Tag: India

Check computerannals for India in 2003.

Goa, India

Goa, India

The magnificent state of Goa is located in the south of the magnificent country of India. The coastline stretches for 110 km. Goa is the most famous beach holiday destination in India. This state is quite different from the rest of India. It has its own special culture, and magnificent beaches and many attractions attract thousands of tourists from all over the world.
The entire coastline of Goa is divided into different beaches. The beaches where fun discos are held are Baga and Calangute. The remaining beaches, about six of them, are the most calm, and the beaches called Agonda and Palolem are considered wild.

Day and night, Goa is full of life. There are plenty of restaurants that offer great food, as well as plenty of nightlife options.
The state of Goa has a magnificent nature. What is not here, and beautiful waterfalls, and mangroves, amazing islands and the stunning beauty of the lake.

The cuisine of Goa is different from the cuisine of other parts of India. All over the world, such dishes as hakuti, vindalo, balchao are known, which can only be tasted in Goa.
This extraordinary state is considered the best place for a beach holiday in India.

Goa is one of the most beautiful places in India and one of the world’s best resorts in Asia on the Arabian Sea. This resort, located south of Bombay, is not without reason called the pearl of the Indian coast. The rebellious “children-flowers” – hippies of the 60s have chosen this wonderful place.

Goa can offer tourists more than 100 km of beaches on the Indian Ocean, a developed tourist infrastructure – bars, restaurants, night discos, casinos, diving centers and Ayurvedic spa centers, as well as a wide selection of hotels of various levels. In addition, Goa is the most Europeanized region of India. The former capital of the Eastern Overseas Territories of Portugal has adopted much from European culture, from culinary traditions to carnival processions. The people of Goa preserve colonial traditions in architecture, language and way of life.
The state of Goa is divided into Northern and Southern parts. South Goa is popular among the middle class from Europe, rich Indians also like to relax here, who also prefer a calm and comfortable vacation. The complete opposite is North Goa. Here, in numerous villages, mainly advanced youth from America and Europe settle, thanks to which this place has become famous throughout the world.

A very popular place in North Goa is Mapusa, located half an hour from the coast. On Saturdays and Sundays, markets and fairs are held here, on the days of Catholic holidays there are festivals and carnivals. In Baga there are many restaurants, small hotels, motorcycles for rent, tourist offices offering a huge number of excursions.
Kadolim Beach – Here you can find the most diverse accommodation near the beach, and meet many interesting people living in the ashram of Osho Rajneesh. Chapora is a typical village, there are few tourists, a fish market is arranged on the local pier.

The legendary place of Goa is Anjuna, here on a wasteland in front of the beach on Wednesdays a flea market is held, sometimes there are trance parties, but on ordinary Anjuna days it looks pretty ordinary. The most beautiful time here is sunset. At this time, in Shore Bar, lovers come to meditate at sunset.

The most peaceful place is Arambol beach – endless wild beaches, there are few tourists. The charm of the old streets of Panaji and Margao, small cafes serving delicious fish and seafood dishes, recognized by all gourmets of the world, where you will be offered the famous national drink Fenny according to old Portuguese recipes, made from cashew or coconut and where quiet live music sounds, will not leave you indifferent.
Well, if you are tired of basking on the golden sand or playing in numerous casinos, then you can go on a trip to the natural beauties of Goa – these are wild beaches, islands, beautiful lakes, mountain waterfalls and of course the jungle.

For lovers of sea trips, cruise companies can offer you an amazing yacht trip along the coast of Goa and river cruises through the crocodile jungle and mangroves.
If you choose Goa for your vacation, then this trip will undoubtedly become one of the brightest adventures in your life.

Goa, India

India Money and Culture

India Money and Culture



1 Indian rupee = 100 paises. Currency abbreviation: Rs, INR (ISO code). Banknotes are available in denominations of 2000, 500, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5 rupees; Coins in denominations of 10, 5, 2 and 1 Rs as well as 50, 25, 20, 10 and 5 Paise.
Note: 1 and 2 rupee notes and 5 paises coins are no longer produced, but many of them are still in circulation.

