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Italian Theater

Italian Theater

Italian theater. The Italian theater encompasses the forms of play that were often still in Latin in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, as well as the Italian-language theater of the former states and today’s Italy. It can claimto have had a decisive influence on the development of the performing arts in Europesince the Renaissance; Major impulses for European culture came from the Italian opera (opera), the Commedia all’italiana (Commedia dell’Arte), but also from the Italian theater architecture (Teatro Olimpico, Teatro Farnese) and stage design techniques (backdrops, Peep box stage, illusion stage). In contrast to theater in other European countries, the development of Italian theater took place in the context of particular interests tied to city-states and less to the central power of the church.

Late Middle Ages and Renaissance

Spiritual play and rediscovery of ancient dramas

As in other European regions, according to andyeducation, theatrical modes of expression developed in Italy from the late Middle Ages, initially in the form of spiritual play. With him biblical events were represented by priests and lay people. The venue was initially the interior of the church (as part of church services), later church and market squares and other parts of the urban space were used. The earliest reports of spiritual games in Italy concentrate on the middle of the 13th century (e.g. description of the performance of an Easter play in the Benedictine monastery of Montecassino in 1244). The theatrical presentation of biblical events combined with increasing technical effort, among other things. if angel, God the Father or Christ displayed floating with apparatus and fire and artificially generated noises (thunder) were used. Although the games in their early forms were presented in Latin, they were able to convey biblical content to a population that was often not able to read and write.

Forms of spiritual play presented in Italian probably did not emerge directly from the Latin-speaking, church-institutionalized performance tradition, but from vernacular and dialogically structured songs that originated from the middle of the 13th century and in which events from the history of Christianity were told. These songs were forerunners of living images that were presented in the course of sermons and visualized beliefs. The tradition of these so-called devozioni continued in the »Sacre rappresentazioni«, which emerged from the middle of the 15th century onwards with considerably increased stage technology and with the inclusion of the representation of action sequences. Especially the architect F. Brunelleschi was known for setting up such performances in the churches of Florence. In 1422 he staged the Ascension in Santa Maria del Carmine. Among other things, he had a castle (Jerusalem) and a mountain built inside the church, from which an actor as Christ went to heaven in the dome of the house of God.

From the rediscovery of ancient writings, the Italian theater culture drew the essential impulses for the development of secular theater, which was to decisively shape the European theater tradition. As a result of around the middle of the 15th century BC a. in Rome in the vicinity of the academy of J. Pomponius Laetus beginning reception of ancient dramas, first the comedies of Plautus and Terence, then the tragedies of Seneca were read and performed. The Terenz stage served as the venue for the comedies. Pope Leo X built the so-called Capitol Theater in 1513. Venice and Florence became further centers of theatrical art. The third, increasingly influential environment for the further development of theater turned out to be in the 15th century – after the church and academy – aristocratic society and the royal court: Biblical and mythological interludes, so-called intermedia (intermezzo), in performances of comedies and by means of parades (trionfi) Scenes (e.g. sea battles) re-enacted. The often spectacular events served in the context of court festivities v. a. political representation.

At the turn of the 16th century, the first comedies by contemporary authors were written. by L. Ariosto, Bibbiena and N. Machiavelli. G. G. Trissino wrote the earliest known Italian tragedy (“La Sophonisba”, 1524, first performance 1562; German “Sophonisbe”). The types of roles in comedy were included in the Commedia dell’Arte, which was conceived as improvisational theater, performed with masks and based on certain role constellations (including Herr – Diener). The shepherd’s play (shepherd’s poem), staged in the Mannerist style, also gained popularity. by T. Tasso.

With recourse to the architectural writings of Vitruvius (»De architectura libri decem«, completed after 27 BC; published in print 1486) through the reception of antiquity, theaters were built that became role models for European theater architecture (Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza, built 1580–84; Teatro Farnese in Parma, built 1618–19). B. Buontalenti and his pupil Guilio Parigi (* 1571, † 1635) created the technical prerequisites for convertible stage equipment (transformation stage), for which they, among others. on periacts (used in Florence until the 1630s). Giovanni Battista Aleotti (* 1546, † 1636) and later Alfonso Parigi († 1656) worked on the stage set in the early 17th century. However, these stage technical innovations were not implemented in spoken theater, but rather by v. a. at opera and ballet performances.

