Category: Oceania

There are other lapitas sites in Tonga, New Caledonia and Samoa. Over the centuries, however, the Lapitas’ knowledge of pottery was lost.

The ruins of a former huge missionary church on the island of Aneityum are worth seeing. Up to five hundred believers could find a place in the church.

A must-see is the Vanuatus Cultural Center in Port Vila. There you can rarely see finds from the South Pacific and get an excellent overview of the geology, history and customs of Vanuatu.

Nature lovers will certainly get their money’s worth in Vanuatu. The Vatthe Conservation Area National Park on Espiritu Santo Island is an absolute must. The active volcano Mt. Yasur on Tanna offers an impressive natural spectacle, especially at night. The inactive volcanoes Mt. Benbow and Mt. Marum on the island of Ambrym are also worth a visit. The landscape there alone is worth a look.

The thousand-year-old kauri trees on the island of Erromango are impressive. Despite the previous overexploitation, some of these trees have been preserved to this day.

The island of Gaua has a waterfall worth seeing, the water of which plunges from a height of over one hundred and twenty meters into the depth.

Nahgoi is one of the most popular sports on the island. This is diving on the islands of Pentecote and Malakula. As an inexperienced tourist, you should be content to watch.

Swimming with the manatees on Epi Island in Lamen Bay can certainly be an exciting experience.

Diving and snorkeling is also possible in Vanuatu. You can only explore the local underwater world or wreck diving here. A visit to the SS President Collidge in Espiritu Santo, which is lying on the ground, is definitely worthwhile.

Other possible sports on Vanuatu are fishing, deep sea nailing, surfing, sailing or windsurfing. For more information about the continent of Oceania, please check computergees.com.

Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Great Barrier Reef, Australia

The Great Barrier Reef is a unique integral living organism included in the World Heritage List. Its length exceeds 2000 km. Situated along the reef, the tropical islands attract countless tourists from all over the world with their unique beauty: dazzling corals and coral reefs, white sand beaches, amazing marine life and great outdoor activities.

The barrier reef is a place of pilgrimage for diving fans from all over the world.

The climate on the Great Barrier Reef is hot subequatorial with almost constant temperature throughout the year. As elsewhere in the tropics, the air is humid, but this humidity is more easily tolerated than in Thailand or other countries of Southeast Asia.

The best time to visit is from May to October. At this time, swimming is allowed on the beaches, the humidity decreases, and the Great Barrier Reef replaces the Gold Coast, becoming the main vacation spot. However, if you are going to the Great Barrier Reef not for the sake of lying on the beach and swimming in the sea, but in order to look at the lush tropical greenery, natives, waterfalls, visit Cairns, then you can safely go there at any time of the year.

Swimming on the Great Barrier Reef, located thirty kilometers from the coast, is allowed all year round, and the water on the reef is so clear that visibility under water exceeds 30 m. North Beaches area (Palm Cove, Trinity Beach) or in Port Douglas, where swimming is allowed from May to October. The water in the ocean in the vicinity of Cairns all year round resembles fresh milk, cooling only after the rains.

Attractions

The Great Barrier Reef is the eighth wonder of the world and the largest coral reef in the world. It includes 2,500 reefs – from the smallest, less than a hectare in area, to large ones, occupying 100 sq. km. These reefs form 71 coral islands. In some places, corals are separated by straits that do not exceed 200 m in width. Most reefs are underwater, some appear on the surface only at low tide. The reefs form an opal-colored chain among the many shades of blue of the ocean. Some reefs are surrounded by white coral islands with lush vegetation in which birds nest. There are even islands that no man has set foot on.

In the north, the width of the Great Barrier Reef is 80 km. It is a giant aquarium. Nothing that grows above the water can match the beauty of underwater coral gardens: purples, pinks, lavenders, lilacs, greens, browns, blues and yellows coexist and shimmer.

According to the very intricate boundaries of the channels, the Great Barrier Reef can be divided into three sectors: the northern one, where the depth does not exceed 35 m, the central one, where it is about 55 m, and the southern one, where the depth reaches 145 m.

The Great Barrier Reef began to form 10,000 years ago and continues to evolve. Billions of coral polyps (living organisms no bigger than a pinhead) form the backbone of the Barrier Reef. Sea anemones, “reef flowers”, up to 60 cm in diameter, extend their colored tentacles in the direction of the current and catch larger prey falling into this trap. There is an amazing colorful world of tropical fish, mysterious caves, coral formations and magnificent plants.

The intricate reef system that forms several coral islands between Brisbane and Cairns has become a center of ecology and tourism. There are over 400 species of coral and 1,500 species of tropical fish – a diver’s dream.

Attention! From late October to early May, the waters of the northern coast are flooded with poisonous jellyfish. These jellyfish are about 10 cm long, with long tentacles, transparent, and therefore almost invisible underwater. Warning signs have been installed on dangerous beaches. Some beaches have special fenced areas. Resorts on islands in the open sea and the Great Barrier Reef are safe all year round. Breeding in the mouths of rivers, jellyfish are mainly concentrated near the banks.

Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Fiji Overview

Fiji Overview

(Republic of the Fiji Islands; Kai Vakarairai ni Fiji). State of Oceania (18,272 km²). Capital: Suva. Population: 881,065 (2013 estimate). Language: English, Fijian, Hindī (official). Religion: Christians 64.4%, Hindus 27.9%, Muslims 6.3%, Sikhs 0.3%, others 1.1%. Monetary unit: Fijian dollar (100 cents). Human Development Index: 0.724 (88th place). Borders: Pacific Ocean. Member of: Commonwealth, UN, PC and WTO, EU associate.

THE STATE

A former British colony since 1970, Fiji is an independent presidential republic within the Commonwealth from which it has been expelled on repeated occasions (1987 and 2000) due to the presence of racist articles in the Constitution. According to the new text, approved in 1998 (and in which the discriminatory rules were abolished), the executive power is exercised by the President of the Republic, appointed for 5 five years by the Grand Council of Chiefs (made up of 70 Melanesian Fijian tribal chiefs); the legislative power belongs to the bicameral Parliament (in office for 5 years), made up of the House of Representatives (whose members are elected) and the Senate (whose members are appointed by the head of state and other government officials). The judicial system is based on the British Common Law; justice is administered in first and second instance Courts, Courts of Appeal and Supreme Court. The death penalty was abolished for ordinary crimes. The armed forces of the country are made up of a land and a sea corps and the military service is carried out on a voluntary basis from the age of 18. As for the school system, education in Fiji is not compulsory, but the illiteracy rate in the country is quite low (7.1% in 2004). Primary school and secondary school last 6 years, and start at 6 and 12 years of age. According to andyeducation, higher education is taught at colleges and at the South Pacific University headquarters, which opened in 1968.

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

When the British colonization began, the population of the archipelago, estimated at around 200,000 units, was made up almost entirely of Fijians, who came in remote times from Melanesia. Decimated in contact with the whites by very serious epidemics, the residents of Fiji were reduced to approx. 80,000 individuals; For the work in the sugar cane plantations, large contingents of Indians were brought in, who, thanks to a very high rate of natural growth, ended up prevailing numerically, even if economic power is generally in the hands of the Fijians. Only since the 1980s, following the ethnic clashes that broke out on the islands, the coups and the emigration of part of the Indian component, did the Fijians return to being the majority group (56.8% against 37, 5% of Indians). There are also minorities of Europeans and Chinese, who mainly reside in urban areas and engage in commercial activities. The population density is 48 residents / km², but most of the population lives in Viti Levu, the rest mostly in Vanua Levu, gathering in the more intensely cultivated coastal strips; maximum center is the capital, Suva, whose urban agglomeration welcomes more than a quarter of the residents of Fiji. The city is one of the major cities of the oceanic islands and, in addition to hosting many commercial and industrial enterprises, it exercises an important cultural function as the seat of the University of the South Pacific.

ECONOMY

The country’s economy is essentially based on agriculture, in particular on the cultivation of sugar cane, the main export product. Its production, which increased during the twentieth century, subsequently decreased due to the climatic conditions and the situation of the international market, stabilizing in 2005. Coconut palm, which supplies copra and coconut oil, bananas, are also grown. rice, sweet potatoes, cassava, taro, yam and corn. In recent years, the separation between commercial agriculture, previously practiced mainly by the Indian population, and subsistence agriculture, mainly in the hands of the indigenous population, has been attenuated; the Fijians are present today in the two sectors in equal percentage. § Food production also includes small quantities of poultry, cattle, goats and pigs; fishing, on the other hand, has seen an increase which allows it to satisfy internal demand and feed a modest flow of exports. § Forests represent a fair amount of wealth, providing a quantity of wood sufficient for internal needs; Finally, discrete quantities of gold, silver, copper and manganese are extracted from the subsoil. § L’ industry mainly concerns the processing of local agricultural products and includes sugar factories, oil mills, tobacco factories, breweries, non-alcoholic beverage factories, soap factories, etc. In addition to increasing agriculture, the government has set out to develop the industry, in particular that of clothing, through some tax breaks. The industrialization process was also favored by the availability of hydroelectric energy, which made it possible to reduce imports of hydrocarbons. § Trade is of considerable importance, fueled by the passage of products from the Japanese industry to free port. § Finally, tourism is an important function in the national economy, which represents the second source of currency income: in addition to the beautiful landscapes and a very mild climate, the country can count on its favorable geographical position, being located on the major routes between Australia, New Zealand and North America; in 2005 almost half a million visitors were registered; however, following the regime change, tourism has experienced a significant decline. In 2008, Fiji’s GDP was US $ 3,590 million, while GDP per capita of US $ 4,095. The trade balance, however, was passive: exports, represented by sugar, coconut oil, molasses, gold, timber, fish, clothing, covered about 60% of imports in which, alongside food and fuel, prevail. machinery and industrial products. Negative effects on the economy have had both the ten-year exit from the Commonwealth (1987-97) and the continuing political instability, which have reduced the contribution of currency deriving from tourism. The exchange takes place mainly with Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, Japan, Singapore and the United States. § The road system is well developed, and the rail network is 597 km. There are three main ports, that of Suva, that of Lautoka and that of Levuka; Nadi International Airport, approx.

Fiji Overview

World Bank Business

World Bank Business

The business

The main purpose of the World Bank is to promote sustainable economic growth in order to reduce poverty in the recipient countries. This is done by offering loans and guarantees, as well as providing support in the form of analysis and advice. The bank is the world’s largest financier of development aid.

Projects supported by the World Bank can focus on, for example, education, health care, road construction, environmental protection or reforms of the financial sector and public administration.

The Bank works closely with the governments of the recipient countries, but also with non-governmental organizations and with other international bodies such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the various UN specialized agencies and regional development banks.