Attention: The old 500 and 1000 rupee bills were declared invalid in November 2016. New 500 rupee notes and 2000 rupee notes have now been issued. New 1000, 100 and 50 rupee notes are slated to be put into circulation in the near future.

Credit cards

American Express, Diners Club, MasterCard and Visa are accepted. Details from the issuer of the credit card in question.

ec / Maestro card / Sparcard
cards with the Cirrus or Maestro symbol are accepted throughout Europe and worldwide. ATMs are easy to find in large cities and tourist areas, and withdrawals with an EC card can result in high fees. Further information from banks and credit institutes.

Attention: Travelers who pay with their bank card abroad and want to withdraw money should find out about the possibilities of using their card from their bank before starting their journey.

Note: At the moment, only a small amount of cash can be withdrawn from ATMs (mostly only up to 2500 rupees, occasionally up to 10,000 rupees).

Bank opening times

  • General Mon-Fri 10 a.m.-2 p.m. / 3 p.m., Sat 10 a.m.-12 p.m. (deviations are possible).

Foreign exchange regulations

For the import of the national currency from a value of 25,000 Rs a declaration is required. The export of the local currency is allowed up to Rs 25,000.

For the import of foreign currencies with a value of more than US $ 5,000 in cash and / or US $ 10,000 in travelers’ checks, a declaration is required (declaration is also recommended for lower amounts). Export up to the declared amount, minus the exchange amounts. When exchanging money, a receipt must be countersigned or a corresponding certificate issued. These documents must be presented upon departure in order to enable the exchange.

Currency Exchange

The exchange may only be made at banks or official exchange offices. When exchanging money, you should be careful not to get damaged banknotes, as u. U. the acceptance is refused. Cash in US dollars, euros or British pounds sterling is the easiest to change. In all major cities and international airports there are exchange offices and / or machines where money can be changed around the clock. Exchange receipts are to be kept.

India Money



80.5% Hindus, 13.4% Muslims (8% Sunnis, 3% Shiites), 2.3% Christians, 1.9% Sikh, 0.9% Buddhists and other beliefs.

Social rules of conduct

Etiquette: According to commit4fitness, in India, on formal occasions, people greet each other with clasped hands and the head bent over and say Namaste. It is improper for Indian women to shake hands in greeting. As a sign of respect, you touch the feet of older people in greeting. When entering holy places one is asked to take off one’s shoes. Most Indians also take off their shoes before entering their homes. In most areas, eating is done by hand, using only the right hand. Strict behavior that has been in effect for a long time still regulates religious and social events in many places. Many Hindus are vegetarians and many, especially women, do not drink alcohol. Sikhs and Parsis do not smoke. It is important to observe these customs. Small gifts in recognition of hospitality are appropriate. Women should dress discreetly, short or very tight dresses should be avoided, they only arouse unwelcome attention. There are trained English-speaking tour guides in all tourist areas, some also speak German, French, Italian, Spanish, Russian or Japanese. The fees are fixed, the regional tourist office will be happy to provide information. Official guides have a Ministry of Tourism ID. Unofficial tourist guides are not allowed to enter certain protected sights.

Photography: There are restrictions to protect some landmarks and national parks. The Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi, issues permits for the use of flash and tripod in certain buildings. A fee is charged in nature reserves. Bridges and military facilities are usually not allowed to be photographed, and cameras are officially not welcome at train stations either. Photography in tribal areas is not permitted. More information from the tourist offices.

Smoking: In India, smoking is prohibited in public such as on public transport, in hospitals, in cinemas, restaurants, bars, hotels, in parks, shopping centers, etc.

Tipping: It is customary to tip porters, waiters, housekeeping staff, and tour guides. In hotels and better restaurants, tips are usually included in the bill. A small, additional tip is still expected there. In restaurants where the tip is not already included in the bill, 5-10% is common. It is not customary to tip taxi drivers.