17th and 18th centuries

Opera, Commedia dell’Arte and civic theater

Among the theatrical courtly festive events, opera became the most popular form of performance in the early 17th century. In the field of spoken theater, the impromptu art of the Commedia dell’Arte first gained popularity in Italy, then through traveling theater troupes across Europe. The games were played in courtyards and in mercantile places such as trade fairs and marketplaces.

The growing proportion of spectators from other sections of the population that went beyond court society is reflected in the growing number of municipal theaters in the 18th century. The Commedia dell’Arte, which is characterized by coarseness, came under increasing criticism in connection with enlightening-domesticating tendencies. C. Goldoni banished the lamented excesses of improvisational theater with his dramatic texts; it is the first time that the written fixation of theater plays is documented in Italy. While maintaining the basic constellations of figures, Goldoni continuedElaborated dialogues and character constellations countered the masquerade, he dissolved repetitive patterns of action through sophisticated dramaturgies, thematically he aligned the pieces more closely to the real contemporary conditions. As an alternative to this, C. Gozzi’s efforts around the middle and late 18th century to further develop the imaginative, harsh social reality and crude potential of the Commedia dell’Arte (especially in his fairy tale games, the »Fiabi«) can be understood.

Italian Theater

Rome Attractions and Tourist

Rome Attractions and Tourist

Attractions in Rome

Hardly any city in the world has as many attractions and sights as Rome. Here you can come every weekend for the rest of your life without bringing all the treasures of art and architectural gems with you. Below is a selection of attractions and sights to see in Rome.

St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican

St. Peter’s Basilica [see image above] is ranked as the world’s # 32 wonder on Hillman’s wonder of the World. It is the headquarters of the Catholic world. It is a fantastic building and you also have the opportunity to go to the top to get the best views of the city. St. Peter’s Basilica is located in the Vatican.

Colosseum

The resort is ranked # 30 by Hillman’s wonder of the World. The square, where you will find Rome’s largest amphitheater, is called Piazza del Colosseo. The plant was completed in year 72 and had approx. 55,000 seats. It was here at the Coliseum that gladiator fights took place.

Pantheon

At Piazza della Rotondo you will find perhaps the most exciting building in Rome. The Pantheon has its only light source from a hole in the church dome. Here is also Rafael buried.

The Spanish Steps

You will find the Spanish Steps at Piazza del Spagna. It is a meeting place for both Roman youth and tourists. It is a great architectural work, and the area around the stairs is known for its exclusive fashion boutiques.

San Giovanni in Laterno

This is the oldest church in the world. It has, among other things, statues of the apostles. The church is located at Piazza S Giovanni in Laterno.

Roman Forum

This area, located next to the Coliseum, was the political and economic hub of historic Rome. Here you will see amazing ruins and arches. It’s free admission.

Vatican Museums

In the Vatican Museum you will find art treasures collected by the Roman Catholic Church. You could probably spend months in the museum and still not get everything with you. Meet up early as there are many visitors every day. Leonardo da Vinci’s roof painting is a must.

Castel Sant Angelo

Right by St. Peter’s Church (the street is called Lungotevere) you will find a charming castle that is definitely worth a visit. Castel Sant Angelo was originally built as a mausoleum.

Maxxi in Rome

After all, it could not be another name than Maxxi when Rome was given a new cultural building. It will house two new national museums, one for modern art and one for architecture.

The building itself is also spectacular, and will probably be a building that finds its way to many tourists’ digital cameras in the years to come. Architect is Zaha Hadid. This female architect is no one, once ranked as the 69th most powerful woman in the world by Forbes.

Capitoline Museum

The museum was designed by Michelangelo himself and has one of Europe’s most important and valuable collections of sculptures. The Capitoline Museum is located at Piazza del Campidoglio.

Galleria Borghese

At Piazzale Scipione Borghese 5 you will find Galleria Borghese. The gallery has the best sculptures of the famous Cardinal Scipione Borghese.

Fontana de Trevi

Nicola Salvi is the architect of this magnificent fountain from the 18th century. According to tradition, throw a coin in Fontana de Trevi over your shoulder so you can be sure to return to Rome. The address is Piazza di Trevi.

Piazza Navona

The Piazza Navona square was originally an arena for horse racing. Today it is a place where tourists meet people and take an espresso, a glass of wine or an ice cream. Here you will find the wonderful Quattro Fontena, Bernini’s masterpiece.