The World Bank’s support for a country is based on an analysis of the causes of poverty in a recipient country. Based on the analysis, the World Bank then, in dialogue with the country’s government, develops a tailor-made assistance program that is described in so-called Country Assistance Strategies (CAS). The help can consist of financial support, advice or technical assistance.

Investments are made on the basis of achieving growth by building competence among representatives of the state and government, creating a functioning rule of law, developing stable financial systems and fighting corruption.

According to six strategic goals developed by Robert Zoellick, World Bank Governor 2007-2012, the work will focus on helping the poorest countries (mainly in Africa), preventing conflicts and supporting reconstruction in failing states, supporting middle-income countries as a majority of the world’s poor live there., safeguard public and public goods (not least the environment), expand cooperation with the Arab world, which is found to be poorly integrated into the world economy, and provide expertise and expertise.

Lending

The World Bank lends money to long-term development projects aimed at fighting poverty and creating growth. The bank is involved in approximately 1,700 projects in developing countries.

Middle-income countries can apply for loans from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which is part of the World Bank. Middle-income countries include countries with a national income per capita between about $ 1,000 and $ 12,000 a year. The recipient country pays interest on the loan, which is repaid within 15 years. The first five years are usually free of charge. Projects must have a good chance of becoming profitable.

The International Development Fund (IDA), which is also part of the World Bank, provides long-term loans to the poorest countries. The loans are given on very favorable terms, which means that they are virtually exempt from interest and have a long repayment period, between 20 and 40 years, of which the first 10 years are amortization-free. However, the projects financed by IDA must also be considered commercially profitable. Thus, IDA’s lending deviates from pure development assistance activities.

Some countries, especially small island states, which have higher incomes may also borrow from IDA as their credit rating is too low for IBRD loans. Other countries have such a low income that they qualify for IDA loans, but still a high enough credit rating to be able to borrow from the IBRD as well. The latter include India, Pakistan and Indonesia. A total of 78 countries qualified for IDA credits in 2009.

To obtain a loan through IDA, a country must develop a credible strategy for combating poverty, a so-called PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper; see also IMF: Progress). At the same time, IDA offers a special loan credit PRSC (Poverty Reduction Support Credit) which is given in parallel with the IMF’s so-called PRGF loan (see IMF: Progress) and which, like the latter, will support various structural and social reforms.

In 2008, the World Bank lent a total of $ 24.7 billion to 298 projects. The IBRD accounted for 13.5 billion, of which a third went to Latin America and the Caribbean and almost as much to countries in Europe and Central Asia. Of the $ 11.2 billion that IDA portioned out, just under a third was grants and the rest loans. Half of IDA’s money went to sub-Saharan Africa and a quarter to southern Asia.

External cooperation

According to commit4fitness, the World Bank works closely with the IMF, not least with regard to the HIPC initiative (see Progress). A 2007 report stated that there is room to strengthen cooperation, not least to better manage crisis situations, coordinate technical assistance and clarify the roles of the two institutions in the work of developing financial sectors. The Bank also works closely with a number of other UN agencies that also work to combat poverty in the world.

In addition to lending from the IBRD and IDA budgets, the World Bank also manages trust funds for assistance to particularly high-priority development needs. These funds are financed outside the World Bank’s own resources, mostly through contributions from about ten countries. The funds include multi-billion initiatives such as HIPC and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFTAM), as well as a wide range of smaller and more specialized projects.

The World Bank contributes to about 170 regional and global partnerships, often with similar purposes. In 2000, the Bank initiated an international collaboration between educational institutes in developing countries, the Global Development Learning Network. Co-financing of specific projects also occurs.

Technical assistance and research

An increasingly important part of the World Bank’s activities is technical assistance. This is given, among other things, in the form of the economic country analyzes that form the basis for designing aid programs for the recipient countries. Often, certain parts of the loans from IBRD and IDA are set aside for counseling, training and other forms of knowledge transfer. Technical assistance is also provided in the form of training in financial management and project analysis for officials from the member states’ public administrations.

The World Bank’s research forms the basis for how its work is designed and how the Bank prioritises the areas to be supported. The bank conducts a number of different research projects in different subject areas and regions. In addition to country analyzes, regional analyzes are produced each year that address various themes, such as regional trade, income distribution and work to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

In addition, the bank issues several reports. One example is the annual World Development Report, which analyzes obstacles to development in the world and provides recommendations for how to bridge them. Another annual report is Poverty Reduction and the World Bank, which examines the effects of the World Bank’s efforts to reduce poverty.

World Bank Business

Questions and Answers about the Crocodile

Questions and Answers about the Crocodile

Is the crocodile a dinosaur?

The crocodile is the terrestrial animal that has lived the longest on this earth. It has lived on earth for over 200 million years, and in the last 80 million years, there has not been much change in the evolution of the crocodile. Therefore, there have been many discussions about whether the crocodile is a dinosaur? It’s not.

Admittedly, the crocodile is an animal that lived while the dinosaurs lived for approx. 100 million to 65 million years ago. Back then, there was a species that was much larger than we know it today. One speaks of the existence of the so-called supercro that posed a threat to the dinosaurs. It was a sea warrior. The crocodile is not a dinosaur as it is physically different from the dinosaurs. A special feature of dinosaurs is that they can walk upright. The bones of the dinosaurs go vertically down from the body, enabling them to stand upright. However, it is not a trait the crocodile shares with the dinosaurs, which is why the crocodile is not a dinosaur.

Are crocodiles crying, crocodile tears?

It is an increasingly old and widely used term. It has a character of falsehood when people cry crocodile tears. The term itself is based on an ancient myth from the Middle Ages back in the 15th century about. The myth is based on crocodiles crying like children to lure people close enough to eat them.

However, research shows that crocodiles really cry. They are equipped with a tear duct just like the human and the sea turtle. This has been observed in i.a. the saltwater crocodile. It is believed that the crocodile cries to excrete sodium (salt) after eating its food in the water. Other researchers believe that it cries when it eats food – that a kind of liquid is discharged from the eye during its dinner.

Does the crocodile go to kindergarten?

Not all crocodiles are equally social, but crocodiles of the species Nile crocodile, have a completely unique form of breeding care to protect its young.

Once the eggs with the chicks have hatched, the mother transports all her chicks down to the river. The young crawl up the female’s back or nose to be transported down to the river to get into some kind of nursery. Here the other females help to protect their common offspring. From here it is possible for the mother to swim out for food and feed for the cubs while they are being cared for. After a month, the cubs have learned to fend for themselves by swimming, and finding insects they can eat. Thus, they no longer need to be in kindergarten. Only when the young are 7 years old are they big enough to no longer be in danger of being eaten by other predators.

Can crocodiles surf?

Yes, they can, and it’s something they do to a great extent.

Since crocodiles have not had the great development in the last millions of years, there has been great wonder at how crocodiles have spread. They are amazing swimmers at short distances, while long distances become too unbearable. The now deceased Steve Irwin and his research team have found out that crocodiles are super good for body surfing from island to island. Crocodiles are even waiting for the water conditions to be good enough for them to float with the current, and thus travel longer distances in the water. It was especially at distances over 10 km that the crocodiles began to utilize the flowing surface force of the tide to achieve longer distances in the water.

Herds

They are among the world’s most social reptiles in the world. The Nile crocodile, which you can experience when you travel to Sri Lanka , is one of the crocodile species that can be found hunting in droves. The males work to that extent to protect their territory from others. They patrol and protect their coastlines. If they have made a female pregnant, they help to take care of the eggs until they have hatched. A male can easily mate 20 times during his sexually mature life, and it certainly does not have to be with the same female. The female may also find a way to mate with other males to have more young.

Family

There are 14 very characteristic species of crocodiles, of which the Nile crocodile, the saltwater crocodile and the dwarf crocodile are the best known. It is very continental and country specific where the different species live. In addition to the different species of crocodiles, this one also has a highly comparable relationship to alligators, caimans and gavials, which are also a form of crocodiles. The crocodile is by natural definition a reptile, and therefore also partly related to animals such as snakes, lizards and frogs. One would thus think that reptiles are the crocodile’s closest relatives, but studies show that the crocodile is in fact more closely related to birds. The crocodile has also been given the status of being related to dinosaurs.

The crocodile is a predator

Vanuatu Business

Vanuatu Business

Business

According to countryaah, Vanuatu is one of the least developed states in the world. The industry is very limited, transport conditions are poor and the lack of educated, domestic labor is very large. About 70 percent of the population lives on agriculture. The traditional forage crop is copious, but production is uncertain due to tropical storms and large variations in demand. During the 1990s, the tourism industry has grown increasingly important. Similarly, financial services companies have established themselves in the country.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, VU is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Vanuatu.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Vanuatu

Most of the export income comes from copra and beef. Vanuatu also earns revenue by selling fishing permits to foreign fishing fleets.

The most important import goods are machinery and transport equipment, industrial semi-finished products, food and fossil fuels. Imports come mainly from China, Singapore and the United States, while exports are primarily to Thailand and Ivory Coast. The trade balance shows deficits annually, but this is offset by revenues from tourism, financial services, convenience registration of vessels and assistance from mainly Australia, New Zealand and France. Income and corporate profits are not taxed in Vanuatu.

VANUATU

Island state of Oceania, located in the South Pacific Ocean, independent within the Commonwealth since 1980. The territory consists of the archipelago of the New Hebrides, about forty islands (as well as uninhabited reefs and islets), aligned from NNW to SSE. The soil is made up of archaic rocks, on which coral or volcanic sediments are superimposed. The climate is tropic-equatorial, with high temperatures and abundant rainfall; the vegetation is luxuriant, with a rich presence of precious essences. The surface is equal to 12,190 km 2 ; the population (154,000 residents according to an estimate of 1992), of Melanesian stock, lives for about 80% concentrated in rural villages, located mainly in the most fertile coastal strips. National language is bislama,English; official languages ​​are bislama, English and French. The main center of the country is the capital, Port Vila (pop. 19,400).

The main economic activities are represented by agriculture (coconut palm, cocoa and coffee for export, fruit, vegetables and cassava for the internal market), breeding, fishing, forestry exploitation and extraction of manganese minerals present on the island of Éfaté. An important source of currency is tourism, which is in great expansion, and large revenues also come from the services sector, as Vanuatu is establishing itself as an international financial center.

 

Tuvalu Business

Tuvalu Business

According to abbreviationfinder, TV is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Tuvalu.

