Tag: Estonia

Check computerannals for Estonia in 2003.

Estonia Geography

Estonia Geography

Estonia’s land border with Latvia runs 267 km, with Russia it runs 290 km. From 1920 to 1945, Estonia’s border with Russia, established by the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty, extended beyond the Narva River in the northeast and beyond the town of Pechory (Petseri) in the southeast. This territory, amounting to about 2,300 square kilometers, was incorporated into Russia by Stalin at the end of World War II. For this reason, the borders between Estonia and Russia are not yet defined today.

Estonia is located on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in the Gulf of Finland, in the northwestern part of the rising Eastern European shelf between 57.3 ° and 59.5 ° N and 21.5 ° and 28.1 ° E. The elevation Average reaches 50 meters and the highest point in the country is the Munamägi Suur in the southeast at 318 meters. There are 3,794 kilometers of coastline marked by numerous bays, straits and inlets. The number of islands and islets is estimated at about 1,500. Two of them are large enough to constitute different counties: Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. A small group of meteor craters, the largest of which is called Kaali, is located in Saaremaa, Estonia.

Estonia has more than 1,400 lakes. Most are very small and the largest, Lake Peipus (Peipsi in Estonian) is 3,555 km2. There are many rivers in the country. The longest of them are Võhandu (162 km), Pärnu (144 km), and Põltsamaa (135 km). Estonia has numerous bogs and swamps.

Estonia is shared between the Central European and Eastern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region in the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Estonia belongs to the Sarmatian mixed forest ecoregion.

Administrative divisions

The Republic of Estonia is divided into fifteen counties (Maakonnad), which are the administrative subdivisions of the country. The first documented mention of Estonia with political and administrative subdivisions comes from Henry of Livonia’s Chronicle, written in the 13th century during the Northern Crusades.

A maakond (county) is the largest administrative subdivision. The county government (Maavalitsus) is headed by a provincial governor (Maavanem), who represents the national government at the regional level. Governors are appointed by the Estonian Government for a five-year term. Several changes were made to county boundaries after Estonia became independent, notably the formation of Valga County (from parts of Võru, Tartu and Viljandi counties) and Petseri County (area acquired from Russia with the Tartu Peace Treaty 1920).

During the Soviet regime, Petseri County was annexed and ceded to the Russian SFSR in 1945, where it became one of the Pskovs districts. The counties were again re-established on January 1, 1990 on the borders of the Soviet-era regions. Due to the many differences between current and historical designs, historical boundaries are still used by ethnology, better representing cultural and linguistic differences.

Each county is divided into municipalities (omavalitsus), which is also the smallest administrative subdivision in Estonia. There are two types of municipalities: an urban municipality – linn (city), and a rural municipality – vald (parish). There is no other distinction between them. Each municipality is an autonomous government unit with its representative and executive bodies. Municipalities in Estonia cover the entire territory of the country.

A municipality may contain one or more populated places. Tallinn is divided into eight districts (linnaosa) with limited autonomy (Haabersti, Kesklinn, Kristiine, Lasnamäe, Mustamäe, Nõmme, Pirita and Pohja Tallinn).

Municipalities range in size from Tallinn with 400,000 residents to Ruhnu with just 60. As more than two thirds of the municipalities have a population of less than 3,000, many of them have seen the convenience of cooperating in the provision of services and the performance of administrative functions. There have also been calls for an administrative reform to merge the smaller municipalities together.

As of March 2008, there were a total of 227 municipalities in Estonia, 33 of them urban and 194 rural.

Climate

According to educationvv, Estonia is located in the northern part of the temperate climate zones and the maritime and continental climate transition zone. Because Estonia (and all of Northern Europe) is continuously heated by maritime air influenced by the heat content of the North Atlantic Ocean, it has a more benign climate despite its northern latitude. The Baltic Sea causes differences between the climate of the coastal and inland areas. Estonia has four seasons of almost equal length. The average temperature ranges from 16.3 ° C (61.3 ° F) in the Baltic Islands to 18.1 ° C (64.6 ° F) inland, in July, the warmest month, and -3.5 ° C (25.7 ° F) in the Baltic Islands – 7.6 ° C (18.3 ° F) inland, in February, the coldest month.