Circus Maximus

Once upon a time, this was the largest stadium in Rome with space for over 250,000 spectators. In the Middle Ages, Circus Maximus was destroyed. Today, the area is a park where people meet, but you see the contours of ancient grandeur.

Tourist in Rome

Rome’s historic center is relatively small, and you don’t need to take a guided bus tour to experience the various tourist attractions. The city is smaller in circumference than most people expect, and to see the historic center you need nothing but good shoes.

But are you not comfortable using the apostles’ horses so know that in Rome there are buses, there are trams and actually a subway, (with two lines). Besides, the city is so full of historical treasures and landmark buildings that you will surely have to come back many times to be able to say that you have seen most of it.

Day 1 in Rome

Rome Attractions 2

The first day in Rome will be spent on foot. Now motivation is greatest and form is best. We start the day at Rome’s largest amphitheater, the Coliseum. It is said that the Coliseum accommodated more than 55,000 people. Many tourist buses come here, and it becomes quite crowded in due course. We recommend that you visit this place quite early in the morning. The Coliseum is located at Piazza del Colosseo in the Forum district.

From the Coliseum to Piazza Navona

We suggest you take the road from the Coliseum down to the Victor Emmanuel Monument at Piazza Venezia. On the way from the Coliseum you will see drawings of the Roman conquests on walls next to the sidewalk. The Vicktor Emmanuel monument is both loved and hated in Rome. Some say it looks like a pie, others say it looks like a typewriter. Either way, the building impresses.

On the other side of Piazza Venezia (seen from the Victor Emmanuel Monument), you meet the Via del Corso road. Via del Corso has many shops (and shopping malls). We recommend you follow this street until you meet the tourist sign that shows the road to the Pantheon, which is located on the square Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is Rome’s best-preserved ancient temple. From the outside, it may not look so great, but go inside and look up at the ceiling! After your visit we suggest you relax with a cup of coffee or a glass of wine. Do like the Italians – enjoy life!

Next stop is Piazza Navona. Here you will find many street artists and street artists, sales stalls, many trattorias and pizzerias. Relax and look at human life. Lunch is often enjoyed on the square, but the best food you can find in one of the nearby streets that leads from the long side of the square towards the river Tiber. Apart from human life, Piazza Navona is perhaps best known for his fantastic fountain Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi, created by Bernini and featured in the book Angels and Demons by Dan Brown.

Pope Visit

You can now visit the pope. We recommend passing the River Tiber on the Angels Bridge or Ponte S. Angelo, as it is called in Italian. The easiest way is to exit the south side of Piazza Navona to Corso Vittorio Emanuele. Turn right (if you stand with Navona Square in the back) and walk until you meet the river. The bridge that follows the road is called Ponte Vittorio Emanuele. Ponte S. Angelo is the first bridge you come to if you follow the river to the right. If you choose this bridge, you come directly to Castel Sant Angelo. This slightly special castle has a wonderful history and an equally great location, opposite the St. Peter’s Basilica. There is the opportunity to visit the castle and from the top you have great views of Rome.

After visiting Castel Sant Angelo, go to the last stop of the day, which is St. Peter’s Church – the center of the Roman Catholic Church. A visit to the church will surely give you a lasting memory. Not least, the dome designed by Michelangelo impresses and extends more than 130 meters from the floor. It took more than 100 years to build the church, so Michelangelo never saw the dome finished.

After a long and hopefully rewarding day, it’s time to plan dinner. Romans eat long and hard. In Rome there are many tourist traps, and although the food quality is generally good, prices can vary widely. We suggest dinner in Trastevere. If you want a reasonably priced dinner, we suggest the Pizzeria San Calisto restaurant, located at Piazza San Calisto # 9a. Here you get huge pizzas. Try to get tables outside so you can experience the atmosphere of the area. The restaurant is closed on Mondays.

Day 2 in Rome

Rome Attractions

We suggest you start the day with a wonderful walk in the Forum Romanum and up to the Capitol hill. The Capitol is located right by the Coliseum. Walk among the ruins and see the amazing walls, the road Caesar took to the Arc of Triumph, the pillars of the Saturn Temple and much more.

After that, visit one of the great museums in Rome. Take the Vatican Museum or Sistine Chapel, for example, which both belong to the museum complex in and around St. Peter’s Basilica. Calculate time to queue to enter. We can promise you that it is worth the wait. Both museums contain enough for you to walk around and look for months. The Vatican Museum has, among other things, a large collection of paintings with works by Leonardo da Vinci and Caravaggio in addition to a significant archaeological collection. The Sistine Chapel is best known for Michelangelo’s roof paintings.

