Category: North America

THE AFRICAN AMERICAN POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES
At the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, the majority of the Afro-American population was still concentrated in the so-called southern states in the south-east of the country. The population of the other states was – apart from the Indians, the descendants of Spanish-Mexican colonists in the southwest and smaller groups of Chinese – clearly dominated by the descendants of European immigrants.

From the early 17th century onwards, Afro-Americans were brought to the former British colonies as slaves in order to work as unlawful workers on the cotton, tobacco and rice plantations and to secure the prosperity of the colonies. Although the entry of slaves was forbidden by law as early as 1808, at least another 250,000 slaves entered the United States illegally by 1860. Even the liberation of slaves, proclaimed by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, did not prevent African-Americans from being exposed to social and political discrimination and economic disadvantage for more than another century, and in some cases still are today.

After the turn of the 20th century, the “Great Migration” saw an increased migration of Afro-Americans from the agrarian south to the industrial cities of the north and west Harlem in New York. However, since around 1990 the traditional migration pattern of African Americans has changed fundamentally. They are increasingly migrating from the cities of the Northeast, the Midwest and the West to the southern United States. For more information about the continent of North America, please check computergees.com.

United States Cinematography in the 1960’s and 1970’s

United States Cinematography in the 1960’s and 1970’s

But all this belongs to a world that was about to end. US anti-communism had lost its luster by the end of the decade, and shortly thereafter, in 1960, JF Kennedy was elected president. It was not so much his ‘new frontier’ slogan that changed things, but his assassination in Dallas (1963), an event that profoundly changed the entire American culture, casting a long shadow of suspicion and uncertainty over the entire country. From that moment there was not a single expression of the nation’s thought about itself that was not conditioned by what that tragedy hid. In fiction, for example, a long chain of paranoid novels opened up (of which Th. Pynchon is probably the most representative author), whose register is recognizable in some films of the Sixties and in not a few others of the following decade. John Frankenheimer, in particular, would have given Hollywood two works in this eloquent sense: The Manchurian candidate (1962; Go and Kill) and Seconds (1966; Diabolical Operation). Neither deals directly with the assassination of JF Kennedy: the first still seems to breathe the climate of McCarthyist hysterical anti-communism in the story of a diabolical plot by the ‘reds’ to push an American into a political attack shortly after the Korean War; the second leaves out any reference of a political nature to describe a world of suspicion and fear that on closer inspection can be read as much as that of the McCarthy period as well as that experienced by the US after the Dallas events.

A cinema, therefore, which in the past had enjoyed attention and success was now obsolete. Joseph L. Mankiewicz’s Cleopatra (1963) box office collapse perfectly summarizes the demise of old Hollywood with its superproductive glories, its epic celebration of history and even its star system. Just as a problematic and dramatic social reality had crept into the dreamy world of the musical (West Side story, 1961, by Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins), so the heroic one of the western would have given way to a twilight vision of the cowboy (Ride the high country, 1962, Challenge in the High Sierra, by Sam Peckinpah). Science fiction itself changed its tune, abandoning its traditional invasion ghosts: Kennedy’s assassination had shown that danger doesn’t always come from external and that sometimes must be sought within the borders of the country. For this reason the theme of the atomic danger was transformed again into a political fiction, concern for the fate of the planet in the face of the different possible ways of carrying out the nuclear holocaust by crazy splinters of power: examples of this are films such as Seven days in May (1964; Seven Days in May) by Frankenheimer, Fail safe (1964; Foolproof) by Sidney Lumet, The Bedford incident (1965; State of alarm) by James B. Harris and of course the forerunner Dr. Strangelove: or how I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb (1964; Doctor Strangelove, or: how I learned not to worry and to love the bomb) of that Stanley Kubrick who, like Joseph Losey and others, had preferred to emigrate to Great Britain.

