Tag: Indonesia

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Lorentz National Park (World Heritage)

Lorentz National Park (World Heritage)

The Lorentz National Park on the island of New Guinea is the largest nature reserve in Southeast Asia with an area of ​​25,000 km². Its landscape is enormous: it ranges from around 5000 m high, snow-capped peaks to tropical coastal land. The national park is the habitat of an extremely rich, partly still unexplored fauna and flora.

Lorentz National Park: Facts

Official title: Lorentz National Park
Natural monument: named after the Dutch researcher Dr. HA Lorentz, who led an expedition to Mount Trikora in 1909; Total area of ​​the world heritage site 23,500 km², the largest protected area in Southeast Asia, national park since 1997, which also includes the areas around Mount Trikora and Mount Rumphius, heights up to 4884 m (Puncak Jaya), habitat of 8 indigenous peoples, including the Dani and Komoro
Continent: Asia
Country: Indonesia, Irian Jaya
Location: Southwest of Irian Jaya, east of Amamapara
Appointment: 1999
Meaning: a high degree of biodiversity at the intersection of two continental plates
Flora and fauna: swampy lowlands and high mountains with 69 km² of glacier areas such as on the Puncak Jaya and Idenburg as well as Meren and Ngga Pulu; Vegetation zones from the tide-dependent mangrove swamp to lowlands with plant families such as Leguminoseae and Myrtaceae and mountain forests with populations of beech and conifers to the alpine highlands with grasses such as Agrostis reinwardtii; 164 species of mammals such as short- and long-billed hedgehogs, same-color kusus, striped pouches, Doria tree kangaroo, silk broad-footed pouch mouse; among the 650 bird species spectacle and lobed bird of paradise and bristle head; 324 species of reptiles

Glacier hoods over the tropical belt

Located in the western half of New Guinea annexed by Indonesia, according to computergees, this protected area covers an area of ​​more than two million hectares. The first European to report on the snow-covered heights near the equator in 1623 was Jan Cartenz. This Dutch merchant had just sailed around the southwest coast of New Guinea on his way to Australia and was impressed by the snow-capped mountains that he spotted further inland. But it was a few centuries before a white man’s foot first stepped on the tropical forest floor in this part of what is now Irian Jaya. It was a compatriot von Cartenz, the explorer Dr. HA Lorentz, who at the beginning of the 20th century was preparing to climb the summit of Mount Mandala (Wilhelmina).

What makes the national park an ecological jewel today is the sheer extent of the protected tropical rainforest. In this part of the world, the largest area of ​​such a rainforest in Southeast Asia and the Pacific is preserved as a piece of untouched nature for posterity, which is now rather a rarity, since the greed for noble woods and the need for arable land mostly to cut down primary forest stands and unchecked slash and burn. Not only the landscape profile with an eye-catching, towering mountain range, but also the different habitats – glacier-covered heights of the Cartenz and Puncak Jaya, the highest peaks in Southeast Asia, alpine meadows, mountain forests, moist lowland rainforest, Fresh water swamps and mangrove fringes on the coast – make up this national park. In addition, extensive tidal flats and seagrass meadows were included in the national park, which are important food sources for green turtles and hawksbill turtles.

There are 34 types of vegetation in the national park, which represent almost all of the essential habitats in Irian Jaya. Among experts who deal with mammals, this national park is considered to be particularly important in terms of the biodiversity of the mammals in Melanesia. And it’s only been two years since Tim Flannery discovered a new species of tree kangaroo within the boundaries of the sanctuary.

The national park is also of particular importance for the preservation of bird species that only occur there, such as the Lapp paradise bird. Despite all concern for the preservation of nature, it is important to point out that nine different ethnic groups live in this nature reserve, who also have the right to the protection of their cultures. Among them are the Asmat, known worldwide for their masterly carving skills and two groups of whom – Emari Ducur and Unir Siran – have their home within the park boundaries. In particular, their partially nomadic way of life has so far contributed to the fact that excessive use of the natural environment has not materialized.

