go through a restructuring process, and for many rural residents, the development also meant increased poverty. From the mid-1990s a cautious economic upturn began, and by the early 2000s, both inflation and unemployment had fallen.

Latvia has in recent years had one of Europe’s highest growth rates. The growth has contributed to the rapid modernization of the country. It is a goal of the government’s economic policy that Latvia should reach the EU’s standard of living as quickly as possible. The Latvian economy is heavily dependent on capital imports, and thus very exposed to fluctuations in the international financial market.

The international financial crisis in 2008 also had consequences for Latvia. On November 8, 2008, it was announced that Latvia’s second largest bank, Parex Banka, had to be rescued by Latvian authorities to avoid a banking crisis in the country. In 2009, the gross domestic product fell by 18 percent, but has again had an increase after 2011 which has been higher than the EU average. Latvia implemented a successful economic policy that included, among other things, major cuts in public spending. In 2014, Latvia became part of the Eurozone and has been a member of the OECD since 2016.

Agriculture and forestry

Before World War II, Latvia was largely an agricultural country, with 65 percent of the working population employed in agriculture and forestry. Agriculture was privately owned, with the cultivation of grain and fodder crops, and the export of flax, butter, veal and live pigs to Western Europe.

Since then, employment in agriculture and forestry has declined sharply. Under Soviet rule, almost all agriculture was collectivized. After independence, some of the large state and collective farms were converted into joint-stock companies, otherwise the land was divided into many smaller uses. In recent years, there has been an upturn in agriculture, thanks in part to efficiency measures and EU subsidies.

About 30 percent of the land area is used for agricultural purposes today, and the area is fairly evenly distributed between grazing land and cultivated land. There are around 83,500 farms in the country. Cereal production has grown rapidly in the last 15 years, partly thanks to greater cooperation between farmers in cooperatives, which has made it easier to make investments. In addition, rapeseed, beans, potatoes, flax and sugar beets are grown. Due to environmental measures, rape production in particular has increased in recent years.

About a third of the total agricultural production is related to animal husbandry, and especially dairy products. Dairy products account for 2 percent of gross domestic product, and just under 45,000 people are employed in milk production. Otherwise, there is the feeding of cattle, pigs and poultry.

The forest covers just over half of the land area and has almost doubled since 1923. This area is expected to increase as land used for farming is growing again. Around 55 percent of the forest in Latvia is coniferous forest, and about 30 percent is birch forest. Up until the Soviet era, pine forests were planted and during the Soviet era the planet was spruce, which means that the age of the pine and spruce forests is often different. Around 69 percent of the growth is raised annually. The largest forest manager is the state-owned company Latvijas Valsts Meži. Wood forms the basis for the paper, furniture and veneer industries.


Fishing accounts for approximately 0.7 percent of Latvia’s gross domestic product and accounts for 1.8 per cent of exports, especially to Russia, Sweden, Denmark and Germany, as well as neighboring countries Lithuania and Estonia. The species of fish that are fished most are sprat, mackerel and herring. Latvian fishmongers have been hit by import bans from Russia for some time.


Latvia has very limited mineral resources and depends on imported fuel. There are deposits of peat, limestone, plaster and amber. The peat is mostly used for horticulture, and 95 percent of the peat, about 1.3 million tonnes, is exported.


The production of electrical energy in Latvia consists mainly of hydropower (about 60 percent) and thermal power (about 37 percent). About a third of the heat power is based on the use of renewable energy (bioenergy). The total share of renewable energy in power generation is thus around 75 percent. To cover its own consumption, the country has had to rely on importing power, especially from Lithuania and Estonia, but in 2017 consumption was covered with its own power generation.

Petroleum and petroleum products are mainly imported from Russia and Lithuania. Latvia exports wood fuel. Latvia is among the countries in Europe with the highest share of renewable energy resources (about 40 percent), especially thanks to hydropower and forest resources.


The Riga area has the bulk of the industry. Chemicals and pharmaceuticals, textiles and clothing, wood and metal products as well as food and electronics are manufactured. Metal products account for 27% of Latvia’s exports (2015). The IT sector plays a significant role, accounting for around 5% of gross domestic product. Latvia is among the countries in the world with the highest internet speed. Many foreign companies, including Norwegian, have flagged customer care services and the like to Latvia due to language skills, and generally high levels of education combined with lower pay levels and smaller cultural differences than countries outside Europe.

During the Soviet era, a large part of the country’s most important industries were controlled from Moscow, and were rapidly developing until about 1980. For example, the Republic was among the Soviet Union’s largest producers of woolen goods, processed timber, paper and fertilizers. From the beginning of the 1990s, among other things, shortages of raw materials and fuel led to a sharp decline in industrial production and several industrial enterprises had to be closed or closed down. Similarly, parts of the defense-related electronics industry were closed down, while other parts of production were changed. The production of consumer goods was largely better.

Foreign Trade

Latvia’s main trading partners are Germany, Russia, Estonia and Lithuania. Latvia exports most to Lithuania, Estonia and Russia, and imports most from Lithuania, Germany, Russia and Poland. According to Countryaah, the main export goods are timber and timber products, textiles, food and agricultural products, machinery and metal industrial products. The main import goods are mineral products, machinery and chemical products.

Transport and Communications

Latvia has good communications, and transit trade is of great importance in the economy. There are about 2,300 kilometers of railroad and about 72,000 kilometers of roads. Latvia has three ice-free ports: Riga, Liepāja and Ventspils. There are passenger ferries between Riga and Stockholm, between Liepāja and Travemünde and between Ventspils and Nynäshamn. There is Riga International Airport, which has just under a hundred destinations, including several Norwegian cities. The airport is also the main base for the national airline airBaltic, in which the Latvian state is the main shareholder. There is domestic air service between Riga and Liepāja.