The African American Melvin van Peebles also emigrated to Europe and lived in France for ten years, where he made La permission (1968), based on one of his novels and whirlwindly experimental. Then landed in the US, the film signaled him as a very original promise and earned him a Hollywood production, The watermelon man (1970; The coffee-milk man), but his exceptional work was, the following year, Sweet sweetback’s baadasssss song, an independent production with a very violent character, full of action, but also with a strong criticism of white society.

It was no coincidence that at the turn of the 1950s and 1960s an anti-Hollywood art cinema took root in the US, based on the New Yorker New American Cinema Group by Jonas Mekas, advocate of a cinematography free from the industrial and economic constraints of production. mainstream and willing to bold experimentation (see experimental, cinema). However, that was a phenomenon that, with different nuances, invested more than a Western cinema at that time. We also witnessed the birth of the French New Wave and Free Cinema British, sure signs that something was changing in the culture of the entire planet. These are important events because they testify to much more than an attempt at cinematic renewal. Cinema is only the maneuvering ground for the discomfort that invested the new generations: the Nouveau Roman in French fiction, the Angry Young Men in the British one (and also in the theater, see Great Britain), the Spanish Nueva ola were other contiguous faces. of that discomfort and that desire for renewal, which after all also touched Italy with the formation of Gruppo 63. The problem was now that of renewing models, structures, production methods, taste, forms and contents.

The fall of traditional cultural values, moreover, had invested, especially in the US, also another area of ​​visual operations, that of the figurative arts. Heirs of the formal unhinging of the pre-war avant-gardes, the artists who inaugurated Pop Art were among the pioneers of the new sensibility: a sensibility that was exercised first of all on the ephemeral products of mass culture, by the stars of the news (Marilyn Monroe, Jacqueline Kennedy) to ready-to-eat foods and household products (cans of Campbell soups, Brillo detergent, etc.). The most domestic, simple and banal everyday had risen to be an emblematic cultural object of an entire society and its values.

Cinema, by now undergoing a profound transformation towards the end of the 1960s, operated in the same direction. A new generation of young producers rejected the dictates of the past, rejected the tradition of the studios, financed a series of low-budget films that intended to focus on the restlessness and discomfort of the moment. However, it was no longer the bewildering mythology linked to the advent of rock and roll a decade earlier; the intention was not on the one hand of épater le bourgeois and on the other hand to attract the superficial sympathies of Sunday teenagers with vaguely scandalous little films seasoned with drums, screams and saxophone. This time a vision of the world emerged from that cinema, a sometimes nostalgic perspective that placed the eventual rebellion of his heroes (or rather, anti-heroes) in an existential area of ​​introversion, of interiority, of privacy. In short, it was also a cinema of redemption: redemption from the widespread opinion that the new generations were violent, superficial, stubborn, polemical, aggressive. Of course, in the mid-1960s there had been the riots at Berkeley University (not to mention the Miami convention and the siege of Chicago, so harshly narrated by Norman Mailer’s counter-current voice) and in the early 1970s those of Kent University. But it was precisely from this image of violence that had been glued to it that the new generation wave intended to distance itself. And it was Hollywood itself that gave her a hand. The term Hollywood, however, is at this point inaccurate. New Hollywood. The renewal of the US film capital took place on several levels and in various directions. On the production side, a new generation of investors made their way, focusing on largely low-budget films; on the directorial side there was the arrival of an equally new and young wave of directors, some with a television background (Sydney Pollack, Stuart Rosenberg, Robert Altman himself), others who came out of the university film schools that in the meantime had begun to flourish in the country (George Lucas, for example) or trained through a hard apprenticeship at the Corman group. The latter in particular brought to Hollywood a component that until then was unknown to her: cinephilia. Feed on classic American cinema, these young people translated their culture to varying degrees in their films: P. Bogdanovich, the most sensational example, for a few years made films that were basically (splendid) imitations from Hawks and other masters of the past. In other words, US cinema had reached such a saturation point that it was re-enacted in different forms thanks to the competence and enthusiasm of the new generation of authors.