As the national park represents an excellent mixture of the geology, topography and the main habitats of this part of Irian Jaya, it offers a good basis for the study of an almost untouched ecosystem of New Guinea in the future. This includes the properties of surface and subterranean waters to be examined, aspects of the food chain, the influence of fire on nature, but also the migration and habitat of individual animal species. Such an exploration of the national park should certainly contribute to a better understanding of the ecology of the region and ultimately also be of particular importance for the development of a comprehensive management plan for the environment to be preserved inside and outside of the previous protected areas in Irian Jaya.

Lorentz National Park (World Heritage)

The 10 most dangerous bridges in the world

The 10 most dangerous bridges in the world

Suspension bridges, motorway bridges, pedestrian bridges – there are many types of bridges, but which bridges are the most dangerous and where can they be found?

10th place – the “Indoboard Bridge” (Indonesia)

This bridge has to be listed among the top ten most dangerous bridges in the world, because as its name suggests, it is more like an indoboard than a trustworthy way of crossing a raging river. A lot of balance is required here every day because this bridge in Indonesia serves as a way to school for many children every day.

Place 9 – The Ghasa Suspension Bridge (Nepal)

This suspension bridge leads over the Jomsom Sadak gorge and connects a small village with the outside world. It is several hundred meters long and is at a dizzying height. Not only do people cross this bridge every day, but shepherds also drive their cattle over it. As a local, you may have gotten used to these circumstances sooner or later, but tourists need a lot of courage to start their way over this narrow bridge.

8th – Qu’eswachaka suspension bridge (Peru)

The Qu’eswachaka Bridge is a rope bridge that is made every year by hand and is made of braided grass and spans the Río Apurímac, so that residents in the area have a connection to the outside world. It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since December 2013 and, due to its unsafe construction, also one of the 10 most dangerous bridges in the world.

7th – Sarawak Bridge (Malaysia)

This bridge, made of bamboo and thin struts, must never be entered by more than two people at the same time, otherwise it would collapse under the weight. On the left and right there is a kind of railing, also made of bamboo, but when you step on the swaying bridge it becomes immediately clear that this would hardly hold up in case of doubt. Fall between the bamboo sticks, inevitably land in the river below and get to know the local animals.

6th place – Kotmale Oya Bridge (Sri Lanka)

Leading through the impenetrable jungle, this bridge also serves to cross a river. The Kotmale is the fourth largest in his country and leads about 70 kilometers through Sri Lanka. If you fall through the holey boards that make up the bridge, you will be swept away by the torrents of the current. So it is a real adventure to cross this river.

5th place – bridge over the Alps (Austria)

There are also some worrying bridges in Europe that only the bravest people can walk on. This building in Austria may only be entered with a helmet, has tensioned ropes on the left and right, which serve as railings and stable wooden boards form the step surface, but these are much too narrow to offer enough space. The awe-inspiring sight of the mountain peaks below and between you will make you rethink this excursion.

4th – Canopy Walkway (Ghana)

This unusual bridge is located in the Kakum National Park in Ghana and consists only of a wooden beam and a network, which should ensure stability on both sides. Nevertheless, the Canopy Walkway does not inspire confidence, especially since you are on this bridge far above the tree tops of the park and can no longer see the other people among you. When you finally reach the end of the bridge, which is located on a tree trunk around which a kind of platform has been built, you will probably think of a climbing park.

3rd place – suspension bridge over the Baliem river (New Guinea)

Unbelievable but true here is the fact that this bridge runs both horizontally and vertically and therefore represents a real challenge for everyone. The wooden boards, some of which are far apart, can sometimes only be crossed by large steps. So be careful: here you have two options for getting to know the river below you.

Place 2 – Hussaini Bridge (Pakistan)

The boards are crooked, the ropes are loose and look like they are about to tear. Either way, you are dependent on the ropes on the left and right to hold on, otherwise it is not possible to cross this many hundred meter long bridge that runs just above the water.

1st place – tightrope walking over the Mekong (China)

This construction is not so much a bridge, but rather a construction made up of many tight ropes. One rope serves as a footboard, the other hangs over your head to cling to. Do not worry, tourists rarely get lost here, rather it serves many children as a way to school in the morning. This fact makes it the most dangerous bridge number 1.

tightrope walking over the Mekong

Indonesia Business

Indonesia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, IN is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Indonesia.

