In Europe, French-language literature has had an important development in Belgium (➔ # 10132;) and Switzerland (➔ # 10132;). On the other hand, the Francophone production of Val d’Aosta is of a minor and somewhat conventional nature, expressed in the nineteenth century in a Lamartinian or Parnassian-style poem and in the Romans nationaux, of republican and anti-militarist inspiration; in the 20th century, despite the growing dominance of Italian culture, the poet LM Manzetti, epigone of symbolism, and P. Lexert, a writer alien to the regionalistic and clerical tendencies of the Valle d’Aosta culture, prevailed.
A belated affirmation also had the French-language literature of Luxembourg, whose most significant authors, after the novelist France Thyes (19th century), were the poets M. Noppeney and P. Palgen, the novelists N. Ries, founder of the Cahiers luxembourgeois, and WE Gilson; subsequently, the poet E. Dune and the novelists J. Leydenbach and A. Borschette. In America, in addition to a literary movement in Louisiana, now extinct, French-speaking writers are present in Canada(➔ # 10132;), and in the Caribbean where, before being opposed by the rehabilitation of Creole, French-speaking literature has become the spokesperson of Caribbean cultural identity (➔ Haiti). In the Lesser Antilles e nella Guiana, il legame con i modelli culturali francesi è sopravvissuto più a lungo: ne sono prova il romanzo Batouala (1920) di R. Maran ; la rivista Lucioles di G. Gratiant; il manifesto d’ispirazione surrealista e marxista Légitime défense, diffuso a Parigi (1932) da É. Léro, R. Ménil, J. Monnerot; e, soprattutto, il movimento della negritudine (➔ #10132;) promosso intorno alla rivista L’Étudiant noir (1934-40) dal guianese L. Damas, dal martinicano A. Césaire e dal senegalese L.S. Senghor, che lo diffusero nella rivista Présence Africaine (1947).
According to physicscat.com, the Isle of Réunion, which was the birthplace of the poets A. Bertin (18th century), E. de Parny (18th -19th century), remains closely anchored to the cultural models of France, on the other hand, in the Indian Ocean.), C.-M.-R. Leconte de Lisle (19th century), L. Dierx (19th -20th century) and where a rich narrative production was also established, among whose exponents we must remember at least J.-F. Sam-Long and the writers D. Roméis and J. Brézé. In Mauritius, the search for a national literature, opposed by L. Masson with the choice of exile, he established himself with the novelists RE Hart and M. Cabon, and with the poets M. de Chazal, cantor of the mythical origins of the island, and É. Maunick, who claims the values of hybridisation by combining them with negritude. ● In Asia, there is a literary production in French in the area of former French Indochina and in the Middle East, in Lebanon (➔ # 10132;). The impact of French literature in Egypt should also be noted: in the twentieth century, before the advent of G. Nasser, the literary landscape was dominated by the social novel and surrealism which, introduced by G. Hénein in the magazine La part du sable, influenced E. Jabès and J. Mansour (for other French-speaking North African writers ➔ al-Maghrib).