Tag: Cambodia

Check commit4fitness for Cambodia in 2002.

History of Cambodia

History of Cambodia

802 | King Jayavarman II founds Cambodia

14.-15. Century | Cambodia loses most of its territory to Vietnam and Siam

1864 | Establishment of the French protectorate

1953 | King Sihanouk gains independence from France

1954 | Resignation of King Sihanouk in favor of his father

1960 | Election of Prince Sihanouk as head of state

1970 | Coup by Chief of Staff Lon Nol and dismissal of Prince Sihanouk

1975-1978 | Reign of Terror by the Khmer Rouge under Pol Pot

1979 | Occupation of Cambodia by Vietnam

1989 | Withdrawal of the Vietnamese troops

1991 | Signing of the Paris Peace Accords

1992-93 | UN Interim Administration in Cambodia (UNTAC)

1993 | First formal democratic elections

1997 | Hun Sens coup against First Prime Minister Prince Ranariddh

1998 | Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) under Hun Sen wins elections

2002 | First local elections; CPP wins with a large majority and can continue to govern at national level after the parliamentary elections one year later

2007 | Khmer Rouge Tribunal starts work

2008 | Another election victory for Hun Sen; military border conflict with Thailand

2011 | Cambodian and Thai soldiers sometimes engage in heavy border battles

2011 | The proceedings against Nuon Chea, Khieu Samphan and Ieng Sary begin at the Khmer Rouge tribunal, which is increasingly being criticized for its political influence

2012 | The Appeals Chamber of the Khmer Rouge Tribunal sentenced Kaing Guek Eav, head of the S-21 torture prison, to life imprisonment

2013 | Prime Minister Hun Sen suffered heavy losses in the parliamentary elections at the end of July

2014 | Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan are sentenced in the first instance to life imprisonment by the Khmer Rouge Tribunal for the crimes between April 1975 and December 1977

2016 | The Appeals Chamber at the Khmer Rouge Tribunal upholds the judgments against Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan

2017 | With the dissolution of the CNRP, the government de facto ends the multi-party system

2018 | The ruling CPP wins all 125 seats in the National Assembly in parliamentary elections

Little is known about prehistoric Cambodia. It is certain that the first settlements in the Tonle Sap and the lower Mekong region arose in the Neolithic Age. Traces of human habitation dating back to the 69th millennium BC have been discovered in the Laang Spean cave (Battambang province). Although the Khmer arrived in what is now Cambodia around 2000 BC, they are considered to be one of the oldest ethnic groups in the entire region.

From the 1st to the 6th centuries, most of today’s territory belonged to the Southeast Asian Kingdom of Funan, which later became part of the strengthened Chenla Empire, which in turn existed until the early 9th century. With the proclamation of Jayavarman II as God-King (Devaraja) in 802, the time began that is known today as the kingdom of Angkor. Except for a short period in which the capital was relocated further east to Koh Ker, the region around today’s Siem Reap was always the seat of government, albeit in different places (Mahendraparvata, Hariharalaya, Yasodharapura,Angkor Thom). The empire reached its peak of power in the 12th century under the legendary King Jayavarman VII: It ruled Southeast Asia from Malacca to the Isthmus of Kra as well as Laos and parts of Vietnam. During this time the cultural bloom also falls, the Hindu temple complex Angkor Wat, which was built at that time, is still standing today, as are the most important Buddhist sacred buildings Bayon, Ta Prohm and Preah Khan. Around 1200 Angkor had about a million residents, making it the largest city in the world at the time.

In the meantime, many researchers have agreed that climatic changes were the decisive factor behind the demise of high culture. That changed the balance of power in mainland Southeast Asia, especially the neighbors in the west gradually breaking away from the dominance of the Khmer. After the armies of the Thai kingdom of Ayutthaya marched through Angkor in 1431, the history of the country was shaped for a century and a half by dynastic rivalries and armed conflicts with its powerful neighbor. One also speaks of the “dark age” of Cambodia, in which a number of weak kings ruled and the capital changed several times. In the 16th and early 17th centuries, Longvek (today’s Kampong Chhnang Province) before the royal court came to Oudong (1611 to 1866) and then to Phnom Penh under increased foreign policy pressure.

According to Computergees.com, to prevent a complete takeover of the empire by Thailand and Vietnam, Cambodia turned to France, which had taken southern Vietnam in 1859. In 1863 the country became a protectorate of France under King Norodom, and in 1887 it joined Vietnam and later Laos in the Indochinese Union. The first Indochina War, which was fought in the neighboring states of Vietnam and Laos in the aftermath of World War II, drained the strength of the French colonial power. On November 9, 1953, Cambodia was finally given independence.

History of Cambodia

Cambodia has seen only brief periods of political stability since independence. The recent history of the country is marked by war, civil war and the mass murder of the Khmer Rouge, which was accompanied by numerous regime changes. The development led

  • of a formally democratic regime under Sihanouk (1953-1970) interspersed with strong authoritarian elements,
  • about the autocratic, US-backed rule of Lon Nol (1970-1975),
  • into the totalitarian regime of the Khmer Rouge under Pol Pot (1975-1979), under which around two million people lost their lives,
  • and the internationally isolated authoritarian clientele regime of Vietnam under first Heng Samrin and then Hun Sen (1979-1992) with the parallel government in exile Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK) with the participation of the Khmer Rouge and the FUNCINPEC Sihanouks, which also have the UN headquarters Of Cambodia,
  • and finally under the mandate of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) (1992-1993)
  • to a formally democratic, but actually autocratically governed regime under Hun Sen (since 1993).
Cambodia Business

Cambodia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, KH is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Cambodia.