On a technical level, the new cinema adapted itself magnificently to the different production situation. Leaving the spaces of the studios, it ventured into the body of a country explored in the field in its everyday life and in its contradictions. A film in some ways pioneering like Easy rider (1969; Easy rider – Freedom and fear) by Dennis Hopper represents the new Hollywood situation well. Filmed in the open spaces of the West, it resumed the tradition of the road movie, but moving away from the restrictive dictates of classic Hollywood. New Hollywood cinema was a cinema in continuous motion, which adapted to the mobility of its protagonists. It was not for nothing that the operator Fouan Said invented the Cinemobile Mark IV at the beginning of the decade, a vehicle equipped to facilitate the filming of moving subjects in space. Photography itself could not fail to undergo strong variations compared to the classical tradition: where the Thirties had been characterized by high key lighting (slightly overexposed) and the 1940s by chiaroscuro, in the Seventies coarse-grained film triumphed, as if to give action a rate of realism, of improvisation, of truths normally absent from Hollywood cinema. In turn, the editing became more broken and nervous (Peckinpah’s films are, among other things, famous for the very high number of jump cuts), insinuating in the stories an objective correlative of the neurosis of the characters. The zoom progressively replaced the carriage forward, in order to make the movement more objective, that is, free from the slavery of any point of view (Altmanian zooms in particular are famous).

A radical change in content corresponded to these formal innovations: the revolt against classical cinema took place in a conspicuous way in the historical-moral operation that not a few films carried out. In almost all the works set in a more or less distant past, traditional values ​​were overturned: the Indian emerged as the true and noble hero, mistreated and betrayed by the treacherous white government, the outlaw was represented as a Robin Hood crushed by a power that took it as an alibi for his own misdeeds. In short, Hollywood rewrote national history from the point of view of counterculture (these were the years of the hippy movement) and the vision of the middle class proposed in contemporary films was very different from that, albeit remarkably critical, of the Hollywood of the past: a film like The graduate (1967;

The revolution also touched genres, once stainless structures that gradually lost their rigidity, often contaminating themselves with others in order to make cataloging difficult. This phenomenon must be read within a much broader change, the one that refers to the advent of the postmodern: a vision of the world that renounces any order and classification to present reality as an indistinct mass of the most diverse and irreconcilable components. In the seventies, Western culture became an alternative (and later virtual) universe characterized by the juxtaposition of the incongruous, by careless gratuitousness. It is not difficult to trace on this line eloquent connections between different artistic fields: for example, an evident debt of New Hollywood towards contemporary figurative arts, so that in a film like Taxi Driver (1976) by Martin Scorsese the influence of the American pictorial hyperrealism of the 1960s is easily readable (J. Salt, R. Estee etc..). Indeed, there were filmmakers who, like Bogdanovich, attempted an application of the hyperrealist instances not in terms of simple reproduction, but by constructing the film as an exact repetition of the ‘real’ model: The last picture show (1971; The last show) was indeed a reproduction, not only visual but also stylistic, of the provincial family melodrama a la Minnelli, typical of the 1950s. Differently, but in the same way, in the first films made by Bob Rafelson – Five easy pieces (1970; Five easy pieces), The king of Marvin gardens (1972; The king of the gardens by Marvin) – reality was observed by the camera with such close and calm attention as to bring back moments of the most domestic Italian Neorealism. But a shadow loomed over that cinema, the ghost of the collapse of confidence, optimism, hope that occurred in the early sixties. America was no longer what it once was and she knew well that she could not return to the happy era of her certainties. This explains the very strong nostalgic component of New Hollywood, its continuous reinterpretation of a past that may not always be edifying, but in which the ancient national virtues were still in force. Contemporary America, it was clearly seen in the films that dealt with it, was quite different. In particular, the image of a nation in the grip of powerful and top secret conspiratorial forces. Not only in films like Stuart Rosenberg’s WUSA (1970; A Man Today), Alan J. Pakula’s The Parallax View (1974; Why Murder), David Miller’s Executive action (1973; Executive action), which featured more or less veiled what little was known about the facts relating to the assassination of President Kennedy (in the meantime, ML King and R. Kennedy had also been killed), but also films of other types and invoices clearly revealed a paranoid unease that the explosion of the Watergate case in 1974 had helped to enlarge. Films such as Lumet’s The Anderson tapes (1971; Record Robbery in New York) and Tree days of the Condor (1975; The three days of the Condor) directed by Pollack show a reality monitored by a dark power in which everyone is constantly observed thanks to efficient technologies, or are even in danger of life due to organizations that, colluding or not with power, act underground eliminating all deviant elements. Nostalgic vogue therefore realizes why the Twenties, Thirties and Forties were so popular in this cinema, which deepened them as never before, both in comedy, both in melodrama, and in gangster films.