Tuvalu relies heavily on foreign aid in terms of both financial assistance and technical assistance. The largest revenues come from contributions from the Tuvalu Trust Fund (a fund established with assistance from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom), fishing licenses and repatriation of foreign currency from workers employed abroad. The sale of the use rights to the country’s electronic nationality designation (domain name).tv generated significant annual revenues from 2000, but today the agreement is struggling.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Tuvalu

According to countryaah, the majority of the working population has traditionally been engaged in self-sufficiency/natural housekeeping. In 1991, only 28% of the working population had earning work, most at Funafuti. More than half of these were employed in the public sector. Employment stoppages were later introduced in the public sector, and the opportunities for income-generating work were greatly reduced. In addition to the domestic workforce, many are employed abroad, either as sailors or as contract workers in New Zealand. Many have also moved abroad and send money home to the family. In 2003, remittances from 450 sailors accounted for almost 20% of GDP. Up to approx. in 2000, many worked on phosphate extraction in Nauru.

In agriculture, taro, breadfruit, papaya, bananas and pandanus fruits are grown for their own consumption; copra for export. However, agricultural production is hampered by poor and saline soils. Pigs, chickens and goats are kept from livestock.

Fishing mainly supplies the local market; one had previously exported tuna. Tuvalu expanded in 1983 to a 200-mile fishing zone (1.3 million km2), and hopes to develop the fisheries into a major industry in the future. The industry is very little developed, with the production of braided crafts, copra and some fish processing. Tuvalu was visited by an estimated 1290 tourists in 2004.

Tuvalu lacks drinking water and is based on rainwater storage. In the old days they were based on the use of wells dug down to a thin fresh water layer, but they have gone away from this. The overriding problem is that it is feared that Tuvalu’s atolls will disappear into the sea. In addition to a recorded rise in sea level, there have also been hurricanes with waves that have washed over the islands and extremely high tide (“king tide”) that has threatened people and houses. Some coastal areas and small islets have been washed away. The United Nations Climate Panel (IPCC) has calculated that most of Tuvalu’s land area may lie below sea level during this century. Norwegian Terje Dahl moved from Tuvalu in 1995 due to life-threatening hurricanes and rising sea levels, and was named by the media around the world as the world’s first climate refuge.

Foreign Trade

Tuvalu’s goods exports account for only 4% of the import value (1994). Exports consist of copra and fish. Imports include: of food, energy raw materials, various finished products and machines. Money shipments from Tuvalers abroad are an important source of currency for the country. Tuvalu receives significant financial support from the UK and New Zealand.

Transport and Communications

The only deep-water port is Fongafale, with reception of seagoing vessels; connection between the islands takes place with smaller ships. Funafuti has a landing strip for aircraft; Air Fiji has scheduled flights. There are also motorcycles and minibuses.

Tonga Business

Tonga Business

Business

According to countryaah, Tonga has for a long time had a weak economy, mainly due to severe weather that damaged export crops, high unemployment and inflation and extensive relocation. Agriculture accounts for just over 30 percent of employment. The most important forage crops are pumpkins, vanilla and coconuts, which for most years make up the bulk of Tonga’s exports. For personal consumption, root vegetables, breads, watermelons, vegetables, citrus fruits and peanuts are grown.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, TO is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Tonga.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Tonga

The industry accounts for about 30 percent of employment. Primarily, building materials, clothing, furniture, sports equipment, beer and coconut oil and craft products are produced. To reduce the need to import fuel, a wave power plant was built in the early 1990s. Tourism makes a significant contribution to the economy and reduces the trade deficit. New Zealand, Japan, Australia, Fiji and the United States are the most important trading partners. Mainly, food, industrial semi-finished products, machinery, transport and fuels are imported.

During the 1990s, Tonga sought new sources of income and energy, and tried to develop fishing and pear farming and to find foreign investors to the processing industries, but the contributions from Tongans abroad account for a large part of the country’s economy.

History. – The first to land on the Tonga Islands were J. Lemaire and WC Schouten, to whom this group of islands did not appear hospitable, due to the character of the residents (1616). In 1643 they met Abel Tasman, who only touched the southern group, and Samuel Wallis in 1767. The Cook, who landed there in 1773, found himself so happy, that he called them “The Friendly Islands “; when he returned there in 1777 he lingered there for almost two months, always maintaining excellent relations with those residents. The northern islands were discovered in 1781 by the Spanish FA Mourelle.

The Tongans had enjoyed, as their legends and the reports of the first visitors attest, a long period of peace, dating back to the first half of the century. XVIII when the assemblies of the nobles and the people were organized in a single feudal state, with an absolute king, under which the slaves stood, without rights, and with a centralized ecclesiastical hierarchy. At the end of the century, internal struggles broke out among the indigenous, which lasted almost half a century. In the midst of these came the Methodist missionaries (1822), who met strong resistance, although they were not massacred like some of the ten of the London Mission Society of 1797, against whom the natives had been incited by escapees from Australian penitentiaries. After the Methodists came the Wesleyans (1830) who had the support of the strongest leader, Taufaahan, who in 1845 put an end to the period of internal strife, and became king with the name of George Tobou I, affirming his dominion with the repression of the anti-Christian rebellion of the Tongans in 1852. The Catholic missionaries arrived in 1841 did not have good luck. The Wesleyans had induced the king to grant an Anglo-Saxon constitution (1839, revised 1862 and 1875): a parliament, a council of ministers and a private council, a prime minister and a complex judicial system. The most famous prime minister of Tonga was Shirley Baker, strange type of adventurer, Wesleyan pastor, retired from the exercise of his ministry, which as a first government action induced King Tobou to break the hitherto cordial relations with the Wesleyan mission based in Sydney in Australia, and to establish a state church, which the Baker then began to use to persecute the his ancient brothers. This lasted for a long time until the British government intervened, which sent the Baker away (1890). In 1876 the government of the Tonga Islands had entered into a friendly treaty with the German government; a similar one was made with Great Britain three years later; one with the United States of America in 1888. In 1886 a treaty between Germany and England recognized equal interests in those islands to the two powers; but in 1899 Germany gave up all interest (agreement for the Samoa Islands). By 1900, by RH Thomson, who had driven out the Baker, the English protectorate asserted itself, placing the British High Commissioner alongside and above the local governments. While until then German, American and English coins had been running in Tonga, in 1905 the financial administration passed to England, and the only currency remained the English one. The Tongan government is now composed of a sovereign, assisted by an annual legislative assembly, made up of 7 nobles, 7 representatives of the people, elect, and the 7 ministers of the crown.  Under the English protectorate, scholastic activity developed greatly; there is also a Tonga College, based in the capital Nukualofa.

Solomon Islands Business

Solomon Islands Business

Business

According to countryaah, most households are still self-sustaining, and only 10 percent of the population is employed in the market economy. In the 1960s, the Kopra area was the only export commodity, but since then business has expanded. The most important export product is now timber and seafood. For its own consumption, root vegetables, rice and vegetables are grown, while palm oil, copra and cocoa are produced for the export market. Fishing licenses to other countries, for example to Taiwan and Japan, for example, also generate income.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, SB is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Solomon Islands.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Solomon Islands

During the early 1990s, timber exports increased, but falling world market prices during the last 1990s led to an economic downturn. The Civil War 1999-2000 further exacerbated the suturing. During the 1990s, the country’s business community has gradually recovered, but natural disasters in the form of earthquakes and tsunami (2007 and 2010) have caused major material damage. A quarter of the country’s budget is covered by development assistance, mainly from Australia and Japan.

For information on GDP and other business statistics, see Landsfakta.

SOLOMON. – The northern part of the archipelago, once a German possession and administered by Australia since 1918, forms an integral part of the Papua-New Guinea territory, which gained independence in 1975. The southern S. islands have retained the status of British protectorate until 1973, when they were granted partial self-government. Subsequently, in the framework of the decolonization process underway in the South Pacific, they obtained full autonomy (1976), and finally independence (1978), remaining within the Commonwealth.

The new state (official name: Salomon Islands) includes the main islands of the archipelago: Choiseul, Santa Isabel, New Georgia, Malaita, San Cristobal, Guadalcanal, as well as a large number of coral atolls, scattered over a vast strip of Melanesia extends from NW to SE for over 150 of longitude.

On the island of Guadalcanal, the largest, known for having been the scene of a violent battle between the Japanese and the Americans during the Second World War, is the capital Honiara, which in 1976 had about 15,000 residents. Overall, the territorial surface of the state measures 28,446 km 2 (slightly less than that of Belgium), and a population of 196,700 residents, which is rapidly increasing (annual growth coefficient: 3.5%). In the S. about eighty different dialects are spoken, a fact that reflects the extreme fragmentation of the indigenous communities, of Melanesian lineage.

The economy, which was once based solely on the harvesting and processing of coconuts (still in 1968 the copra contributed to forming 90% of the value of exports), is being restructured, thanks to a process of diversification promoted by the Kingdom United in the 1960s. Copra remains one of the main resources (27% of the value of exports in 1977), but the contribution of fishery products (27%), timber (26%), and palm oil (20%) has increased significantly.). The government tends to intensify fishing activities, and to start exploiting the bauxite and phosphate deposits, with development projects that make use of the contribution of Japanese capital.

Samoa Business

Samoa Business

According to abbreviationfinder, WSM is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Samoa.

Samoa’s economy is relatively poorly developed. The economy has largely been based on agriculture for self-sufficiency. Agriculture’s share of GDP and export value are declining. There is some small-scale industry, and tourism is progressing. Over 1/3 of the state’s income consists of foreign aid. In the period 1994–2003, GDP showed an average annual growth of 4.2%. In 2003, the service industries accounted for 56.6% of GDP. The public sector employed 20% of the workforce.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Samoa

In recent years, agricultural production has been hit more frequently by very powerful hurricanes. production of coconut oil was down for several years due to. of natural damage after Hurricane Val.

The fall in prices of copra and other coconut products has also brought this traditional industry into crisis. Commercial fishing has shown strong growth since the late 1990s; fish amounted to 2,003 over 1/3 of our exports. The most important agricultural products are taro, cocoa, coconuts, papaya, pineapple and bananas. Otherwise, bread fruit, yams, corn, passion fruit and mango are grown. The livestock team includes cattle, goats, pigs and chickens. Samoa is far from self-sufficient in food, although to a large extent it was in the past. Today, around 1/3 of the food needs covered by imports.

The industrial sector is small and centered around the capital Apia. It is manufactured, inter alia, different products from the coconut palm, beer, cigarettes, confectionery, as well as some light industry and wood processing plus different products from the coconut palm. The industry grew sharply after 1992, when several foreign companies established themselves, among other things. Japanese companies with the production of cables and car parts and an American company with the clothing industry. In 2003, clothing and textiles accounted for almost 30% of goods exports. The Japanese Yazaki factory, which exports car parts, is Samoa’s largest private employer.