India’s pearls

India’s pearls

Join a tour during which you will see India’s top attractions! We travel along the so-called “Golden Triangle” and visit New Delhi, Jaipur and Agra and experience the world heritage sites that are usually on most Indian travelers’ wish list. During the trip you will, among other things, visit the lively city of millions of Delhi, the Mughal rulers’ grand palace and the Taj Mahal. The trip also includes the holy city of Varanasi on the Hindu holy river Ganges where we get acquainted with the ceremonies performed by the millions of pilgrims who come here every year. We also visit Sarnath where the Buddha gave his first sermon on why the place is one of the most important places of pilgrimage for Buddhists.

India's pearls 2

Day 1: Flight to Delhi
Meals are included on board the long-haul flight.

Day 2: Delhi
After a short rest, we take a tour of Old Delhi where it is buzzing with activity and people’s life. We see the old town’s famous city gates and several other historically interesting places, but also the characteristic narrow alleys and bazaars. We can enjoy a bike rickshaw ride in the colorful and spicy bazaar neighborhoods of Chandhi Chowk and soak up the exotic atmosphere. During our tour we pass the Red Fort which until 1857 was the residence of the Mughal rulers and from which India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in 1947 addressed the nation to mark the Indian nation’s newfound independence. We also see India’s largest mosque Jama Masjid (“Friday Mosque”), which was built in the mid-17th century by Mogul Shah Jahan (the Mughal ruler who also had the Taj Mahal built). In addition, we pass the Triumphal Arch India Gate and the Presidential Palace . After lunch we visit the tomb of the Mughal ruler Humayun and the Sikh temple Gurudwara Bangla Sahib . Overnight in Delhi.

Day 3: Delhi – Varanasi
After breakfast transfer to the airport and flight to Varanasi. Millions of Hindu pilgrims arrive here every year to bathe in the holy river and thereby be cleansed from their sins. Next to the river there are many crematoria and the ashes after the cremations are sprinkled over the river. We check in at our hotel and relax the rest of the afternoon. In the evening we visit the spectacular spectacle Aarti on the banks of the river Ganges, a Hindu ritual during which candles are lit which are allowed to flow away along the Ganges as a sacrifice to the river’s goddess of protection Ganga. We also get a bike taxi ride in the city’s alleys . Overnight in Varanasi.

Day 4: Varanasi
Early in the morning we experience the sunrise during a boat trip along the Gangesand witness the traditional purification ritual performed by orthodox Hindus at the many stairs leading down to the river. After lunch we head to Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadaya, Rishipannan and Isipatana), which is a deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught Dharma, and Buddhist Sangha was created by enlightening the condanna. Sarnath is located 13 km northeast of Varanasi. Then free time to explore the old city of Varanasi on your own. Overnight in Varanasi.

Day 5: Varanasi – Khajuraho
Transfer to the airport before departure to Khajuharo . After arrival we make a short stop at our hotel to freshen up. In the evening an event with cultural dance . Overnight in Khajuraho

Day 6: Khajuraho – Orchha
After breakfast we take a tour among Khajuraho’s incomparable Hindu and Jain temples that are over a thousand years old. The area where the temples are located is classified as a cultural heritage by Unesco and is known for its explicitly erotic sculptures. It’s called the Chandela Temple Complex and here are, among other things, famous erotic temples, some of the best examples of this kind of temple architecture in northern India. The fact that Khajuraho is a bit remote meant that they were not destroyed by the Muslim conquerors, and after that the fine chisels are in very well preserved and are said to show life in heaven. The temples were built during the Candeladin dynasty, and most were created during a rapid period of creative and religious energy. Between the middle of the 900s and 1000s. After ruling for 500 years, Candela fell against the Muslims and therefore Khajurao was abandoned as a religious center. The temples remain as a reminder of a religion that believed in the joy of life and close contact with Nirvana. Of the 85 temples, 22 remain, many of which are very well preserved. After lunch we go by bus to Orchha (travel time about 45 minutes) and our hotel. Overnight in Orchha.