Shopping and the Spanish Steps

Rome has many great shops and shopping centers. The very best you will find right on the Spanish Steps. You can easily reach the Spanish Steps by walking the Via del Corso Street. Here it is teeming with great design shops and haute couture. All famous fashion houses are represented. For most wallets, window shopping is perhaps most relevant. Via del Corso is also a good shopping street in itself with many different shops.

After shopping you can go to the Spanish Steps and sit down among the others in the crowd. Feel free to grab a coffee or a glass of wine at one of the many cafes nearby. If you want to be a bit of a tourist, visit the El Greco bar [see photo above] right on the Spanish Steps. This was Hemingway’s pedigree.

You are now close to the Fontana de Trevi, so take the opportunity to make sure you come back to Rome. All you have to do is toss a coin in the fountain. NB Remember to stand with your back to the water when tossing the coin. This fountain is perhaps the most beautiful of all the fantastic fountains in Rome. The main character is Neptune, and the fountain was built by Nicola Salvi in ​​1762. In the human frenzy, be careful with your purse, camera and wallet.

Football in Rome

If there is a football match at the Olympic Stadium (home of both Lazio and Rome), this is a great way to spend the evening. Italians love football, and more passionate football fans should look for a long time. The Olympic Stadium is very large and can seat more than 80,000 spectators. Tickets are purchased at the stadium. You will surely meet many black exchange sellers, but check the official ticket booths before purchasing any tickets from these avid sellers. Don’t be “fooled” into buying uncritically on the street before the stadium!

Italy Business

Italy Business

According to abbreviationfinder, IT is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Italy.

Italy is one of the world’s largest economies. The country’s industrial expansion came as a post- World War II reconstruction, aided by financial support from the United States, and transformed Italy from an agricultural society into a modern industrial state.

In the first half of the 1970s, Italy was hit by an economic crisis with inflation, wage disputes in industry and political turmoil. In the 1980s, the country was able to reduce the rate of inflation and the large deficits in the foreign economy.

At the end of the 1980s, Italy moved up to fifth place in the G7 group, but was in seventh place in 2017. In terms of gross domestic product, Italy was the world’s eighth largest economy in 2017, and the fourth largest in Europe after Germany, the United Kingdom and France.

In 1990 unemployment was nine percent, in 2000 ten percent, in 2010 8.5 percent and in March 2018 11 percent. Youth unemployment is high (31 percent in the 15-24 year age group in March 2018), and significantly higher in southern Italy than in northern Italy.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Italy

Italy largely relies on its economy on exports, and the emergence of significant new players in the world market, such as China, is increasing competition for Italy.

Italy has been a driving force for European economic and political integration. The country joined the EU’s Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.

The state has had significant control over the economy, including through large state-owned industrial companies in key sectors such as iron and steel, shipbuilding, mechanical engineering and petrochemicals. After 2000, the authorities have privatized a number of state companies. Italy has an extensive “black economy” completely out of government’s control and control.

The distribution of income in Italy is uneven compared to other EU countries, with large differences between both different income groups and different regions. The differences are relatively large between Northern Italy and Southern Italy, since industrialization traditionally took place to a greater extent in the north than in the south.

Agriculture

Italy is, after France and Germany, the third largest producer of agricultural products in the EU.

Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, accounts for 2.3 percent of gross domestic product and 3.8 percent of employment as of 2017. As late as 1951, around 42 percent of the working population was employed in agriculture, while in 1970 the proportion was down to 19 percent. This drastic reduction in rural population has happened in parallel with Italy’s industrial expansion. The agricultural industry still represents a significant part of the country’s exports, but industrial goods have become far more important. However, there has been no decline in agricultural production, on the contrary, an increasing use of artificial fertilizers and other technical advances has yielded ever-increasing crops.

Almost half of the land area is classified as agricultural land, but a large part of this is heavily driven mountain slopes, often terraced, where mechanization of operations is difficult. Large, continuous flat areas are found especially on Posletta in northern Italy, along the coasts and in the lower part of Central Italy’s valley. The soil is fertile in most places, although centuries of deforestation and subsequent soil erosion are a major problem, especially in the mountainous regions. About 1 / 4 of all arable land need irrigation.