In recent years, coconut oil production has gained momentum due to new production methods and demand for biofuels.

The authorities were long awaiting tourism, fearing a negative influence on the traditional culture and way of life of Samoans. However, since the mid-1990s, tourism has been growing rapidly; 2005 visited approx. 102,000 tourists islands, hence close to 1/3 from American Samoa. The country’s largest tourist complex, a four-star hotel with 400 rooms is located just off Apia.

Foreign Trade

Main export products are clothing and textiles, fish, car parts, cocoa, taro, coconut products and bananas. Imports consist mainly of food, petroleum and industrial finished goods. The trade balance is very negative, with a large import surplus. The deficit is partly covered by tourism revenues, partly by financial assistance from New Zealand, Australia and Japan, but also by remittances from Samoans abroad. The latter corresponded to 20% of GDP in 2001, and it was more than three times greater than commodity exports.

According to Countryaah, Australia is by far Samoa’s most important trading partner, and since the turn of the millennium has been the buyer of approx. 3/4 of the exports. From New Zealand comes 1/5 of imports.

During the 1990s, Samoa provided tax and customs relief to export companies. The tax laws drew foreign capital to the country, but Samoan banks were accused of so-called money laundering. In 2000, after international pressure, restrictions were introduced in the financial sector to stop this traffic.

Transport and Communications

The number of motor vehicles increased by 7% annually in the period 1994–2004. The country has 790 km of main roads, of which 330 km are paved. The road network has been substantially expanded since the turn of the millennium. The main roads run along the coast; The best developed is the road network on the main island of Upolu. Due to large imports of used cars built for left-hand traffic, you will now (August 2009) switch to driving on the left side of the road. Samoa has a fixed ship connection with a number of countries. From Faleolo Airport (APW) at Upolu, 35 km from Apia, Air New Zealand, Pacific Blue (which took over state-owned Polynesian Airlines in 2008) and Fijis Air Pacific.

Papua New Guinea Business

Papua New Guinea Business

According to abbreviationfinder, PG is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Papua New Guinea.

Despite rich resources in the form of minerals, forests and fish banks, Papua New Guinea is one of the least developed countries in the South Pacific. Poverty is widespread, and most people practice natural housekeeping. Only a small proportion have paid work. Poor infrastructure, low levels of education, corruption and social unrest are hampering development, and the country is losing out on the global knowledge-based economy. After a significant economic downturn, gross domestic product (GDP) in 2003 was estimated at USD 620 per capita. Agriculture, mining and forestry dominate the economy, which is heavily dependent on commodity prices on the world market. In the 1970s, Australia contributed aid equivalent to 50% of GDP, but it has subsequently fallen sharply. In 2003, the World Bank assumed that over half of the working population was underemployed, and estimated unemployment in cities at 70%. This was given as an explanation for increasing social unrest and crime.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Papua New Guinea

Agriculture

According to countryaah, agriculture (including fishing) accounted for 28% of GDP in 2004 and employed 63% of the economically active population. In addition, there is a large group that feeds only on natural households, and together, over 80% of the population is counted as dependent on agriculture and fishing for subsistence. Yams, bananas and sago are the most common food products in the lowlands, while sweet potatoes dominate in the highlands. Corn, rice, melons, tropical fruits and sugar cane are also grown for their own use. The most productive part of agriculture is found in the highlands. Coffee (65 000 tonnes in 2003) is main selling product for 1/4of the population. Cocoa (42,000 tonnes), coconuts (for the production of copra and copra oil), palm oil, rubber, pineapple, tea, peanuts (peanuts) and spices are also grown for sale. Main animals are pigs and poultry. Many grasslands have fueled a growing cattle ranch.

Logging operated by Malaysian logging companies (from Sarawak) is an important export industry. However, it is estimated that the harvest has been three times above the sustainable level, and the authorities have therefore tried to impose restrictions on the harvest.

Fishing

The country has some of the best fishing banks in the South Pacific with particularly large stocks of tuna. Sales of fishing rights to foreign shipping companies are an important source of income. Mackerel (tuna) is the main species of fish. Extraction of shark oil was a growth industry in the 1990s, but has since faced criticism for alleged predatory fishing.

Industry

The process industry is limited and has accounted for less than 10% of GDP. Essentially, it only covers the processing of agricultural products and various small industries. Several fish canning factories were established during the 1980s and 1990s, but many of them were later closed down. A cement plant was opened in Lae in 1993. An oil refinery is estimated to have opened in Port Moresby in 1998.

Mining

In 2003, mining and oil and gas extraction accounted for approx. 30% of GDP. The mineral resources are rich and are mainly extracted by Australian and American companies. The most important metals are gold (65.5 tonnes, 2002) and copper (150 600 tonnes). The gold deposits have been important for European exploration of the area. In modern times, gold is mined in several places. Porgera in the highlands. The extraction is estimated to reach over 100 tonnes per year when extraction commences on Lihir Island, which has the world’s largest known gold deposits outside South Africa. Copper is also mined in several places. One of the world’s largest copper mines can be found at Bougainville. When it was closed during the 1989 civil war, the country lost 40% of its export earnings. The loss was replaced in the 1990s by new mines and by oil recovery. Mining has led to major environmental damage,

Extraction of oil and natural gas takes place on the south coast offshore in the Gulf of Papua, as well as on Lake Kutubu in the highlands. In the 1990s, oil production fluctuated between 100,000 and 150,000 barrels per day, but in 2003 fell to below 50,000 barrels per day. Oil resources are declining rapidly, and known reserves are expected to be depleted by 2012. However, gas reserves are large. A gas pipeline to Queensland in Australia is planned to be built. Papua New Guinea has a huge potential for hydropower, but most of the countryside is without electricity, and cities are often hit by power outages.

Foreign Trade

Since the turn of the millennium, mineral exports have amounted to approx. 3/4 of the exports and black for 1/4 of GDP. Mineral exports have produced solid foreign trade surpluses, but revenues fluctuate strongly with commodity prices. The country is also one of the world’s largest exporters of untreated tropical timber. In addition to industrial products, imports include food products such as fish products and rice. The main export market is Japan, while Australia is the source of almost half of imports.

Transport and Communications

The rugged landscape prevents the development of a national road network. The best developed road network is in the Lae area and in the eastern highlands. The capital Port Moresby has no road connection with any other major city. The Sepik River is an important transport year in the northwest. The country has no railroad. The lack of road network has made air traffic particularly important for domestic traffic. There are more than 400 airports and airstrips. International Airport at Port Moresby. In 2006, the State Air Niugini had routes to several Australian cities, as well as Singapore, Manila and Tokyo.

Palau Business

Palau Business

Business

According to countryaah, Palau’s business is largely based on financial support from the US, Taiwan and Japan. Despite this, the country has major financial problems, mainly as a result of a lack of investment in infrastructure and industry. In 1991, a major investment project for the construction of the island of Babelthuap was secured; among other things, it was planned to move the country’s capital there. The project, which is being implemented in collaboration with Japanese investors, is believed to have a positive effect on the country’s economy.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, PW is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Palau.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Palau

About 80 percent of the country’s employed work in the service and service sector. In addition to the service industries, the industries dominate agriculture and fishing, mainly in the form of smaller self-catering units. More recently, the tourism industry has grown in importance and is now the most economically important sector. The country’s exports are mainly seafood, tuna and scrap metal.

Palau Geopolitical Atlas

The Republic of Palau is an island state located in the Pacific Ocean 500 km south-east of the Philippines. A former colony of the German and Japanese empires, Palau has been independent from the United States since 1994. The Americans took the island from the Japanese during World War II and, since 1947, ruled it under an international mandate from the United Nations. In addition to Palau, the mandate also included Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and the Northern Mariana Islands.

Of the former US-controlled territories, Palau was the last to gain independence, although in 1981 – after 55% of Palauans chose to remain independent and not join the Federated States of Micronesia – it had already adopted its own Constitution and in 1982 had signed the Free Association Pact with the USA. The long lapse of time between the signing of the Pact of Free Association and independence was partly caused by the dispute with the United States on the constitutional provision that prevented the use, testing, storage and disposal of nuclear material on the territory of Palau: this hindered the US interest in using Palau as a stopover in the Pacific. During the eighties, the same majority of the Palau population had expressed themselves, through a referendum, in favor of the Pact with the USA and for the modification of the Constitution, without however reaching the qualified majority (75% of the votes) required for the constitutional amendment. Only in 1993 was the requirement of a qualified majority transformed into a simple majority, paving the way for the adoption of the pact of free association and, therefore, for independence.

As a consequence of the Palau historical events, Palau’s foreign policy is characterized above all by the relationship with Washington, which, in the absence of a national army, provides for the defense and has the right to use the territory for fifty years from the date of adoption of the Pact.. The US has undertaken to guarantee economic assistance, as provided for by the same Pact: a contribution of approximately 700 million dollars until 2009. Furthermore, the citizens of Palau can freely enter the United States. In return, the US has gained unrestricted access to the island’s land and waterways for strategic purposes. In 2010 Washington renewed its commitment to help the country economically, with a budget of $ 250 million for the period 2010-24.

Palau, which does not recognize the People’s Republic of China, has an important economic and strategic ally in Taiwan. Palau is one of the 21 embassies still present in Taipei, and an important flow of aid, technology and tourists comes from Taiwan. Relations between the two countries were sealed in 2006, when Palau hosted the first summit between Taiwan and its allies in the Pacific (Kiribati, Tuvalu, Marshall Islands, Nauru and Solomon Islands).

As for the political order, the president is the head of state and government and exercises executive power, while the legislative body is composed of a Senate and a Chamber of Delegates, composed respectively of 13 and 16 seats. During the 1980s, political life was troubled by various episodes of violence, including the assassination of a president, Haruo Remeliik, and the suicide of another, Lazarus Eitaro Salii, accused of corruption. However, since the early 1990s, Palau has stabilized and strengthened its democratic and multi-party system. From an economic point of view, the country faces a structural shortage of resources and dependence on international aid. Agriculture and fishing are subsistence, while tourism is the main source of income.

Visitors – who come mainly from Japan and Taiwan and who benefit from the expansion of the air network in the Pacific – traditionally feed about 50% of Palau’s GDP, which is double the average for the Pacific islands and among others. of the world. After the contraction of the sector, linked to the international economic and financial crisis, the 27% increase in the flow of tourists recorded in 2011 allowed the country to return to growth at sustained rates.

New Zealand Business

New Zealand Business

According to abbreviationfinder, NZ is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of New Zealand.

