Africa

Somalia Literature

Poetry occupies an important place in Somali life. The nomads of the North have a richer oral literature than the peasants of the South, with poems with strict rules, characterized by alliteration, metaphors and allegories, intended for recitation, sometimes with the accompaniment of drum and hand clapping. The reciters memorize them and thus pass them on to future generations. The classification of these poems is based on the tone on which they are sung or the rhythm of the words. The noblest genres are three: Gabahi, which generally deals with serious or philosophical themes, with satirical elements, in long verse and calm tone, and is used in meetings or assemblies, today also for propaganda purposes; Jüfto, faster and without musical accompaniment, which deals with serious or sad subjects and contains admonitions or reproaches; Gearaar, celebratory and erotic lyrics, which were once sung in the saddle and have short and excited verses. In Southern Somalia there are the Manso, love songs without fixed rules, and the Širib, sentimental or nostalgic poems. Another genre still in vogue are the Buraambur, short poems with accompaniment, composed by women and for women. In the sec. XIX hagiographic works appearon characters of Islam. The best known poets are Raage Ugaas, ML Jadeer, AA Dubbe, S. Axmed. The period of civil strife and external wars (1899-1944) preferably deals with war themes in poetic works, often of propaganda; we remember SMC Xasan (1856-1921), I. Mire (1862-1951), C. Aadan, F. Naddiff, G. Shinni, S. Qamaan, Q. Bulxan, C. Xirsi, C. Dhuux.

However, there is also a more intimate and personal poem, such as the great poem of love by C. Bowndheri (d. 1941) and the verses of S. Carrabey (d. 1950). In the postwar period (1944-69, year of the revolution) new genres appear, such as Heello, short lyric compositions, with accompaniment, which sing love in a hedonistic or ecstatic form and were created, in 1945, by Abdi Deeqsi; they Hees, popular poetry of urban communities, influenced by Europeanized Arabic music, which deals with political issues in a simple and direct way. Both of these genres are widely broadcast on the radio. A new national awareness appears in the lyrics of XA Faarax (b. 1928), C. Qarshe (b. 1924) and I. Xirsi (b. 1942). Theater is also affirmed which, born in the 1930s in an unwritten form and as pure popular entertainment, is charged with social cues and adapts to Western scenic schemes, while maintaining the alliterative lines of the poetic tradition. The main representative is HS Moumin (b. 1930). Among the poets of this period, the most famous is CX Xirsi (1913-1976), author of vibrant lyrics against social injustices. The seventies present themselves as a ‘ era of transition from an oral literature to a written production, with new genres, derived from Western models, such as the novel, in which FMJ Cawl (b.1937) and SJ Axmed are distinguished, or the novella (Y. Axmed, MD Afrax, AF Cali, CS Xuseen), which express new conceptions of life, and the historical-political theater of AF Cali (b.1947) and C. Xirsi (1913-1976) and others, and the African cultural heritage to which you intend to renounce. Literature in European languages ​​is underdeveloped. Noteworthy are the works of the poet W. Syaad (b. 1930), whose lyrics are written in French and English, and of MS Samantar (b. 1928) who writes in Italian and French.

According to allunitconverters, the major novelist is however 1937 and SJ Axmed, or the novella (Y. Axmed, MD Afrax, AF Cali, CS Xuseen), which express new conceptions of life, and the historical-political theater of AF Cali (b.1947) and C. Xirsi ( 1913-1976) and others, and the African cultural heritage which is not intended to renounce. Literature in European languages ​​is underdeveloped. Noteworthy are the works of the poet W. Syaad (b. 1930), whose lyrics are written in French and English, and of MS Samantar (b. 1928) who writes in Italian and French. The major novelist is however 1937) and SJ Axmed, or the novella (Y. Axmed, MD Afrax, AF Cali, CS Xuseen), which express new conceptions of life, and the historical-political theater of AF Cali (b.1947) and C. Xirsi ( 1913-1976) and others, and the African cultural heritage which is not intended to renounce. Literature in European languages ​​is underdeveloped. Noteworthy are the works of the poet W. Syaad (b. 1930), whose lyrics are written in French and English, and of MS Samantar (b. 1928) who writes in Italian and French. The major novelist is however Literature in European languages ​​is underdeveloped. Noteworthy are the works of the poet W. Syaad (b. 1930), whose lyrics are written in French and English, and of MS Samantar (b. 1928) who writes in Italian and French. The major novelist is however Literature in European languages ​​is underdeveloped. Noteworthy are the works of the poet W. Syaad (b. 1930), whose lyrics are written in French and English, and of MS Samantar (b. 1928) who writes in Italian and French. The major novelist is however Nuruddin Farah (b.1945), an internationally renowned English-language writer who offers a powerful and incisive vision of his country’s life and problems.

Somalia Literature