Nicaragua Geography and Climate

By | May 1, 2022

Nicaragua is the largest country in Central America, bordering Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The country has coastline to the Caribbean Sea as well as to the Pacific Ocean. During the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonized the region. Nicaragua gained its independence from Spain in 1821 and since then the country has gone through periods of political unrest. Today, the country is a democratic republic and in recent years there has been political stability and economic growth. In 2012, a population of about 6 million was reached, and the population consists of Indians from the Mosquito coast, Europeans, Africans, Asians and people from the Middle East. The capital is Managua and is the third largest city in the country. The official language is Spanish, but there are also other languages ​​such as the Native American languages ​​used by various Native American tribes.

Because it has such a large mix of culture and tradition, the country has great diversity in art and literature. Famous Nicaraguan poets and writers include Rubén Darío, Pablo Antonio Cuadra, and Ernesto Cardenal. Nicaragua is also on its way to becoming a very popular tourist destination, which depends a lot on the beautiful tropical climate and on exciting environments with active volcanoes.

Geography and climate

The country’s geography consists of three main zones, namely the lowlands of the Pacific Ocean, the central highlands and the lowlands of the Caribbean Sea. On the Pacific side, there are the two largest freshwater lakes in Central America, Lake Nicaragua and Lake Managua. Around these lakes there are fertile plains with soil enriched by ash from nearby volcanoes. Lake Nicaragua is Central America’s largest source of freshwater and here is the unusual freshwater shark that has been named the Nicaragua shark. Nicaragua has natural resources in the form of silver, gold, copper, zinc, lead, tungsten, timber and fish. In the parts of the country that are at lower altitudes, the climate is tropical and when you reach higher altitudes, it becomes cooler and drier.

According to, Nicaragua is often hit by natural disasters in the form of earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and severe storms. There are also problems with polluted water and deforestation leading to soil erosion. One fifth of the country has been set aside as protected areas and nature reserves.


Today, tourism is very important to Nicaragua’s economy and this is an area that is only growing. Many tourists come from the United States and some stay and settle in Nicaragua. You also get visits from other parts of Central America, from South America and from Europe. Popular tourist destinations are Granada León, Masaya, Rivas, San Juan del Sur and the Corn Islands. The concept of ecotourism is also being developed, which attracts many to come and visit the country. Of course, many also come to enjoy the beaches which are well suited for surfing.

Nicaragua Geography