New Zealand’s isolated location and modest home market have periodically created financial problems. The business sector is mainly based on smaller industrial enterprises and the service industries. In the second half of the 1980s, a liberal market economy policy was introduced, in which much of the political control of business development was abolished, and in 2005, New Zealand ranked at the top of the World Bank’s ranking list, in the “business-friendly economy” class, ahead of Singapore, USA, Canada and Norway.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of New Zealand

Agriculture

Although agriculture comprises a relatively small share of GDP (below 10%), agriculture is still very important for the country’s economy. Agricultural products comprise a large proportion of the export value, while much of industrial production is based on the processing of agricultural products. Over 90% of lamb meat, about 80% of the beef, and about 3/4 of sheep meat exported. New Zealand alone accounts for 40% of world trade in sheep and lamb meat and around 30% of world wool production. The most important export products of economic value are dairy products such as cheese, milk powder, butter and milk.

After all agricultural subsidies were removed in the 1980s, there has been a widening of production. The number of sheep has been declining, while deer and goats have been new focus areas. The most important agricultural crops are wheat, barley and peas, which are mainly grown on the Canterbury plain in Christchurch. Fruit is an important export product and is grown at Nelson furthest north on the South Island and at Napier and Auckland on the North Island. New Zealand produces approx. 1/4 of the world’s kiwis; otherwise apples and pears are grown. The country is also a significant exporter of wine.

Agriculture is scientifically and efficiently run, and the farms are large and specialized. In total, half of the country’s land is used as grazing land.

Fishing

The country’s 200 mile economic zone is the world’s fourth largest, and has an area of ​​approx. 13 times larger than the land area. The zone mainly includes nutrient-poor deep-water areas, and therefore the marine catches are relatively small in relation to the size of the area. However, marine species are an important export product since 90% of the catch value is exported. Aquaculture with mussel, salmon and oyster farming comprises a significant part of the production value.

There are strong restrictions on foreign participation in the country’s fishing. Over half of the commercial fishing quotas are controlled by the indigenous people of Maori.

Forestry

About 30% of the total area is covered by forest. Of this, around 1/5 planted. New Zealand has a climate suitable for the operation of forest plantations which are mainly located on the North Island. Almost all harvesting takes place in the newly planted forest.

Mining

Natural gas is extracted at several fields in the Taranaki region. The largest of them, the Maui field on the continental shelf, is expected to run empty in 2006. A new larger production area near New Plymouth is expected to become operational in 2006. Natural gas is used both for fuel production for cars and in gas power plants. The country has large coal reserves, but most of it is of low quality. The most valuable deposits of coal are found on the west coast of the South Island. The oil reserves are relatively small and 80% of consumption must be imported.

Otherwise, iron sand and smaller quantities of gold, as well as limestone and sand, are used for the building industry. Along large parts of the west coast, the sand contains titanium magnetite or ilmenite, from 1968 utilized at the Glenbrook steel mill.

Energy

Primary energy consumption in 2016 was estimated at 879 peta joule (PJ), with an import share of 25 percent. 40 per cent of energy consumption was based on renewable energy, while fossil energy consumption was distributed on oil, 34 percent, natural gas, 21 percent and coal, 6 percent. Per capita consumption was 186 GJ.

In 2017, the generation of electrical energy was 42 TWh. New Zealand’s power generation is based on a high proportion of renewable energy, which in 2017 accounted for 82 per cent, distributed on hydropower, 59 percent, geothermal energy, 17 percent and wind power, 5 percent. Gas power and coal power accounted for 15 and 3 percent respectively.

The large dependence on hydropower periodically leads to power shortages during drought periods. As much as 2/3 of the hydropower is produced on South Island (South Island), while the largest hydropower plants on the North Island (North Island) are located on the Waikato River. All geothermal power plants are located in the North Island.

Industry

The industry primarily includes companies that process agricultural products, factories that produce various consumer products for the domestic market, car repair shops, larger sawmills, cellulose and paper mills. A small domestic market and competition from import goods are hampering industrial development. There is an oil refinery at Whangarei north of Auckland, a steel mill at Glenbrook south of Auckland, an aluminum plant at Bluff furthest south, a larger integrated cellulose and paper mill in Kinleith and an integrated sawmill and cellulose mill at Whirinaki near Napier. The industry also includes the production of a number of niche products where New Zealand has comparative advantages. These include the development of new technology in food technology and the production of products for outdoor activities such as climbing equipment, camping equipment and mountain bikes.

Tourism

The tourism industry is an important contributor to the development of the country’s modern economy. New Zealand, with its clean and safe image, is an attractive tourist destination. Natural areas that include high mountains, glaciers, lakes, forests, fjord landscapes, volcanoes, hot springs and beaches are alluring to foreigners who spend an average of 21 days in the country. In the period 2000–2004, more than 2 million foreigners visited the country each year.

Foreign Trade

According to Countryaah, New Zealand’s foreign trade has been hit by EU import restrictions, and the UK’s share of its exports in particular has fallen. As the European market has subsided, New Zealand has focused on other markets, especially Australia, Japan and the United States. The most important export goods come from livestock farming. New Zealand is one of the world’s largest exporters of sheep meat, wool, butter and cheese. In addition, fruits and vegetables, fish, minerals, chemicals, wood products, metals and metal products are exported. Imports mainly include machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products.

The most important trading partner is Australia, with whom the country has a financial cooperation agreement. Other important trading partners are the United States, Japan, China and the United Kingdom.

Foreign trade as a percentage by country 2003

Export Import
Australia 21.5 22.9
United States 14.0 11.8
japan 11.0 11.4
China 4.8 9.0
Great Britain 4.8 3.3

Exports by percentage by main product groups 2003

Foods and live animals 43.7
hence meat and meat products 32.8
dairy products, eggs 37.1
fruits and vegetables 12.4
fish, shellfish 9.1
Wood products, cork 5.2
Chemicals etc. 6.2
Machines and transport equipment 11.1

Imports by percentage by main product groups 2003

Foods and live animals 6.3
Petroleum and petroleum products 9.1
Chemicals etc. 11.5
Paper and stationery 2.7
Clothes and accessories 5.9
Machines and transport equipment 41.5
including office machines and computer equipment 12.3
telecommunications and audio equipment 9.9
industrial machinery 18.8
road machines 35.5
Basic industrial products 13.3

Transport and Communications

New Zealand has a very high car density compared to the population. In Auckland, the traffic problems are so great that they hamper the economy. The country’s total road network is approx. 95 000 km. The total railway network is 3912 km (2001), of which 500 km is electrified. There are 13 major ports of which the most important are Auckland, Tauranga, Wellington, Lyttelton (Christchurch) and Port Chalmers (Dunedin). The islands are linked by ferry services between Wellington, Picton and Lyttelton.

More than 90% of foreign trade is by ship, but the country’s own trading fleet is relatively small. Much of the traffic between North and South Island is by air, and the airline network is well developed both at home and abroad. There are international airports in Wellington, Auckland and Christchurch.

Nauru Business

Nauru Business

According to abbreviationfinder, NA is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Nauru.

Business

Phosphate-containing guano covers 4/5 of Nauru, and the economy is entirely based on phosphate extraction. Since independence in 1968, Nauru itself controls the revenue from production. According to countryaah, agriculture is possible only in the very narrow lowlands along the coast, and the yield covers only a small part of the food demand. The most important products are coconuts, pineapples, bananas and vegetables as well as pandanus nuts (Pandanus is a related screw palm). Fishing has been of local importance only, but the state has started investing in modern sea fishing.

In addition to food, fuel, building materials, drinking water and oil, as well as machinery and transport, are mainly imported for phosphate extraction. Exports are exclusively phosphate, which mainly goes to South Africa, Germany and India. Part of the phosphate income is set aside in a national investment fund, and the state buys land and real estate in, for example, Melbourne and London as well as securities to secure the economy before the day when phosphate ends in the country. Nauru is dependent on financial support from mainly Australia.

Another important source of income is the refugee camps established by Australia in 2001 at Nauru.

NAURU

The island state of Oceania, an independent republic since 1968, counted, at the 1983 census, 8042 residents, of which 4964 indigenous, 2134 from other Pacific islands, 682 Chinese, 262 Europeans. In 1989 the residents were 9350. The exhaustion of the phosphate deposits, which constitute the only economic resource of this atypical political entity and the very justification of its existence, is now imminent: it is estimated that the deposits will be fully exploited around the end of the nineties. Proceeds from phosphate exports currently stand at around AU $ 100 million per year. In anticipation of the problems that will arise when this source of income disappears, the government is implementing a policy of investing in large-scale construction initiatives in Australia. in the Mariana Islands and in Honolulu in Hawaii. Other economic reconversion projects aim to transform the island into a free zone, to strengthen the fishing fleet and to develop air and sea services.

Federation of Micronesia Business

Federation of Micronesia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, FM is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Micronesia.

The Micronesia Federation has a small business development. According to countryaah, the basis for the economy is assistance from the United States, a rapidly growing fishing industry, as well as agriculture and self-sufficiency fishing. Tourism has been growing significantly since 2000. Statistical data are uncertain, but gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was estimated at US $ 1930 in 2003, with very different distribution between the states, where Yap led by approx. twice as high as Chuuk.

Since 1986, when an association agreement came into force, US aid has been gradually reduced. The agreement was renewed in 2003 and guarantees the Micronesia Federation a total US aid of 1.8 billion. In the period up to 2024. In order to reduce dependence on the United States, a comprehensive “reform package” was adopted in 1995 with support from the Asian Development Bank. The state is by far the largest employer, although the public sector has shrunk somewhat in line with declining US aid.

Until 2003, US and Australian aid accounted for a total of approx. 50% of GDP and 1/3 of the public revenue. The association agreement with the US was renewed in 2003 and guarantees a total of 1.8 billion. USD in the period up to 2023. The economy can be characterized as dualistic with a modern money-based economy established largely in the few urban centers and, by the way, most natural households. The salaried population comprises only around 26% of the workforce. Most of the inhabitants still live in traditional large families, and within these are taken great responsibility in providing for each other. Public sector is the driving force in the economy, and the state salaries amounts to about 1/3of GDP. The private business sector is mainly based on the public sector’s purchase of goods and services. Tourism has been growing since the turn of the millennium by approx. 10,000 visits annually. An important attraction is diving, first and foremost in the Chuuk Lagoon where a lot of shipwrecks have been around since the Second World War. The ruined town of Nan Madol on the island of Pohnpei also attracts a relatively large number of visitors.

Agriculture, fishing

Agriculture is practiced almost exclusively for self-sufficiency; covers approx. 60% of the country needs and employs almost half of the workforce. The most important agricultural products are bananas and coconuts (copra) for export, as well as cassava, breadfruit and sweet potatoes for own use. Pepper is grown in Pohnpei.