Day 7: Orchha – Agra
After breakfast we visit the quiet town of Orchha on the river Betwa and here are many temples and palaces. The impressive 17th century temples are still in use, e.g. Ram Raja with its ascending spiers, and Lakshmi Narayan temple , which is known for its well-preserved walls. We visit the palace , built by Emperor Jahangir in the 17th century, and the pavilions Raj mahal and Raj Parveen Mahal. After lunch we take a bus to Jhansi where we board the air-conditioned Shatabdi Express to travel to Agra. After arrival transfer to the hotel. Agra was once the capital of the Mughal Empire (1526 – 1858) and is one of the biggest tourist attractions in India Overnight in Agra

Day 8: Agra (Taj Mahal)
After breakfast we head to the Taj Mahal where we spend the whole morning. The Taj Mahal is probably India’s most famous landmark and is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List with the motivation: “A universally admired world heritage masterpiece”. The palace-like mausoleum was completed in 1631 and erected by the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal who died in childbirth. Then we get to see how to make marble stones that the Taj Mahal is decorated with. After lunch we visit Agra Fort, the beautiful fortification built in red sandstone. Behind the defensive walls you will find some of the finest and best-preserved palace buildings from the Mughal period. Overnight in Agra.

Day 9: Agra – Fatehpur – Jaipur
After breakfast we head to Fatehpur Sikri (“City of Victory”) built in the second half of the 16th century after the great mogul Akbar the Great fortified and expanded his kingdom. Fatehpuri Sikri served as the capital of the great mogul for a period of ten years before the city was finally abandoned. What remained, however, were the magnificent buildings with their magnificent architecture for posterity to view. The “Victory City” with its beautiful palace area and large mosque is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. We continue to the lively capital of the state of Rajasthan, Jaipur, also called ” The Pink City “. Overnight in Jaipur.

Day 10: Jaipur
In the morning we visit the famous Amber Fortress located just outside Jaipur. The fortress built in red sandstone and marble is a fantastic sight with its mighty protective walls that are reflected in Lake Moala below. We take a tour of the old defense complex and see its beautiful interior with high-quality murals, ivory inlays and mosaics. The tick dates from the 10th century and is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. We then visit a weaving mill and see how to dye fabric and make textile prints. We view the fabulous Hawa Mahal (“Palace of the Winds”) in red and pink sandstone and continue toCity Palace which is the residence of the current Maharajah. If the flag is raised, he’s home! Parts of the palace have been converted into a museum with collections of art, carpets and weapons, among other things. Nearby is the strange Jantar Mantar Observatory where you will find, among other things, a 27 meter high sundial. We also do an electric bike rickshaw tour and a trip to the market in the Pink City. Overnight in Jaipur.

Day 11: Jaipur – Delhi
We start the day with an hour of yoga . After breakfast we start the return journey to Delhi but make a stop in Sanganer, where we see how to make paper from elephant dung . We have lunch in the village and meet the locals. Overnight in New Delhi. During the evening we gather before the farewell dinner with Indian delicacies. Overnight in Delhi.

Day 12: Return from Delhi
In the morning transfer to the airport before returning home via Helsinki to the destination. Meals are included on board the long-haul flight.

India's pearls

India Business

India Business

According to abbreviationfinder, IN is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of India.