It should not be forgotten, however, that the 1970s marked a turning point in Hollywood’s attitude towards black audiences. For the first time, in fact, the industry realized that that public existed and that it was a potential and strong buyer. At that time, proposals aimed at it flourished, mostly labeled under the term of blaxploitation, that is exploitation in a black key, with films such as Shaft (1971; Shaft the detective) by Gordon Parks, which had a large number of sequels, or Coffy (1973) by white director Jack Hill, who launched new black stars, from Richard Roundtree to Pam Grier. New Hollywood, however, lasted the space of a morning. In the mid-1970s, two young writers of the new wave, G. Lucas and Steven Spielberg, made two hugely successful science fiction films: respectively, Star wars (1977; Star Wars) and Close encounters of the third kind (1977; Close encounters of the third kind). From that moment a new New Hollywood began, characterized by the relaunch of spectacular superproduction (whose production values ​​were this time technical and not artisanal), but also characterized by the strong revival of science fiction, which, together with horror, would soon become the cinematic genre that marked the end of the century. It was not about escapism or a reaction to the New Hollywood realism of a few years ago. On the contrary, the two phenomena are linked by a red thread: reality meticulously, hyperrealistically reconstructed and observed by so many New Hollywood cinemas, could only dissolve in a space of the mind.

United States Cinematography in the 1960's and 1970's

United States Economy and Finance

United States Economy and Finance

The growing political tension in Europe during 1938 and the outbreak of hostilities in September 1939 contributed, more than any other domestic measure, to relieve the US economy from that phase of depression which, which began in the last quarter of 1937, it had reached its maximum severity in May 1938, with an index of industrial production reduced to 78% of the average for the five-year period 1935-39 and a total of about 10 million unemployed.

As a consequence of the fears of the approach of the conflict there was, starting from September 1938, a growing influx of gold, due in part to the transfer of capital in search of refuge and in part to the greater exports of goods to European countries. prepared for war. After September 1939, the inflow of gold through the movement of capital was considerably reduced, owing to the limitations imposed in the belligerent countries on private transfers; on the other hand, imports of gold increased more and more in the face of exports of goods to the struggling countries, part of which was paid for with the liquidation of assets in the USA following these operations, the official gold reserves of the country, which in the end in 1937 did not reach 13 billion dollars, they went to 17.

In September 1939 the War Resources Board was established to study the needs and sources of supply of defense materials; this was followed, in May 1940, by the Office for Emergency Management for the elaboration of the entire defense program; the assets in the US of citizens of the various occupied countries or in any case entered the orbit of the Axis were then gradually blocked; finally, in March 1941, with the Lend – lease act) the sending of materials of all kinds to countries fighting against the Axis was authorized. At the same time, the financing of the defense program was ensured and measures were taken to minimize the inflationary repercussions of the increase in production for war purposes. Defense spending, which in July 1940 did not yet reach 200 million per month, exceeded 500 million in the following January, reached 900 million in July 1941, and reached 1.7 billion per month on the eve of Pearl Harbor. Part of these expenses was met with an increase in taxation (in 1940 the minimum income tax exemptions were reduced; companies, in addition to subjecting to an increase of about a third of the ordinary tax, were affected by a new tax on excess profits; the rates of other taxes were increased on average by 10%; in March 1941 all new state issues were subject to federal income tax; finally, with Revenue act of September 1941 the entire system of income tax was changed; all these changes ensured the tax authorities increased revenue of about 5 billion); a greater part through the issuance of public debt securities, mainly long-term, which efforts were made to preferably place among private individuals (between June 1938 and June 1941 the public debt increased by almost 12 billion); finally another part through the bank financing of state contracts, allowed and regulated by a law of October 1940.