Wheat (winter wheat) is just about everywhere the most important grain. Wheat in the form of pasta and corn in the form of polenta are among the most important basic foods, and both wheat and corn must be imported. At Posletta, intensive rice cultivation is run. Other important grains are barley and oats. Sugar beets are mostly grown in Emilia-Romagna and Veneto, and sugar production covers most of the country’s consumption.

Italy grows large quantities of vegetables and fruits, partly for export. Oranges, kiwi, lemons and mandarins are grown especially in Sicily. Much of the fat consumption is covered by olives, which are grown in large quantities throughout most of the country, but especially in Puglia, Calabria and Sicily.

In addition to these typical Mediterranean growths, large quantities of apples, pears, peaches, cherries and plums are grown, which are largely exported. Other important products are tomatoes, beans and peas, which have created the basis for a significant canning industry. Important areas of cultivation are the plains of the Gaeta, Naples and Salerno bays. Italy accounted for about 14 percent of the world’s tomato production in 2017. In addition, a lot of potatoes are also grown.

Cattle breeding is particularly concentrated in Northern Italy, including Posletta, where there is a significant cattle holding based on the cultivation of dairy forage crops. The area is known for gorgonzola and parmesan cheeses. Nevertheless, Italy must introduce large quantities of livestock products to meet domestic needs. This applies to both meat, butter and cheese. In the Alps too, agriculture is run as cattle breeding with high and fodder production. In certain alpestrøk is still run some kind of dairy farming (transhumance), where livestock are run up on the mountain pastures in the summer.

Italian wine is produced over large parts of the country, partly in mixed culture with other crops such as grains, olives or fruit trees. Italy is the world’s largest wine producer, ahead of France. According to figures from 2016, over 50 million hectoliters of wine were produced in the country; 27 million hectoliters of red wine and 23 million hectoliters of white wine. There is wine production in all the Italian regions, most in Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Puglia and Sicily.

Wine production in ITALY

Year Millions of hectoliters
2017 39.3
2016 50.9
2015 50
2014 44.2
2013 54

Forestry

The forest covers just over 1/5 of the land area, but the importance of forestry is less than the area would indicate. For 2000, the forest has been hard at work in overgrazing and over-harvesting, and erosion has turned large areas into scrub vegetation (macchia). Extensive spruce and pine forests are found in the Alps, especially in Trentino-Alto Adige. Otherwise, cork oak and pine have local significance in the coastal areas, and in the drier regions, eucalyptus is planted.

Fishing

Apart from the inner part of the Adriatic, the waters around Italy are poor in fisheries and fisheries cannot cover domestic consumption. Italian fishing is operated by small boats from a number of ports, and supplies the local markets. Among the most important fishing ports are Chioggia, Livorno and Naples, as well as Palermo and Trapani in Sicily.

Mining

Italy is relatively poor in mineral resources, especially fuels, and mining has never been of any significance. There are small amounts of iron ore in Elba and lead and zinc in Sardinia, in Friuli, the Karnian Alps and Tuscany. Italy also has deposits of sulfur kite and sulfur. The sulfur is found primarily in Sicily, but also in Romagna, Marche and Campania. Quarrying of building stone has great economic importance, especially marble from Carrara in Tuscany. All the mercury mines in Tuscany are closed.

Energy

Italy depends on importing energy from other countries. Most of the consumption of petroleum is imported from abroad. The natural gas consumed in Italy is mainly imported from Russia, Algeria and Libya.

Around 86 percent of electrical energy consumption is produced in Italy, while the rest is imported from neighboring countries France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The production of electrical energy comes partly from the waterfall energy, solar energy, wind energy and bioenergy. Most of the hydropower comes from the Alps, but a smaller part also comes from the central Appennines and Calabria.

Just under 80 percent of total energy consumption comes from non-renewable energy sources and 20 percent from renewable sources. Per capita, both total energy consumption and electric power consumption is relatively low by Western European scale.

Nuclear power was produced in Italy in the period 1963-1990. There were four nuclear power plants in the country that were closed after a referendum in 1987. In a new referendum in 2011, a large majority of the population (94 percent of the people who voted) expressed that it was not desirable to construct new nuclear power plants in the country.

Industry

The industry was previously hampered by the lack of domestic energy sources and raw materials, a limited domestic market and a lack of export opportunities. However, after the Second World War, a considerable industry has grown, especially in Northern Italy. Compared to the pre-World War II level, industrial production has increased more than in any other EU country.