Since the UN peace plan on Cambodia was signed in 1991, both government policy and bilateral and multilateral development assistance have contributed to economic growth. From 2000 to 2010, the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) increased by an average of eight percent per year. In 2017, the country’s GDP increased by 6.9 percent, compared with seven percent in both 2015 and 2016.

Cambodia is still among the world’s poorest countries. Cambodia is in 160th place on the list of countries’ gross national income (GNI) per capita. Of the nine other ASEAN countries, only Myanmar has a lower ranking (2017).

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Cambodia


Agriculture contributes 25.3 percent of the country’s GDP and employs 48.7 percent of the working population. After many years of collective farming, private land ownership was reinstated with the new Constitution of 1989. Agriculture is hampered by poor infrastructure and poor access to fertilizers. Furthermore, it is subject to frequent drying and flooding.

89 percent of the arable land is cultivated. Rice is by far the most important product from agriculture. Total production was 7.4 million tonnes in 2018, when production increased by 3.5 percent. The most important rice areas are in the Siem Reap province around Lake Tonlé-Sap and in the province of Battambang. In addition to rice grown including maize, sugar cane, Cashew, manioc and bananas. Silk is also produced. Rubber is produced on plantations built by the French in the 1920s, and is an important export product.


Timber is traditionally an important export product. Vietnam is the main importer of timber. In the countryside, firewood is largely used. However, the logging has been out of control. The government’s policy and illegal logging led to the country’s forest-covered area was reduced from 60 per cent in 2010 to 45 percent in 2016.


Fish is an important component of the diet. Lake Tônlé-Sap is one of the world’s richest areas for freshwater fishing, which also takes place in the Mekong and Tonlé-Sap rivers. In 2016 this fishing amounted to 509 300 tonnes. Cambodia then had the world’s fourth largest freshwater fishery for China, India and Bangladesh. In addition, fish farming takes place, which in 2016 amounted to approximately 200,000 tonnes. Offshore 435 kilometers long coast, sea fishing is conducted. The main ports for supplying the catch are Sihanoukville and Koh Kong.

Industry, mining and energy

The industry contributes 32.8 percent of the country’s GDP and employs 19.9 percent of the working population. The main industrial activity is the production of clothing and footwear. In addition, the industrial sector includes the processing of agricultural products, including rice, and the production of cement. In Phnom Penh there is extensive construction activity, especially as a result of investments from China, Hong Kong, the US and the Netherlands. Since 1979, three quarters of industrial investment has been made in Phnom Penh.

Cambodia has limited mineral resources, and only phosphate and gemstones are mined.

Most of the energy has traditionally come from wood, but after 2011 there has been a strong upswing in domestic energy production. Cambodia has great hydropower potential, and after extensive power development, hydropower production increased from 51 GWh in 2011 to 2,000 GWh in 2015. Several new coal-fired power plants were also built, which in 2015 produced 2,376 GWh. Despite increased self-production of electrical energy, the country is still dependent on imports. In 2016, the country imported 1.6 TWh of a total energy supply of 7.2 TWh.


Tourism has grown strongly since 2008, when 2.1 million foreign tourists visited the country. Five years later, that number had doubled. From 2013 to 2018, the number of foreign tourists increased from 4.2 to 6.2 million. Most tourists came in 2018 from China (1.2 million), Vietnam (800,000), Laos (460,000), Thailand (382,000), South Korea (302,000) and the United States (250,000). 1.9 million foreign tourists arrived at Siem Rap International Airport, which is the nearest airport to the country’s main tourist center Angkor. 1.9 million foreign tourists arrived at Phnom Penh International Airport.

Transport and Communications

Most of Cambodia’s transport system was destroyed during the civil war. The country has a railway network of 612 kilometers, but only the line between Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville at 264 kilometers is operational. The road network also has its center in Phnom Penh, but is poorly maintained. In total, the road network amounts to 47,263 kilometers, of which 12,239 kilometers have a fixed tire.

Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and Sihanoukville have international airports. In practice, maritime traffic on the rivers and lake Tônlé-Sap is the most important domestic means of communication and covers a total of 3700 kilometers. Phnom Penh River Port is located 330 kilometers from the mouth of the Mekong in the South China Sea, and can be reached by vessels of a maximum of 5,000 deadweight tonnes (dwt). Sihanoukville on the Gulf of Thailand is the country’s most important deepwater port with oil, container and cruise ship terminals.

Foreign Trade

According to Countryaah, Cambodia’s exports amounted to USD 11.42 billion in 2017, while imports amounted to USD 14.37 billion. As a result, the country had a deficit in the foreign trade balance of USD 2.95 billion.

The five main export markets are:

  • United States (21.5 percent)
  • United Kingdom(9.0 percent)
  • Germany(8.6 percent)
  • Japan(7.6 percent)
  • China (6.9 percent)

The main export products are clothing, footwear, timber, rice, rubber, fish and tobacco. Clothing and footwear accounted for 68 percent of total exports in 2017.

The four main import markets are:

  • China (34.1 percent)
  • Singapore(12.8 percent)
  • Thailand (12.4 percent)
  • Vietnam (10.1 percent)

The main import products are petroleum products, raw materials for the clothing and footwear industry, building materials, electronics, motor vehicles, cigarettes and pharmaceutical products.