1981 Indira is killed

The situation in Punjab ended up costing Indira life when a Sikh from her bodyguard ended up killing her. In the wake of this killing, thousands of Sikhs were killed by vengeful thirsty paramilitary Hindu groups. Across formalities such as the Constitution and Congress party statutes, Indira’s son, Rajiv, was quickly appointed prime minister and leader of the party. He received great support in the election in 1985, when the party captured 401 out of Parliament’s 508 seats. No other party was able to conquer the necessary 50 seats to officially be recognized as opposition. Despite the clear victory, some strongly nationalist regions turned their backs on Gandhi. This was especially true of the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, where the charismatic former actor, Tama Rao had a great influence. Gandhi also lost Sikkim. A small kingdom in the Himalayas like India had annexed in the 70s. Here, the separatist party, Sikkim Sangram won the Parishad.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India

According to Countryaah, Gandhi took various steps to solve the problems in Punjab. He appointed a reconciliation governor for the region, detained the political prisoners – including opposition leaders – and declared that members of his own party who had participated in the violence against the Sikhs would be prosecuted and sentenced. He thus paved the way for dialogue with the Sikhs’ largest party in the region, Akali Dal and other opposition groups. Despite the radical differences in positions, progress was made. The forces advocating greater autonomy for Punjab suggested that the central government should retain responsibility for defense, foreign policy, money issue, postal services, roads and telecommunications. On the other hand, the state government had greater autonomy than India’s other states.

In 1987, India intervened in the conflict in Sri Lanka. Pressures were being made to establish a ceasefire between Singaporeans and Tamils, and India sent troops to neighboring countries. Three years later, the Indian peacekeepers were discreetly pulled out, after suffering heavy losses.

During the same period, India participated with Argentina, Sweden, Tanzania, Mexico and Greece in the efforts to have the superpowers restrict the arms race. At the same time, the Prime Minister declared that India would not relinquish its nuclear weapons if Pakistan continued its efforts to build a nuclear bomb.

In its foreign policy, India maintained its alliance freedom, but internally a number of important changes were implemented. Rajiv Gandhi made the microcomputer a symbol of his policy of rapid «modernization». He promised the private sector that he would lift restrictions on imports and purchases of foreign technology as well as lower the tax burden. At the same time, the trade union movement expressed fears that sophisticated technology would create unemployment and that the national industry would not be able to survive competition with foreign products.

In November 1989 elections were conducted in a climate characterized by violence that cost over 100 lives. At this election, the opposition stepped forward. The Congress party reduced the number of seats to 192 against the Janata Dal coalition’s 141st. The latter, along with the National Front, joined a coalition government led by Prime Minister Vishwanath Pratap Singh. This was only possible due to support from the right-wing Partido Bharatiya Janata Party and several small groups on the left.

Tensions between India and Pakistan escalated in March 1990 as a result of the latter’s support for autonomy movements in Kashmir. There was a risk that a war between the two countries would lead to the use of nuclear weapons. The increasingly deep economic crisis in November led to sharper confrontations between Hindus and Muslims. Prime Minister Singh was replaced with Chandra Shekhar – also from Janata Dal.

1991 Rajiv Gandhi is killed

On May 20, 1991, elections for parliament again began. A bloody election campaign had taken place that had killed more than 280 people. However, the election was canceled the day after when Rajiv Gandhi was killed by a suicide attack by a member of the liberation movement, the Tamil Tigers. A week later, Narasimha Rao was appointed Gandhi’s successor as leader of the Congress party. The election was resumed 12-16. June. It had been the bloodiest in India’s history so far. Only 53% of eligible voters voted. The Congress party got 225 seats against Bharatiya Janata’s 119.

In August 1991, the new government announced a drastic economic change in the direction of liberalism, thus settling the economic policies that had prevailed since independence. The price change led to criticism and triggered protests. This development had been 10 years along the way and had been accelerated by the collapse of the Soviet Union. Despite its alliance freedom, India had been more closely linked to the Soviet Union than to the United States since independence.

As early as September of the previous year, 70,000 representatives of various indigenous peoples had gathered to prevent the construction of dams across the holy river Narmada. The project would have submerged ancient temples and traditional cultivation areas. More than 200,000 people who had been displaced by the project in 1991 manifested their dissatisfaction. This and other infrastructure projects are part of the tradition of industrial development regardless of the ecological impact. The security problems at the country’s 7 nuclear reactors remain unresolved and the control of companies that pollute is insufficient.