The policy of the Federal Reserve System (FRS) aimed at achieving two main objectives: to keep government bonds stable on the market – in order to facilitate the placement of new issues – and to reduce the circulating average to a minimum compatible with the needs of defense. The interventions to achieve the first objective were very limited; Instead, legislation aimed at containing the expansion of credit had greater development. Especially important is Regulation W. of the FR Board (August 21, 1941) which established restrictions on installment sales, and the increase, also decreed by the Board, starting from November 1, 1941, of the compulsory reserves of member banks up to the maximum permitted by law (26% of sight deposits for banks in New York and Chicago; 20% for those located in cities where RF banks are located; 14.4% for others; 6% of term deposits for all types of banks). Parallel to the action of the FRS was that of the government, aimed at combating inflation through price control and rationing, implemented through the OPA (Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply, established in April 1941),

Thanks to the measures reviewed, the US found themselves in December 1941 in the best conditions to start the war. The economic-financial situation of the country at that time can be summarized in the following figures: industrial production index (base 1935-39) = 167; unemployment about 4 million (December 1938 about 9 million); wholesale price index (base 1938) = 111; cost of living index (base 1938) = 104; circulation = 9.6 billion (December 1938 = 5.8 billion); sight deposits = 39 billion (December 1938 = 26 billion); public debt = 49 billion (December 1938 = 37.2 billion), with an interest charge of 1.3 billion (1938 = 1.1 billion); national income for the year 1941 = 97 billion (1938 = 64 billion).

With the participation of the US in the conflict, the whole mechanism set up to channel the available resources towards the purposes of war began to work at full capacity.

Control over war production was entrusted to a new body, established in January 1942 with very broad powers, the War Production Board; the price control became more rigorous with the enactment, in the same month of January, of the Emergency price control act and with the publication, in the following April, of a regulation that bound the prices of most of the goods intended for civil consumption, services and leases to the level of March 1942. With a provision of March 1942 the state guarantee was granted to loans made to finance war production; through various offices several million workers were directed to war production and conveniently trained. Public spending in the four years between July 1941 and June 1945 reached the total figure of 305 billion, over 90% of which directly or indirectly attributable to the war. Thanks to the tax increases decreed by Congress in 1942, to the improvements in the assessment and collection systems made in 1943 and to the higher revenue deriving from the increase in national income, the state was able to collect for taxes in the four years the amount of 125 billion, equal to approximately 41% of the total expenditure. Faced with the imperious need for money to cover the remainder, the Treasury offered for subscription securities with characteristics capable of satisfying the needs of the various categories of investors, and the FRS pursued a complex policy aimed at keeping the rate of interest low. . Depending on the various measures adopted, between June 1941 and December 1945 the banking system absorbed 93 billion of government bonds (22 of which purchased by the FRS), that is to say more than 40% of the issues of the period.

Subject to the needs of financing the war, however, the FRS did not fail to take measures to curb the race to inflation as much as possible. In this regard, the further restrictions on the installment sale credit in the first half of 1942 deserve special mention; the efforts made, in collaboration with the Treasury, to place the largest possible quantity of government bonds offered for subscription among private individuals; the persuasion carried out at the banks to induce them to limit credit in sectors not directly affecting war production; finally, the increase in the coverage margins for transactions in securities, which were brought in February 1945 to 50% of the market value of the securities and further increased to 75% from 5 July 1945.