Fish is the most important natural resource. Micronesia is believed to have the richest tuna banks in the world. Fishing revenues have shown strong growth since the mid-1990s. Then a local commercial fishing started and revenue from foreign license fishing skyrocketed. Shellfish is also a significant source of income.

Industry

The industry is very poorly developed and mainly comprises only coconut products such as copra and oil, a fish processing company in Kosrae and some small scale craft production.

Foreign Trade

In 2003, the total value of imports was USD 110 million, while exports amounted to USD 20 million. Imports include food, consumables and finished goods, machinery and transport equipment, as well as fuel. About. 80% of exports are fish and primarily go to the US and Japan. Other export products are shellfish, textiles, copra and black pepper.

Transport and Communications

Transport is poorly developed, and the enormous distances hinder the development of the Micronesia Federation as a country. All four main islands have an international airport connected to neighboring islands in the Pacific. Only Air Continental has international flights to the Federation of Micronesia, while inland traffic is largely provided by ships, only some of the outer islands have an airport connection with the main islands. Most of the ship traffic between the islands is state-organized.

Marshall Islands Business

Marshall Islands Business

Business

According to countryaah, the foundations of the Marshall Islands business community consist of aid, service industry and self-sustaining agriculture; Of these, the service sector is clearly dominant. Outside of the official economy, most are engaged in agriculture and fishing. Kopra, coconut oil and in recent years also seagrass is exported. Trade and hotel and restaurant operations are the most important activities in the monetary economy; The tourists are few, but the US military is many. Renting the US rocket base at Kwajalein is an important source of income. Majuro has one yard, but otherwise there is little industry. International airports are located at Kwajalein and Majuro.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, MH is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Marshall Islands.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Marshall Islands

In June 1997, resistance in the United States and from environmental movements meant that the nuclear waste landfill project was finally demolished. Instead, the government proposed to transform the islands into a “tourist paradise” and announced plans to build a large complex of hotels and casinos, funded by South Korean capital.

The Marshall Islands, along with 23 other Pacific countries, signed an agreement on the protection of fishery resources that month.

In February 1998, the Asian Development Bank welcomed the state reforms which included had meant a reduction in government spending and a 25% reduction in the number of public servants. According to the government, the reduction was linked to the cessation of the country’s status as a free associate state in 2001. causes US assistance to cease. Nevertheless, inflation continued to rise, reaching 10%. In June, the government decided to reduce the salaries of state employees by 12½%, which triggered protests. Still, the authorities failed to reduce the government budget deficit.

In the November 15 parliamentary elections, the United Democratic Party (UDP) opposition party received 18 of the 33 seats. In January 2000, Kessai Note was elected President. He had until then been the spokesman for Parliament (Nitijela). Note stated that in his work he would concentrate on fighting corruption. This was a consequence of the international anti-money laundering working group placing the country among those with the greatest problems of this kind. At the November 2003 parliamentary elections, the UDP regained the majority of seats in parliament. Note was re-elected as President. He declared that he would concentrate his efforts on fighting corruption and money laundering. Marshall Islands has an international reputation for money laundering.

HISTORY

Under US trusteeship since 1947, the M Islands remained there formally until 1990, but even thereafter continued to remain closely dependent on the US. In 1983, however, a pact of free association was signed with the United States itself, which became executive three years later, and in September 1991 the Marshall Islands thus became part of the UN as a “sovereign state freely associated with the United States”. According to the Republican Constitution adopted in 1979, the legislative power belongs to an elected assembly, in office for four years and composed of 33members, who are entrusted, among other things, with the task of electing the President of the Republic. Elected in 1980 and four more consecutive times, A. Kabua held that office until his death in December 1996. His cousin I. Kabua was then appointed to succeed him in January 1997. In November 1999 the elections were won by the United Democratic Party which overthrew the previous majority.

Kiribati Business

Kiribati Business

According to abbreviationfinder, KI is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Kiribati.

Service industries dominate employment and accounted for 75% of GDP in 2002. Fisheries and agriculture had their share reduced from just over 25% in 1992 to 14.2% in 2002, but still employed 26% of the workforce. Coconuts are grown for sale (copra); for their own consumption, bananas, breadfruit, papaya and screw palm (which yield berry-like fruits) are grown. Kopra accounted for 23.5% of exports in 2002 against 77.1% in 1992. Cultivation of seaweed began in the mid-1980s and amounts to approx. 15% of export revenue, while shark fines account for 5%. Otherwise, there is a widespread animal husbandry of pigs and poultry. The state fishing company was closed down in 1991 due to. strong decline in catch, but sale of fishing licenses to Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and the United States have become an important source of revenue. In 2001, license sales brought in approx. NOK 250 million, or five times as much as the country’s total exports.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Kiribati

Up to 1979, phosphate was extracted on Banaba (Ocean Island) by the British Phosphate Commission, for export to Australia and New Zealand. Phasing out phosphate mining, which gave Kiribati about 80% of export revenue and 50% of state revenue, has had a devastating effect on the country’s economy. Interest income from a reserve fund, established in 1956, remains an important source of income.

Tourism is an important source of income and constitutes approx. 15% of the country’s income. Since the turn of the millennium, the island kingdom has had annual visits of approx. 14,000 travelers, including over 4,000 tourists; most from Asia. Kiribati had 200 hotel rooms at the turn of the millennium, but a new hotel with nearly 150 rooms was under construction at Kiritimati. Since 2001, Norwegian Cruise Line has had weekly sailings from Honolulu to Tabuaeran (Fanning Island).

Foreign Trade

According to countryaah, Kiribati’s main trading partners are Bangladesh (receives about 77% of Kiribati’s export products), Australia, Japan and Fiji. The country’s limited exports and imports of most products mean that the country has a permanent deficit in the trade balance abroad.

Sales of fishing rights and transfers from Kiribatians abroad are the main source of currency; about. 2000 works as sailors on foreign ships. Kiribati has good fishing banks within its economic zone and has sold fishing rights to Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. Almost all of Kiribati’s production of seaweed and kelp is exported to Denmark.

Transport and Communications

The large distances make transport between the islands difficult. Air routes link Tarawa to most of the outer islands and to Tuvalu, Nauru, Fiji and Hawaii. The main port city is Betio on Tarawa. Kiribati, Tuvalu, Nauru and the Marshall Islands have since 1995 planned the establishment of a joint regional airline.

The island kingdom has 670 km of roads that can be used by motor vehicles.

Economic geography and demography. – Island state of Oceania. In 2010 the population was 103,058 residents, While in 2014, according to an estimate by UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), it was 103,942 residents, With an annual growth rate estimated for 2014 at 1, 18%. About 44% of the population lives in urban areas (the agglomeration of the capital, Tarawa, has 40,311 residents). Life expectancy is 68.9 years (2013) and access to water and health resources remains critical. It is one of the areas most at risk from rising water levels; for this reason, in November 2010 it hosted the Climate change conference on the island of Tarawa.

Fiji Business

Fiji Business

Business

According to Countryaah, Fiji has an agricultural-dominated market economy. The most dominant forage crop is sugar cane, which accounts for 80 percent of total agricultural production.

Other important agricultural products are coconuts, cassava and unpeeled rice. The country’s economy weakened dramatically in connection with the military coup in 1987 and the exit from the Commonwealth, which was a direct consequence of this. Fiji then sought new markets for its foreign trade, and during the 1990s the economy was more oriented towards Asian countries such as China, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan. The most important branch of the manufacturing industry is food production (sugar, copra). In mineral production, gold is of the greatest importance. Water energy is the most important source of energy. However, a considerable proportion of Fiji’s imports consist of petroleum products. Tourism is a major source of income and gives the country a significant inflow of foreign currency.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, FJ is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Fiji.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Fiji

Economy

Inflation rate 3.40%
Unemployment rate 4.5%
Gross domestic product (GDP) $ 8,629,000,000
GDP growth rate 3.00%
GDP per capita $ 9,800
GDP by sector
Agriculture 13.50%
Industry 17.40%
Service 69.10%
State budget
Revenue 720.5 million
Expenditure 728.3 million
Proportion of the population below the national poverty line 31%
Distribution of household income
Top 10% 34.9
Lower 10% 2.6
Industrial production growth rate 1.50%
Investment volume
National debt 48.90% of GDP
Foreign exchange reserves $ 966,800,000
Tourism 2014
Visitors 693,000
Revenue $ 971,000,000
Australia Business

Australia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, AU is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Australia.

Australia’s economy has traditionally been based on exports of agricultural products. Since World War II, the country has also become one of the world’s leading exporters of minerals. Australia’s isolated location has to some extent inhibited industrialization, but the authorities have encouraged industrial travel with the aim of reducing the country’s dependence on imports. Since the 1960s Australia has achieved a balanced and relatively advanced industrial structure, but the industry is strongly protected from outside competition.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Australia

Forestry

About 20 percent of Australia is forested. Most timber is cut in the southwestern and southeastern parts of the country. Jarrah and curry forests provide the most valuable timber, and large pine plantations have also been constructed. Some hardwood is exported, but the country has to import large quantities of timber, wood pulp, cellulose and paper.

Fishing

Fishing is of little economic importance, but catches show a steady increase. Of greatest value is the catch of shrimp, lobster, sea snails, tuna and clams. There is also some aquaculture, with emphasis on oysters, shrimp and crayfish.

Minerals

The most dominant feature of Australia’s business world after World War II is the development of mining. Australia is now self-sufficient with most important minerals, and mineral exports make up about 25 percent of the country’s total export value. Australia has the world’s largest economically viable deposits of lead, nickel, tantalum, uranium and zinc, and among the world’s largest of bauxite, coal, cobalt, copper, diamonds, gold, iron ore, manganese ore, ilmenite, rutile and zircon.. Mineral extraction has led to the opening of areas of the country that would otherwise have been closed. Many ports, roads, railways and urban communities are only built due to mineral extraction. Another ripple effect of this is a new, high-tech industry for the development of equipment and computer programs for use in the recovery.

Coal was discovered as early as 1797 at Newcastle in New South Wales, and mining started in 1804. The coal is of high quality and is located as a large pool throughout the coastal area from Newcastle in the north to Wollongong in the south. This coal basin forms the basis for the Australian heavy industry. Coal is also found in Queensland. Australia is the world’s largest exporter of coal with an annual production of 254 million tonnes (2000). The Latro Valley in Victoria has one of the world’s largest deposits of lignite. The field is operated as a quarry and provides cheap energy for the industry and the thermal power plants.