This industrial expansion, the so-called “Italian miracle”, is due to many factors: US financial aid, cheap and plentiful labor (from southern Italy), technical and organizational skill and import of energy raw materials. The country’s membership of the EU and the improved international economic climate have also been important growth factors. Southern Italy is still industrially backward, but significant funds have been spent since 1950 to develop the basic industry, particularly steelworks and oil refineries, as cornerstones in industrial development areas.

The industry’s contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) corresponds to about 19 percent in 2016 and the share of labor in the sector is about 26 percent. Because Italy has relatively little natural resources, it has primarily developed an industry that refines imported goods.

Steel

Despite the lack of mineral resources, the steel industry has grown strongly and has been the backbone of industrial development. Large quantities of scrap iron are imported into the steel mills, which include plants in Taranto in southern Italy (one of the world’s most modern steel mills) and Genoa, and older works in Milan, Turin, Piombino, Terni and Bagnoli outside Naples.

Automotive

The automotive industry has traditionally been important in Italy, but in recent years production has been significantly reduced. Originally it was concentrated to Piedmont and Lombardy. Especially in Turin was a large percentage of the population employed in the automotive industry, and primarily in Fiat – group. Today, much of the business has moved abroad, and Italy is no longer among the largest car manufacturers in the world. In 2000, 1,738,000 cars were produced, while the figure for 2017 was 1,140,000. The car brands produced in the country are primarily Fiat, Alfa Romeo, Lancia, Maserati, Ferrari, Lamborghini and Jeep. The largest car factory is located at Melfi in Basilicata, where Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) produces Fiat and Jeep models. The car factory in Val di Sangro in Abruzzo produces vans for Fiat, Citroën and Peugeot. In addition, there are large car factories for the production of Fiat and Alfa Romeo models in Pomigliano d’Arco outside Naples and at Cassino in Lazio. In the old car capital of Turin, some Alfa Romeo and Maserati models are produced today.

Electrical equipment

Northern Italy has a large production of refrigerators, cookers, washing machines and electrical equipment. Olivetti, one of the world’s largest office machine manufacturers, is located in Ivrea northeast of Turin. Shipbuilding has been affected by the crisis in the international shipbuilding industry since the 1970s, and today plays a relatively minor role. Genoa, Trieste and Castellamare outside Naples are the most important shipbuilding centers, but there are also shipyards in Savona, La Spezia, Livorno, Ancona, Bari and Palermo.

Chemical industry

The chemical industry has expanded rapidly. The largest companies in the sector are Enichem and Montedison. Local raw materials such as sulfur, sulfur kale, potassium, salt, borax and flux spatula form the basis for the production of products such as acids, lye, glass, artificial fertilizers, paints and dynamite. Production is concentrated in the major port cities, in particular Savona, Genoa, Livorno, Venice and Naples, as well as the Milan-Torino axis.

Petrochemical industry

Its location relatively close to the oil fields in North Africa and the Middle East has enabled the construction of oil refineries and the petrochemical industry, especially in southern Italy. The largest refineries are located at Augusta and Messina in Sicily, outside Cagliari in Sardinia, and at Genoa, Venice and Milan. The petrochemical industry includes large plants, including Ravenna (with Europe’s largest synthetic rubber factory), Mantova, Ferrara and above all Milan.

Textile and fashion

The textile and footwear industry, formerly the country’s most important industrial branch, has been famous for quality and good design since the Middle Ages. Italy is today among the leaders in the fashion world, and Milan is competing with Paris to be the “fashion capital of the world”.

The production of clothing and textiles is largely concentrated in the north. Lombardy (Legnano, Busto Arsizio and Varese) is a leader in the production of cotton fabrics and rayon, while Biella and Bergamo Province are known for their wool fabrics. Knitwear is manufactured in Vicenza and other cities in Veneto, while Como is the leading producer of natural silk.

Food

The food industry is also significant. Domestic production is primarily sold on the internal market, while exports are relatively low. This industry, like the other industries, is best developed in the cities of Northern Italy, but is otherwise widely distributed throughout the country. Among other things, a variety of wheat products are produced, including numerous pasta varieties. Also canned fruits and vegetables are produced in considerable quantities. Italy, after Spain and Greece, is the world’s third largest producer of olive oil according to figures from 2018.

