Eritrea Business

Eritrea Business

According to abbreviationfinder, ER is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Eritrea.

Several centuries before our time, the Semitic cattle herders, who had emigrated from Saudi Arabia to Mesopotamia, arrived on the shores of the Red Sea. The area was subjugated to the Ethiopian kingdom but maintained widespread self-government until the Ottomans occupied the region in the 16th century. During the period between the 17th and 19th centuries, the region was the subject of conflicts between Ethiopians, Ottomans, the king of Tigray, Egypt and Italy. The Wichale Treaty, signed between Italy and Menilek II of Ethiopia in 1890, recognized the Italian’s possessions by the Red Sea. The colony, founded on January 1, 1890, was christened Eritrea, after the Latin name for the Red Sea, Mare Erythraerum.

According to countryaah, Eritrea became the most important base of the Italians during the invasion of Ethiopia in 1896 and in 1935-1936. Italian supremacy continued until 1941, when the area was left to the British.

About 1 million Eritreans lived in the colony and the national unity was reinforced by the fight against the Italians. On December 2, 1950, the United Nations decided that Eritrea should be transformed into a federal state under Ethiopia. The resolution was a rejection of Ethiopia’s demand for an annexation, but did not establish a plan for the transition to independence.

In Eritrea, a National Assembly was elected, which enjoyed some independence until 1962, when Haile Selassie forced a group of Eritreaean MPs to adopt an integration of the country into Ethiopia. This decision was rejected by the nationalists, who immediately began an uprising.

The Eritrean Liberation Front, ELF, was founded in Cairo in 1958 by journalist and trade union leader Idris Mohamed Adem and started the armed resistance struggle in September 1961. In 1966, the organization split due to the influence of a more radical group; of which arose Eritrea’s popular Liberation Front, EPLF. Following Sudan’s mediation attempt in 1974, both groups decided to establish a coordination body and in subsequent years the EPLF took on the task of leading the resistance struggle.

Under Mengistu Haile Mariam’s rule in Ethiopia, the Eritreans did not consider Ethiopia’s affiliation with the Socialist bloc as sufficient justification for the laying down of arms. The war on Ethiopia cost thousands of lives.

An advisory council cooperates with the head of government and the Assembly to promote the progress of Eritrea. In the administration of justice the validity of the various rights in force in the country is recognized. The judicial system, which until then had remained essentially that of the Italian administration, was reformed by the British one with a proclamation of September 1952, then adopted by the Eritrean Assembly, and then modified again with a law of 1953. It, while unifying the courts in a single simplified system, he tried to alter the original spheres of competence as little as possible. The highest organ of the judiciary is the supreme court, with unlimited jurisdiction, divided into three sections, competent to judge in matters of commercial law, in matters concerning the state and municipal administrations, and to judge the head of government for acts harmful to the constitution and the judges for failures committed in the exercise of their functions (uncertain whether he has any competence in ordinary criminal matters); finally, it functions as a court of appeal. Then come the district courts, competent in the first instance in civil and criminal matters, the courts of the “magistrates” (represented by Senior Divisional and Divisional Officials in charge of territorial districts) with limited criminal jurisdiction; the “conciliators” courts with jurisdiction in minor civil matters. In all these courts, as a rule, the court consists of only one judge. However, with the law of May 17, 1956, the traditional jurisdiction was returned to the local civil authorities (district heads and similar) in matters of customary law. The rules of procedure are contained in the various legislative provisions on the subject. In several cases, Italian law still applies (criminal code, commercial code, code of law and civil procedure); but in 1957 the representative of the Ethiopian sovereign invited Eritrea to adopt the recently enacted Ethiopian penal code.

In September 1952, a federal judicial system was also created, which attributed federal jurisdiction to all Ethiopian courts and established a federal high court, residing in Asmara, which alone, effectively, deals with issues concerning the federation and judges on the basis of the laws of the Ethiopia, exhaustively extended to Eritrea or for this issued by the Ethiopian legislative power in federal function. Above this court, on appeal, there is the court of the nügusä ??? nägä ??? st (i.e. the sovereign) which has the name of federal supreme court. The discussion, then, of the other matters falling within the competence of the federation entailed the establishment of specific Ethiopian federal offices or bodies in Eritrea, including the subsidiary of the State Bank of Ethiopia, alone authorized to carry out foreign exchange transactions; military commands and units (the ports of Massawa and Assab are under military jurisdiction); Post Offices, Customs Offices, Crown Representation Offices, etc.

To the legislative power of the federal government the Eritrea participates with representatives in proportion to its population. A number of Eritrean members, equal to that of Ethiopians, make up the imperial Federal Council, nominated by the king, which, in accordance with federal law, must advise on matters of federal interest. The participation of Eritreans is also foreseen, in the federal law, for the executive and judicial power of the federation (moreover, not a few Eritreans, thanks to their experience and preparation, are part of the Ethiopian public administration).

 

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