In 1961, almost inexhaustible deposits of high-grade iron ore were discovered in the Pilbara area of Western Australia. The mines are operated as open-pit mines, and the ore is transported by rail to the coast with shipping from Dampier, Cape Lambert and Port Hedland. There are also facilities for pelletizing the ore. Annual production is 167 million tonnes (2000), and together with Brazil the country is the world’s largest exporter.

In the early 1960s, large deposits of bauxite were discovered, and Australia has become the world’s largest producer. The largest deposits are Gove in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory), Weipa on the northwest coast of the Cape York Peninsula (Queensland) and Darling Ranges (Western Australia). There are smelting of aluminum in Bell Bay (near Georgetown) in Tasmania, Point Henry in Victoria and Kurri Kurri, New South Wales. Construction of alumina is located in Gladstone in Queensland and in Kwinana (near Perth) in Western Australia.

Australia has been a leading producer of lead and zinc since the deposits in Broken Hill were discovered in 1883. The ore is processed in Port Pirie in South Australia. Copper is mined in Mount Isa, Queensland, where copper and lead smelting plants are located. Australia is now one of the world’s largest exporters of manganese, which is important for the iron and steel industry. The ore comes from Groote Eylandt in the Gulf of Carpentaria. In the 1960s, large deposits of nickel ore were found around Kalgoorlie in Western Australia. Another major nickel producer is Queensland.

The production of gold rose rapidly in the 1980s and is extracted, for example, in the Yilgarn region (Western Australia), at Cobar (New South Wales) and in Tasmania. Australia is also by volume the world’s largest producer of diamonds, with 60 percent of the world’s proven resources, as well as large deposits of sapphires and opals. Diamonds are extracted at Argyle (Western Australia). One of the world’s richest deposits of opals is found in South Australia. Other minerals include uranium (Alligator Rivers area, Northern Territory), tin, copper, tungsten, antimony, magnesite, titanium ore, asbestos, zircon and plaster. Much effort is being spent on exploration for new recoverable deposits. Places where recovery started after 1990 include the Olympic Dam in South Australia (copper, uranium, gold), Century (zinc), Cannington (lead, zinc, silver) and Ernest Henry (copper, gold) in Carpentaria-Mount Isa- the region, Cadia and Ridgeway (gold, copper) in New South Wales and Bronzewing (gold), Wallaby (gold) and Silver Swan (nickel) in the so-called Eastern Goldfields of Western Australia. One area particularly rich in a wide variety of minerals is the Murray Basin, which extends into New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia.

Several important oil and natural gas discoveries have been made, and there is potential for several discoveries. Currently, most of the oil and gas production is offshore at the Carnarvon basin off Onslow and Dampier in Western Australia. Other deposits of oil and gas have been identified further north, including a joint project with East Timor. Traditionally, the most important recovery area has been the Gippsland basin in the eastern part of the Basin that separates Tasmania from the mainland, but production is declining. New discoveries have been made further west. The proven oil reserves are (2003) at 3.5 billion barrels, and production in the same year was 31.5 million tonnes (730,000 barrels per day). The annual production of natural gas is 34.5 billion m 3 (2003).

Energy

The energy supply is mainly based on coal and petroleum. The coal deposits are easily recoverable and therefore relatively inexpensive. This energy has in the last 20 years produced a rapid growth of energy-intensive industry. In 2017, the country’s total electrical energy production was 247 TWh, of which 85 percent was based on fossil energy sources. The country’s coal power plants accounted for 60 percent of production, while 22 percent came from gas power plants.

Hydroelectric power, which is particularly important in Tasmania, accounted for 5.6 percent of power generation in 2017. The majority of hydroelectric power comes from the development of the Snowy Mountains and Kiewa in northeastern Victoria.

In some areas, the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar energy and wind power, is becoming more widespread. In 2017, these energy sources accounted for 2.8 and 5.4 per cent of the country’s power generation, respectively.

Industry

The industry experienced a major upturn during the Second World War, and expansion has continued for some time. In the five-year period 1987–92, the volume of exports of industrial products increased by 13 percent per year, reaching 1992 percent of the country’s total exports in 1992. In 2000, the industry accounted for 13 percent of GDP and 13 percent of employment. The large coal deposits in New South Wales form the basis of an extensive iron and steel industry. The most important centers for iron and steel production are Newcastle and Wollongong – Port Kembla, with secondary centers in Whyalla in South Australia and Kwinana at Perth in Western Australia. Steel production has doubled since the 1960s. There are several aluminum smelters, including George Town, Port Henry in Victoria, Kwinana and Gladstone in Queensland. Near Hobart in Tasmania there are also zinc and ferromangan smelting plants. The metal industry has created the basis for a relatively large automotive industry (annual production of 3.2 million cars in 1997), with factories in Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney and Perth.

Another very important industry is the food industry, which is based on the processing of the country’s agricultural products. Otherwise, there are chemical, textile and wood processing industries. The graphics industry has in recent years been growing strongly. The major industrial areas are around Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth. Sydney dominates the machine industry, while Melbourne is a leader in apparel, footwear, textiles, knitwear, knitwear and leather making.

Industry and mining

Production of some important goods 2001

Minerals and metals
coal 301 000 000 t
iron ore 170 999 000 t
nickel 168 300 000 t
bauxite 53 802 000 t
manganese 1 613 000 t
uranium 7 578 000 t
gold 296 410 kg
tin 9 146 000 t
A selection of industrial products
cotton Tools The 56 000 000 m²
Woven woolen fabrics 6 300 000 m²
Aluminum (unprocessed) 6 489 000 t
pig iron 6 489 000 t
Meat and meat products 3 889 600 t
Tobacco and tobacco products 20 688 000 t
beer 1 768 000 l
cement 7 937 000 t

Foreign Trade

According to Countryaah, Australia has a small surplus in foreign trade. Minerals (coal, coke, iron, lead, zinc, copper, bauxite and petroleum products) account for about 25 percent of the export value. Next comes wool (Australia supplies about half of all wool on the world market), meat and wheat. Imports include machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, oil and petroleum products and foodstuffs.

The United Kingdom was previously by far the most important trading partner, but its share of Australia’s foreign trade has declined significantly since the 1950s. Australia is increasingly orienting its foreign trade towards the US and Asian markets. Although the share of processed products in exports has risen, Australia is still a mainly commodity exporting country. While agricultural and other commodity-based products account for the majority of exports, processed goods (such as capital goods, transport products and consumer goods) characterize imports.

60 percent of exports go to East and Southeast Asia, of which Japan alone accounts for about 20 percent. Other important export markets are the United States, Singapore, New Zealand and the EU countries. East and Southeast Asia accounted for 40 percent and the United States for about 20 percent of imports in 2001.

Transport and Communications

Road

The road network has a total length of just over 800,000 km, of which about 40 percent has a fixed tire (2003). Long distances mean that Australia has one of the world’s highest per capita spending on road network maintenance.

Railway

The rail network has an area of ​​40,000 km (including 4150 km of narrow-gauge lanes associated with sugarcane cultivation in Queensland), which is small in proportion to the size of the country, but much in proportion to the population. The capacity has been relatively low, because the track width is different in the different states. In 1946, it was decided that the entire rail network should be converted to a 1.43 m gauge. Among other things, federal lines with standard gauge between Sydney and Melbourne were opened in 1962, and the only transcontinental rail line, from Brisbane to Perth, was remodeled in 1969. Most of the rail network is now privatized. In 2003, a rail link between Alice Springs and Darwin was completed.

Aviation

A dense network of flight routes spans the entire continent. There were 261 airports in Australia in 2002. Twelve of these serve international traffic. The main international airports are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth.

Shipping

The main port cities are Sydney, Melbourne, Newcastle, Brisbane, Port Kembla and Port Adelaide. In 2002, the merchant fleet consisted of 622 vessels with a total capacity of 1.9 million gross tonnes. Large parts of Australia’s foreign trade are transported on foreign ships.

Australia

Foreign Trade

Foreign trade as a percentage by country 2001

Export Import
japan 19.6 13.0
United States 9.7 18.9
South Korea 7.7 4.0
New Zealand 5.7 3.9
China 5.2 8.4
singapore 5.0 3.3
taiwan 4.9 2.8
Great Britain 3.9 5.3

Export

Exports by main product groups 2001 (percentage)

Raw materials and semi-finished products (except fuel) 19.7
including metal ores and scrap iron 62.6
textile fibers 23.7
fuel Substances 21.1
of which solid fuel (coal, etc.) 43.0
liquid fuel (oil, etc.) 43.1
Foods and live animals 16.8
hence meat 28.7
cereals and cereal products 26.9
Machines and transport equipment 11.2
chemicals 4.3

Import

Imports by main commodity groups 2001 (percentage)

Machines and transport equipment 45.2
including office machines and computer equipment 15.5
Road machines and parts 26.8
finished goods 11.9
Chemicals and chemical products 12.0
fuel Substances 8.9
Foods and live animals 4

Agriculture in Australia

In 1999, the primary industries agriculture, forestry and fisheries contributed 3% of GDP and in 2001 employed 5% of the working population. Until 1950, agriculture contributed over 80% of export revenues, but its relative importance has diminished as industrialization of the country. The farming practices are very modern, with large operating units. The Australian continent is basically poorly adapted for agriculture. Very few areas have good soil. Most of the soil is nutrient poor which requires high use of artificial fertilizers for cultivation. Australia is also the driest continent (after Antarctica). Warm summers with strong sunlight cause rain to quickly evaporate (evaporate). In addition, the rainfall varies considerably from year to year, which makes use of groundwater and irrigation facilities important. In the north where summers are relatively humid, sugar and tropical fruits in coastal areas. In the south where the summers are much drier, wheat and other grain cultivation, sheep farming and cattle farming are favored for milk production (in higher wetter areas) and some meat production. Despite the harsh conditions, agriculture is considered to have 60% of land. Most of this, however, is pasture, which is not always in use, or it may be broken. Under 10% of the land area is used for growing crops.

The arable farm is best developed in the southeast. Wheat is the most important growth except in Tasmania, and a significant portion of the wheat is exported. The main area for wheat cultivation is where the rainfall is 350–750 mm per year in the area called the ‘wheat belt’. On the west side of the Great Dividing Range, the ‘wheat belt’ extends from central Queensland and down through New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. In Western Australia, the ‘wheat belt’ continues around the southwestern part of the state and some distance north along the west coast. Wheat cultivation has increasingly been integrated with sheep farming and cultivation of other crops. Barley, oats, corn and some rice are grown from other cereals. Main fruits are bananas, oranges and apples. In the humid climate in the north, tropical fruits and sugar cane are grown. In addition, cotton, tobacco, vegetables and large quantities of other fruits are grown. Australia also has a fairly large production of wine. Oil growth has become increasingly important since 1990. Animal husbandry is of greater economic importance than arable farming. It is kept most sheep (119 million 2000) and cattle (28 million), but there is also a substantial and intensive poultry and pig team. Australia is the world’s leading producer of wool. The sheep population (which peaked at 180 million in 1970) is highest in New South Wales, Western Australia and Victoria. The cattle herding takes place in more rainy areas in the eastern and southeastern parts of the country and in the Northern Territory. The majority of the cattle herd is raised for slaughter, but in densely populated areas in the southeast the main emphasis is on milk production. 60% of milk and dairy products come from Victoria, where Gippsland in particular is a well-known milk production area.