Foreign Trade

According to Countryaah, Italy has become one of the world’s leading trading nations since World War II. Machinery, transport equipment and textile products are among the country’s leading export goods. Imports include crude oil, machinery and transport equipment, chemical raw materials, ores and metals and foods.

About half of Italy’s trade takes place with its partners in the European Union (EU). Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Spain and the Netherlands are the most important trading partners.

Foreign trade as a percentage by country In 2017

Country Export Import
Germany 12.7 16.1
France 10.4 8.7
United States 8.9 3.8
Spain 5.2 5.3
Great Britain 5.2 2.8
Switzerland 4.4 2.9
Belgium 3.1 4.5
China 3.0 7.4
Poland 2.8 2.5
Netherlands 2.3 5.4
Russia 1.8 3.1

Tourism

Tourism as a business has long been an important part of the Italian economy. In recent years, the number of visitors has increased, and in 2017 more than 60 million foreign tourists came to the country.

In 2016, revenues from the tourism sector totaled over 70 billion euros, which is equivalent to 4.2 percent of the country’s gross domestic product. Including subcontractors and businesses that are indirectly involved in tourism, revenues amount to EUR 172 billion, which represents over ten percent of the gross domestic product. Around 2.7 million people are employed in the tourism sector.

Transport and Communications

The transport network is well developed, especially in Northern and Central Italy, which has the densest rail and road network.

The railways

The railway network has a length of about 20,000 kilometers. About half are electrified. The main line links Milan, Bologna, Florence, Rome and Naples. Other important lines are the Milan-Venice route, the Genoa coastline and Reggio di Calabria, the Messina-Palermo route and the Atlantic Ocean line between Bologna and Lecce, and the railways connecting Milan and Turin to the port city of Genoa. In addition, the Naples-Bari and Messina- Catania routes are important railway lines.

Several high-speed lines have been built in large parts of Italy over the past decades. Between Milan and Salerno, a distance of 700 kilometers, several of the largest cities in the country (Milan, Bologna, Florence, Rome and Naples) are connected. There are also such lines elsewhere, such as between Turin and Milan, while a new line between Milan and Venice is under construction. The latest high-speed rail lines are built for speeds of 300 kilometers per hour. The country has a total of 1437 kilometers of high-speed rail (2018).

There are metro in Milan, Rome, Naples, Turin, Genoa, Brescia and Catania. The most extensive metro network exists in Milan.

Road transport

Road transport accounts for most of the transport work in Italy. The country has a well-developed network of main roads.

The world’s first motorway route, from Milan to Varese, was opened in 1924.

There are a total of 6629 kilometers of motorway (autostrada) (2018). Particularly famous is the Autostrada del Sole, which leads from Milan to Reggio di Calabria with connection to Sicily.

Aviation

The national airline Alitalia was formed in 1957 by the association of Linee Aeree Italiane (LAI) and Alitalia. The company had major financial problems in the 2000s, and was privatized in 2008. As of 2015, Etihad Airways has had a 49 percent ownership interest.

There are 36 airports with regular traffic, including 25 international airports. Most important are Rome (Fiumicino) and Milan (Malpensa and Linate).

Shipping

The Italian rivers mean little to shipping, but coastal traffic is significant. The main port cities are Genoa, Taranto, Trieste, Venice, Naples and La Spezia.

Sicily and Palermo, Italy

Sicily and Palermo, Italy

Sicily (Italy)

Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and belongs to Italy. In addition, Sicily is also an autonomous region of the republic Italy and counts several smaller islands in its area.

In the south-western part of the “toe of the boot” of Italy is the splendid vacation island Sicily. The Etna volcano is important here. It should be mentioned that here one stands on the remains of the connection between Europe and Africa. Overall, the area extends over an area of ​​25,703 square kilometers and currently offers space for around 5 million residents. Sicily is made up of nine provinces and has Palermo as its capital, which is also the largest city in the region.

Landscape and life in Sicily

More than 80 percent of the island consists of mountains or hill country. The plains of Sicily are in the hinterland of Catania. The Mediterranean climate with the hot and dry summers as well as the humid but mild winter months make the whole area extremely attractive for vacationers. The favorable location in the Mediterranean Sea and the wonderful beaches of course also promote this. On average, the temperatures reach values ​​around 19 degrees in summer and 5 degrees in winter. In the coastal regions, where most of the tourism takes place, the temperature is 26 degrees in summer and 10 degrees in winter.

