India Political Systems and Social Conditions

By | March 17, 2023

India’s independence was a long and arduous process. It began with the Indian National Congress, which was formed in 1885 by a group of Indian political activists. This group sought to increase the voice of Indians in their own country and eventually lead to independence from British rule. The leader of this group was Mahatma Gandhi, who is widely considered the father of the Indian nation. He introduced a policy of non-violent civil disobedience and peaceful protests that eventually led to India’s independence in 1947. The British Raj had been ruling India since 1858, and its rule had become increasingly unpopular amongst Indians due to its oppressive policies and racial discrimination. This dissatisfaction led to an increase in civil unrest as well as increased calls for independence from British rule. In response, the British government declared India an independent nation on August 15th, 1947, ending over 200 years of colonial rule. After independence, India became a federal republic with a democratic government based on universal adult suffrage and universal freedom of religion. This new nation quickly established itself as one of the most powerful countries in Asia with its growing economy and vast population. India has since become one of the world’s leading democracies, playing an important role on the international stage both economically and politically.

Political Systems in India

According to Thesciencetutor, India is a federal parliamentary democracy with a multi-party system. The Constitution of India is the supreme law of the country, providing for a parliamentary system of government with an elected president as its head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government and exercises most executive power. Legislative power is vested in both the federal government and state governments, with the Parliament having exclusive authority to legislate on matters falling within its purview. India has 28 states and 8 union territories, each administered by an elected government responsible to its citizens. There are three levels of government in India: central, state, and local.

The President is elected by an electoral college comprising members of the Parliament (upper and lower houses) and representatives from each state legislature for a five-year term. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President based on the majority party or coalition in Parliament with approval from both houses. India’s central government consists of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The executive branch includes the President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers (headed by Prime Minister), Secretaries (headed by Cabinet Secretary), departments or ministries headed by Ministers or Secretaries respectively; all appointed by President on advice from Prime Minister. The legislative branch consists of two houses—the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) and Lok Sabha (Lower House). Members are directly elected from each state/union territory according to their population size through universal adult suffrage for five-year terms. The judicial branch comprises Supreme Court which is highest court in land; High Courts at state level; District Courts at district level; Subordinate Courts at taluka/tehsil levels; all exercising powers as per Indian Penal Code 1860 & Criminal Procedure Code 1973 & other applicable laws enacted by Parliament & respective State Legislatures from time to time.

Judiciary System in India

According to Topb2bwebsites, the judiciary system in India is based on the principle of the rule of law. It is a federal system, with the Supreme Court at its apex. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority in the country and has both original and appellate jurisdiction. Below it are High Courts at the state level, followed by District Courts and subordinate courts. All these courts are established by law and have powers to decide cases based on civil, criminal, and constitutional matters.

Judges of all courts, except that of the Supreme Court, are appointed by the President of India on advice from the Chief Justice of India (CJI). The CJI also advises on appointment of judges to higher courts such as High Courts. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction over all other courts in India. It can also transfer cases from one court to another if it deems fit for a fair trial or if it violates any fundamental right guaranteed under Article 21 of Indian Constitution.

The Supreme Court also has advisory jurisdiction which means that it can give advice to government or legislature on matters that are not pending before any court but should be decided upon due to their importance or wide implications. Apart from this, there are various other specialized courts such as Family Courts which deal with family related disputes like divorce or child custody; Consumer Courts which deal with consumer disputes; Tax Tribunals which deal with taxation related issues; Labour Courts that deal with labour related issues like wages or working conditions etc.

Social Conditions in India

India is a diverse country with many different social conditions. In some areas, the population is extremely poor and living in abject poverty. The majority of the population lives on less than two dollars a day and struggles to access basic necessities such as food, clean water, healthcare, and education. In rural areas, access to these resources is difficult due to inadequate infrastructure and lack of government support. The caste system is still prevalent in India and continues to be one of the biggest social issues facing the country. This system creates divisions within society which leads to discrimination against certain groups. Additionally, gender inequality remains a major issue in India where women are often denied basic rights such as education and employment opportunities. Despite the negative aspects of Indian society, there have been some positive developments in recent years including improved access to healthcare and education for all members of society regardless of their gender or caste.

India Political Systems