Agriculture

Production of important growth 2001

ton
Wool 1024 000
Wheat 23 760 000
Cotton (seeds) 968 000
Cotton (purified raw cotton) 684 000
Building 7 459 000
sugarcane 31 228 000
grapes 1 551 000
potatoes 1 250 000
bananas 275 000
apples 290 000
oranges 624 000
Rice 1 760 000

Tourism in Australia

Tourism is one of Australia’s largest and fastest growing industries. It has the greatest impact on the country’s employment and foreign exchange income. National tourists (the country’s own citizens holidaying in their own country) account for 3/4 of the tourists’ total consumption, while international tourists account for the remaining 1/4. A different and sensational nature combined with attractive climate and distinctive lifestyle make the country interesting for international tourists. Olympic Games in Sydney in 2000 boosted interest in the country. Among the most famous destinations for international tourists are the Sydney metropolis, the Northern Territory with Uluru (Ayers Rock) and the state of Queensland with its tropical islands and Great Barrier Reef. For the year 2001–02, Australia had 4.8 million foreign visitors, of which 54% stated that they were on holiday, 35% visited friends and/or family or business and 6% were studying. Australia has invested in expanding its sources of income, and the sale of study places has become very important. In total, foreign visitors contributed 11% of foreign exchange revenues.

Oceania Business

Oceania Business

Oceania’s economy is largely centered on its two main countries: Australia and New Zealand. See Countryaah for details.

Oceania’s economy is basically centered on Australia and New Zealand, due to the fact that these two countries together make up more than 90% of the continent and are the only two developed nations in the region.

Australia’s Gross Domestic Product, for example, was 1.5 trillion in 2012; that of New Zealand was 171 billion, while that of Fiji was almost four billion. It is clear that this gigantic difference is not only in the level of development, but also in the territorial and population difference, given that a country with the dimensions and number of inhabitants of Australia is better able to produce wealth than those places that are reduced to one. small islands set.

These small countries, moreover, concentrate their economic activities on tourism, due to the beautiful natural forms available, which have been scarcely explored. Many of these territories are highly dependent on food imports, given the unavailability of arable land. Thus, aspects of Oceania’s economy are basically based on the activities of its two main powers.

On the other hand, Australia and New Zealand are major food producers, constituting an advanced and highly mechanized agriculture, which is linked to a high food industrial park.

In the Australian territory, the cultivation of tobacco, wine and wheat stands out, also counting on reserves of natural gas, coal, uranium, iron ore, gold, copper and many others. It is, therefore, one of the countries that receives the most foreign investment in the world. In the Australian economy, the tertiary sector activities stand out, which correspond to almost 70% of the local wealth production. Exports are mainly directed to Asia, with emphasis on China, which receives a large amount of Australian fuels.

In New Zealand, farming activities are very active in the production of wool, beef, sheep and pork, in addition to the production of dairy products and honey on a large scale. These products are the country’s main forms of export. Also noteworthy is the production of fossil energy resources, such as oil, natural gas and mineral coal.

Another highlight for Oceania’s economy is the existence of APEC (Economic Cooperation in Asia and the Pacific), which integrates Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and countries in Asia and the Americas, forming one of the most important economic blocks in the world., for composing economies such as the United States, China and Japan.

Small countries (Fiji, Marshall Islands, Solomon Islands, Kiribati, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu), in addition to tourism in Oceania, also operate to a lesser extent in agricultural production subsistence and fishing activity. Its exports basically consist of primary products, such as cocoa, coconut and bananas.

Country Total GDP (million US dollars) Agriculture’s share of GDP (percent) Manufacturing industry’s share of GDP (percent)
Australia 1 432 195 (2018) 2.6 (2018) 5.8 (2018)
Fiji 5,480 (2018) 10.4 (2018) 10.8 (2018)
Kiribati 188 (2018) 30.8 (2017) 4.3 (2017)
Marshall Islands 212 (2018) 16.8 (2017) 1.8 (2017)
Micronesia Federation 345 (2018) 27.1 (2016) 0.6 (2016)
Nauru 115 (2018) 3.6 (2015) 0.0 (2015)
New Zealand 205 025 (2018) 6.6 (2016) 10.0 (2016)
Palau 310 (2018) 3.2 (2017) 1.0 (2017)
Papua New Guinea 23 432 (2018) 17.9 (2016) 1.9 (2016)
Solomon Islands 1,412 (2018) 35.0 (2006)
Samoa 861 (2018) 10.7 (2018) 7.5 (2018)
Tonga 450 (2018) 17.2 (2016) 6.2 (2016)
Tuvalu 43 (2018) 16.5 (2015) 1.0 (2011)
Vanuatu 888 (2018) 26.6 (2015) 3.6 (2015)

Economy of Oceania

The Oceania is a continent made up of thousands of islands in the South Pacific and is divided into three regions: Melanesia (black islands), Micronesia (small islands) and Polynesia (many islands), as well as New Zealand and Australia. Melanesia owes its name to the native inhabitants who have black skin and is located in the north, northeast and east of Australia. Micronesia is made up of several small islands, and is located in the north and northeast of Melanesia. Polynesia is the most distant group of islands, between the northeast and southeast of Australia, reaching Hawaii (USA), the northeast, and Easter Island(Chile), to the southeast. Although the continent has many islands, most of them are territories of France, England and the United States. Therefore, there are few independent countries. Economically, only Australia and New Zealand stand out on the world stage.

The islands of Oceania, except New Zealand, have an underdeveloped economy, due to natural factors, isolation from the main markets, small territory, and human factors, such as overpopulation and lack of qualified labor. Tourism is the main source of income for the islands, but fishing and extraction of primary products are also relevant. Agriculture is practiced in small family units, with rare large estates on the larger islands. The main agricultural exports are coconut and derivatives, in addition to cocoa, spices and sugar cane. The extraction of ores occurs on some islands, the main ores are copper and gold, in the islands of Fiji, Solomon and New Guinea, nickel in New Caledonia, and oil, on the island of Irian Jaya.

Australia is the largest country in Oceania, both in territory and in population (approximately 70% of the continent’s population), in addition to having the continent’s best developed economy. Primary production, agriculture and mineral extraction, is of great importance in the Australian economy. Agriculture has a strong mechanization, which increases agricultural productivity, and exports mainly products such as tobacco, wine and wheat, being one of the largest producers of the latter and derived products. Australia’s main herds are sheep, goats and cattle. Mineral extraction is the flagship of the Australian economy. Ores such as bauxite (the world’s largest producer) for the production of aluminum, copper, iron, nickel and gold are the country’s main exports, in addition to others with less economic impact. The Australian industry is well diversified, with production of food products, chemical industry, metallurgy, steel and petrochemicals being the main industries in the country. Tourism is of great importance in the economy, mainly study tourism, being one of the main destinations for those who wish to take a course abroad.

New Zealand has changed its economy in recent years, moving from an economy dependent on agriculture to a diversified economy. Agriculture still represents an important slice of the New Zealand economy, mainly sheep and kiwi exports, in addition to fishing, forestry, fish and seafood production, and planting and timber extraction – mainly exported to Asian countries. In the secondary sector, we see a strong base industry, with steel and metallurgy, in addition to oil production. Tourism, as in Australia, is of great importance in the country’s economy.

Northern Mariana Islands

In 1990, the UN Security Council’s protective status against the Northern Mariana Islands ceased to be declared a free state associated with the United States.

The Republicans won a significant majority in the November 1991 parliamentary elections, deciding that this majority should be used to change relations with the United States, giving the Marianas complete financial control over its 200-mile ocean rights zone.

In 1992, the United States Supreme Court affirmed the land ownership system in the country, according to which only the Marians can own land in the country. In 1994, Froilan C. Tenorio was re-elected governor.

In 1995, there were 22,600 foreign workers in the country – three times more than the number of workers from the Marianas themselves. The latter group also had an unemployment rate of 15%.
In January 1998, Tenorio was re-elected governor. However, the victory was called into question by the opposition as it was his 3rd term.

Local officials, supported by key figures among Republicans in the United States, ran through 1999 an intense dispute with Bill Clinton’s government about the slave-like conditions under which migrant workers in the Marianas worked. Despite these criticisms and similar criticisms from human rights organizations, Washington prefers workers to be subject to almost slave-like conditions. It allows companies from the US to settle down, exploit the cheap labor, and lack of customs regulation between the Marianas and the US as well as write on their goods that they are produced in the US.
Since the 1960’s, the US military has been responsible for extensive pollution of the islands. In early 2002, residents of the Tanapag district of the capital Saipan conducted a demonstration – backed by Greenpeace – in front of the United States Attorney General’s Office in protest against the military’s indifference and massive environmental attacks.

In March 2004, the Commonwealth Development Authority (CDA) rejected a proposal by Governor Babauta to invest $ 500,000 in Palau Micronesia Air. The investment was considered too risky. In the same month, a plan to modernize Saipan airport was presented for several US $ million.

During the period 1990-2005, the annual flow of tourists – predominantly Japanese – reached over ½ million. Tourism accounted for half of the country’s jobs and 25% of GDP.

In 2006, Governor Benigno Fitial was accused of acting autocratic in a number of the country’s media. He had decided to revoke the autonomy of a number of state institutions and place them under his office.

Gender distribution in 2007 was the most uneven in the world. There were only 0.77 men for each woman.

Even before the onset of the global economic crisis, the Marianas were severely weakened financially. The islands are outside the US immigration system, and this had in the years before opened up to 15,000 Chinese migrant workers working in the islands textile industry. However, a 2005 WTO agreement put a stop to this practice and the textile industry was almost wiped out in 2009 – with serious economic consequences for the islands’ economy.

Deputy Governor Timothy P. Villagomez had to resign in April 2009 after being convicted of fraud in a comprehensive case of financial crime. In November 2009, Governor Fitial was re-elected to the post. He got 51% of the votes in the 2nd rounds after deadly running between the two strongest candidates in the 1st rounds.

Parliament voted in February 2013 to put Governor Benigno Fitial in court for a corruption. Post was instead taken over by Eloy Inos.

Oceania Business