Flora and fauna in Sicily

The residents of the island have greatly reduced the area’s lush forest cover over the centuries. The wood was cleared for shipbuilding or to gain useful land. Today only a very small part of the original forest area is left. Today, forest areas can be found cork oaks, beeches, pines and even, quite untypically for the region, firs. The carob trees thrive particularly well in Monti Iblei. In addition, you will find over 3,000 different plant species here, especially the wildflowers are very diverse. Among other things, bougainvillea, jasmine, mimosa and even magnificent orchids grow here. There are also numerous wild herbs and capers. In addition, tropical and subtropical plants such as rubber trees, bananas and papyrus plants have made their home here.
The beautiful vines and olive groves are not only visually attractive, but also form an economic factor for the region. Durum wheat has also grown here since the Romans.

Since the forest areas were ruthlessly cleared, the important habitat of native animals was destroyed at the same time, which subsequently became extinct. The population of red deer, wolves, foxes and wild cats is so reduced that these species will soon become extinct. In the past, extensive hunting was carried out on the few animals that were left, which led to a further decline in the population. The animals living in the sea, on the other hand, are present in large numbers. Fish such as tuna and swordfish are widespread here. Furthermore, large numbers of crustaceans live here.

There are also sea ​​turtles that are now under species protection. Numerous migratory birds and water birds also rest or nest here in the coastal region.

The importance of the ports in Sicily has changed again and again in the past. The coastal region was a base for shipping and trade early on. In order for a port to be built, flora and fauna had to give way.

Today Sicily has become a culturally diverse unit. The influences from the different epochs of bygone times are visible and palpable everywhere.

Palermo in Italy

Palarmo is the capital of the Autonomous region Sicily in Italy. It is also the capital of the Province of Palermo. The city is on one picturesque Bay on the north coast of Sicily. Palermo was founded in the 8th century and has an eventful past. The different rulers of the region were Arabs, Normans and Staufers. As the fifth largest city in the country, Palermo is now home to around 660,000 residents. In addition, the cultural and political center of Sicily is located here.

Landscapes of Palermo

The typical landscape of northern Sicily is characterized by Monte Pellegrino and Monte Catalfano, which border the Palermos region in the north and east of the island. The area between these two mountains is also called the “Golden Shell”. This name probably goes back to the lush orange groves, which bathed the landscape in a golden color in the summer months during the Arab rule.
Palermo’s direct neighbors are Altofonte, Belmonte Mezzagno, Ficcarazzi, Isola delle Femmine, Misilmeri, Monreale, Torretta and Villabate.

The history of Palermo

The city was founded by the Phoenicians. It served as a trading post in the 8th century BC. At that time, however, Palermo was still called Ziz, which means the flower. This is due to the fertility of the soil, on which a particularly large number of flowers thrived. Palermo owes the actual and current city name to the Greeks who described the natural port of Palermo as a whole port with the word Panhormos. But Palermo was always able to assert itself against the Greek powers and never came under their rule. By Augustus an important city and an important trading point in Sicily is Palermo.

When the Vandals invaded Sicily several times, Palermo lost its importance. It was not until 831 that Palermo became more important again and regained its position. At that time, the area developed into a growing region for orange and citrus tree plantations, which was used by the Arabs. Even in ancient times, Sicily was seen as the breadbasket of the world and the fertile agricultural and arable land was in great demand in the Middle Ages.

Economy and tourism in Palermo

A particularly important economic sector in Palermo is the service industry, also due to the steadily increasing tourism. The sectors that are directly involved in the expansion of tourist facilities benefit from this growth in particular. The construction industry is also booming due to the increasing interest in the landscape around Palermo. Because, of course, tourists not only want to be well looked after, they also want to live well.

The industry in Sicily is also growing. Palermo is a location for various industrial companies from the chemical industry, vehicle construction and shipbuilding as well as the textile industry.
Also the fertile soil will be especially for Orange and citrus plantations used. The cultivation of vegetables was also greatly expanded, so that Palermo plays a particularly important role in this area.

However, there is a heavy burden on the citizens of the entire region in and around Palermo. Because although the region is steadily recovering and the city is experiencing a slight economic boom, and things have been steadily “up” here since the end of the 20th century, the population suffers from very low wages. In addition, compared to the rest of the country, Palermo is one of the cities with the highest youth unemployment.

Palermo, Italy