The heavy expenses incurred by the government for purchases of goods and services abroad and the foreign expenses of the troops determined during the war an exodus of gold from the US and an increase in the availability of dollars in many foreign countries, especially in the United States. Latin America. The official gold reserves of the US fell at the end of 1943 to 21.9 billion and fell to 20.1 billion at the end of 1945. Much of the gold, however, did not physically leave the country, but remained credited to it, earmarked, at the Reserve Banks in favor of governments or central banks of foreign countries (2.2 billion at the end of 1941 and 4.2 billion at the end of 1945). Foreign dollar holdings increased by about 3 billion during the war, reaching 6.4 billion at the end of December 1945.

The unfavorable trend in the US balance of payments for the period under review, in addition to the causes already mentioned, was largely influenced by the fact that during the whole war the majority of US exports were under the rent and loan law and therefore under the law. mostly free. (For the extent of the supplies see rents and loans ; foreign loans in this Appendix).

At the end of the war, the economic-financial situation of the US had undergone the following changes: the industrial production index, after the maximum of 239 (1935-39 = 100) reached in 1943, had dropped to 203; unemployment, after falling to insignificant figures in the autumn of 1944, numbered about one million; the wholesale price index had reached the level of 134, the cost of living index had passed to 128, circulation to 26.5 billion (December 1945); sight deposits at 75.9 billion (December 1945); the public debt of 278.1 billion (December 1945), with an interest charge of 3.6 billion (financial year 1944-45); the national income (year 1945) to 161 billion.

With the end of hostilities almost simultaneously new, complex problems arose to be solved: reconversion of the economy from the organization of war to that of peace; limitation of the increase in prices, which tended to grow strongly due to the imbalance between a large demand, boosted by the liquidity accumulated in the hands of the public during the war years, and a limited supply due to the initial scarce availability of goods and services; various financial problems, internal and external.

The reconversion, which began in many cases before the war ended, and favored with various measures (tax breaks and reimbursement of taxes paid during the war, suspension of rationing and controls in some sectors, sale of state-owned companies to private individuals, etc.) it generally took place without excessive difficulty and in a shorter period of time than expected. The industrial production index, which fell between February 1945 and February 1946 from 235 to 152, increased under the pressure of the strong demand which was postponed to 182 (end of 1946) and 200 (end of 1947).

Less satisfactory results, also due to the influence of opposing interests, were instead obtained in the fight against inflation. In the period between September 1945 and June 1946, thanks to continued government controls, the official wholesale price index only increased from 134 to 144; however, following the almost complete abolition of price controls and subsidies, between July and November 1946, and the abolition, from 1 November 1947, of credit controls for installment sales – both wanted by Congress, despite the contrary warning of the monetary authorities and the repeated calls for more powers to fight inflation made by President Truman – the index rose to 179 at the end of 1946 and to 208 at the end of 1947, highlighting a devaluation of over 50% of the dollar’s purchasing power in terms of wholesale goods. This happened despite the government and FRS interventions to curb inflation through the use of the limited means at their disposal. State spending sharply decreased with the cessation of hostilities, the Treasury used, in the course of 1946, most of its ample cash available for the repayment of short-term public debt (mainly held by the banks), which decreased by 20 billion, helping to limit the expansion of bank credit; with the need to encourage government issuance gone, the FR Board abolished, in the spring of 1946, the 1/2% favor rate introduced during the war for advances on government bonds; in July 1947, as the signs of inflation increased and therefore the need for more vigorous measures increased, the provision that obliged the FRS to purchase bills of exchange from the Treasury banks at a rate of 3/8% was also abolished. At the same time, a policy of increasing the cost of money was initiated, the main steps of which were: the gradual increase in the interest rate on short-term Treasury securities up to 1.16% for three-month and 1-month issues., 25% for those at one year; the gradual increase in the official discount rate up to 1½ per cent, from 13 August 1948; lowering the level of price support for long-term government bonds. The FRS also made use of the other means of market control at its disposal, raising the coverage margins for securities transactions to 100% in January 1946 (which were however brought back to 75% in February 1947) and increasing the required reserves of member banks located in New York City and Chicago in the first half of 1948 from 20 to 24%. These measures proved insufficient, the FRS, having obtained the necessary powers from the Congress, in September 1948 Regulation W with some temperaments and increased the required reserves to 26.22 and 16% of sight deposits respectively for the three categories of member banks and to 7½% of term deposits for all member banks.