The average annual temperature in Estonia is 5.2 ° C. The average temperature in February, the coldest month of the year, is -5.7 ° C. The average temperature in July, which is considered the hottest month of the year, is 16.4 ° C. The climate is also influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Atlantic Current and the Icelandic Minimum, which is a known area. due to the formation of cyclones and where the mean atmospheric pressure is lower than in neighboring areas. Estonia is located in a humid area where the amount of precipitation is greater than the total evaporation. Average rainfall in 1961 – 1990 it ranged from 535 to 727 millimeters (21.1 to 28.6) per year and was strongest in summer. There were between 102 and 127 days of rain per year, and average rainfall was most abundant on the western slopes of the Sakala and Haanja Highlands. The snow cover, which is deeper in the south-eastern part of Estonia, usually lasts from mid-December to the end of March.

Estonia Geography

Estonia Business

Estonia Business

According to Countryaah, in the late 90’s and early 91’s, the Soviet power threatened to use force to impede independence, and it resulted in several clashes between Soviet troops and nationalist groups. In September, conservative forces in Russia carried out a failed coup against Mikhail Gorbachov, Boris Yeltsin had actually taken power, and only now did the Soviet Union recognize the independence of the three Baltic states. The same month they were admitted to the UN.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, EE is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Estonia.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Estonia

In January 1992, President Savisaar and his government withdrew after growing criticism of its economic policies. Parliament appointed former Transport Minister Tiit Vahi to lead the new government. Estonia was forced to introduce food and fuel rationing after Russia raised prices and restricted supplies. Prices came up at world market level and at the same time Russia restricted imports of textiles and electrical products from Estonia.

On June 20, 1992, the country’s new constitution – based on the 1938 Constitution – was passed by a referendum. In September, a new Riigikogu (parliament) was elected, declaring on 7 October that the transitional period had ended and that the country’s new constitution was in force. On October 5, the leader of the National Party, Lennart Meri, was elected by the parliament to the country’s president by 59 votes to 31. At the same time, the country was the first country in the former Soviet Union to declare the ruble as currency and introduce its own coin foot, the Crown.

In December 1992, the privatization program was temporarily suspended after a high-ranking official was dismissed for neglect and dishonesty. At the beginning of 1993, it emerged that he had been committed to giving back state property to their former owners, who had been confiscated by the Communists in their 40’s.

In June 1993, strict nationalist guidelines were adopted, which affected foreigners in the country – primarily the Russians, who made up 30% of the country’s population. They either had to obtain a residence permit or be deported. In return, Boris Yeltsin ordered Russian deliveries of natural gas interrupted and at the same time halted the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Baltic. At the end of June, the Russian people conducted a referendum and declared its autonomy, which was nonetheless characterized as illegal by the Estonian government.

The Russian troops completed their withdrawal from Estonia in August 1994, with Estonia already deeply committed to NATO’s Partnership for Peace program. Two months later, the former chairman of the Estonian Communist Party, Indrek Toome, was arrested for corruption.

The March 1995 elections became a major defeat for the coalition that had ruled the country since it disbanded from the Soviet Union. It sparked considerable controversy when the country’s new prime minister Tiit Vahi appointed a “disproportionate” large number of former communists to ministerial posts in his new government. In October, his government was forced to resign following corruption charges against the interior minister. A new government was now formed, which also included members of the Reform Party.

Following a controversial vote in an electoral college, on September 20, 1996, Lennart Meri was re-elected as the country’s president. In December 1997, a report by the European Reconstruction and Development Bank, which had been set up to support the transition of the former socialist countries to the market economy, estimated that Estonian financial sector reforms made it possible for the country to enter the EU quickly. The reforms included has been instrumental in securing the country’s most foreign investments per year. resident among the countries of the region.

In February 1998, Estonia, Latvia and Lithaun signed an Association Agreement with the United States, at which time the superpower also undertook to work for the three countries’ accession to NATO. It triggered a reaction from Russia stating that the country would only normalize relations with the Baltic countries when they guaranteed the rights of the Russian speaking population.