1991-92 Increasing activity among the separatist groups

In 1991, clashes between the army and the liberation movements in Aceh in northern Sumatra worsened, and the military commander at the same time called for a complete extermination of the partisans. In November, Indonesian soldiers shot thousands of demonstrations in Dili, East Timor’s capital. 271 were killed. In March 92, separatist groups launched an armed offensive in the province of Irian Jaya. At the same time, the United States government decided to make a congressional proposal for a $ 2.3 million grant to train Indonesian officers and security forces.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Indonesia

In preparation for the 1992 parliamentary elections, the main opposition party – the PPP – entered into an agreement with Muslim leaders with significant influence over the country. The other opposition party – PDI – responded by bringing several of Sukarno’s children into the political scene – including Guruh, a famous author of popular songs. But once again, Golkar won with 68% of the vote. In March 93, for the sixth time, Suharto was elected by the People’s Assembly as the President of Indonesia.

Throughout the 1990s, exports of gas, oil, timber and new industrial products, together with tourism revenue, were responsible for annual GDP growth of 6-8%. Yet, 27% of the population lived in absolute poverty. The rapid harvesting of forests and the implementation of major infrastructure projects led to the loss of fertile lands and the displacement of rural people.

According to Countryaah, the Muslims who make up 90% of the population increasingly directed their protests against the privileges of the Chinese and Christians. In March 1994, a scandal was revealed in which Chinese businessmen and politicians from the ruling party were implicated. In June, the government closed a newspaper and two of the opposition’s journals. Protests carried out that artists and intellectuals were not covered in journalism. In March 95, Minister of Information Harmoko ordered the members of the Alliance of Independent Journalists arrested. It had been formed after the closure of the 3 leaves the year before. In September, the government banned a former Sukarno assistant’s release of his memoirs, as well as several public leaders’ public appearances. In East Timor, the liberation movement faced significant pressure from the military.

Through 1995, the higher technocratic middle class manifested its growing interest in political opening. Nevertheless, it was estimated that Suharto would once again win the presidential election in 98. The polemical Minister of Research and Technology, BJ Habibie, positioned himself as a possible successor to Suharto, ensuring that a number of the president’s younger allies came forward at the expense of older generals.

In August, Suharto ordered the political prisoners released, who had been in prison for 30 years since the 1965 uprising. In May, he announced a plan for a reduction in the number of seats in parliament that would be assigned to officers in 1997.

Despite having two more years to run in the 1997 parliamentary elections, Information Minister Harmoko made a journey through Indonesia in support of the Golkar government party. The opposition accused the government of meddling in its internal affairs. Accusations came especially from PDI, led by Megawati Sukarnoputri – Sukarno’s daughter.

In 1996, the political climate became increasingly tense as several charges of illegal enrichment of the president’s family and his friends emerged. The military regarded the Islamic groups, PDI and Sukarnoputri as the greatest threats to the Suharto regime. The change in the political climate was linked to the increased circulation of news. Despite growing political uncertainty, the economy continued to grow and inflation remained under control. Still, the trade surplus was diminished. Particularly due to a reduction in exports of key products such as textiles. The 75-year-old Suharto had to travel to Germany to undergo medical examinations, which questioned his continued power.

In early 1997, the country’s population passed the 200 million. The government took the opportunity to declare that it continued the Transmigrasi program for the transfer of population from the most densely populated areas to the less populated areas. Extensive forest fires had serious consequences for the environment. The dense clouds of smoke also affected neighboring countries in the area – especially Malaysia and Singapore.

The Golkar ruling party once again won the parliamentary elections on May 29, 97, when it got 74% of the vote and 325 out of Parliament’s 400 seats. President Suharto had 12 family members in the new parliament: 6 sons, 2 wives, 2 brothers-in-law, 1 brother and 1 cousin. Furthermore, there were a large number of his business associates and other friends. On March 10, 98, Suharto was re-elected for his 7th term.