In the field of public finance, even astonishing was the speed with which the balance of the state budget was restored, as can be seen from the following figures:

In fact, the 1947-48 budget closed with a surplus of 8.4 billion, thanks above all to the persistence of a high level of taxation and despite the fact that the expenses directly connected with the war still amounted to 22.3 billion. The budget deficits for the years 1948 and 1949 are mainly attributable to the tax relief approved by Congress in April 1948; the main items of expenditure include those for defense (29 and 34% respectively for the two years), for aid abroad (18 and 16%), for assistance to veterans (17 and 13%) and for interest on public debt (13%).

With the end of the war, the US balance of payments underwent a radical transformation. Once the free allocations for rent and loans had ended and expenses abroad decreased sharply, the growing demand for American goods by foreign countries gave rise to the problem of financing export surpluses, which amounted to about 22.5 billion over the three-year period. 1946-48. A part of these continued to be financed with free allocations to the various bodies set up within the UN for assistance to war-damaged countries (first among these UNRRA, which received US contributions for 2.7 billion) or through direct aid, such as aid to the civilian populations of the territories occupied by American troops (2.5 billion until 30 September 1948), Economic Cooperation Act of April 3, 1948, currently being disbursed in favor of the countries participating in the OEEC, according to a four-year plan which provides, for the first year, free allocations for about 4 billion and long-term loans for about one billion (v. economic plan: Marshall Plan). Another part of the exports was financed with the use of dollar holdings and with transfers of gold. In the course of the three-year period 1946-48, net foreign funds held by the banking system decreased by 2 billion, reducing to approximately 4.5 billion; in the same period of time the official gold reserves, despite a payment of 687.5 million to the Interfund, increased by 4.1 billion, passing to 24.2 billion; part of the gold was withdrawn from that deposited on behalf of foreign countries, which fell at the end of 1947 to 3.8 billion. The third source of export financing was loans. Faced with the need to meet war-damaged countries also with this form of help, with the law of July 31, 1945, the lending capacity of the Export-Import Bank was increased from 700 to 3500 million. At 30 June 1948 the Bank had outstanding loans for approximately 2.9 billion, of which 2.2 billion actually disbursed. The main borrowers were France (1.2 billion), Canada (300 million, of which 160 still to be disbursed) and Holland (192 million). Italy had loans for 109 million, of which almost 33 were disbursed. The Bank was also recently commissioned to administer ERP loans. Other loans were granted to complete the rental and loan supplies (pipeline credits) for an amount of approximately 1.2 billion, for the sale in foreign countries of the remnants of war (1.3 billion), to meet the special needs of some countries. Among the loans of the latter category, the one of $ 3,750 million granted to Great Britain in December 1945, to help it overcome the transition period, deserves special mention.

Finally, also in the field of international financial activity, the work carried out by the US to create the Bretton Woods institutes (see) and to ensure their functioning should be remembered. The US participates in the Fund with a share of 2750 million dollars, equal to approximately 34% of the total amount subscribed so far, and in the Bank with a share of 3175 million, equal to 38% of the total current subscriptions, and therefore exercise a predominant influence in both organisms. In order to coordinate the international financial activity with the internal one, the National Advisory Council on international monetary and financial problems was established by law of 31 July 1945 (the same that authorized the participation of the US in the Bretton Woods institutes).

At 31 December 1948 the economic and financial situation of the US was thus modified with respect to that at the end of the war: the industrial production index had dropped to 189; the number of unemployed had increased to about 1.9 million; the wholesale price index had further risen to 206; the cost of living index had risen to 170; circulation had dropped to 25.7 billion; sight deposits had gone up to 85.8 billion and term deposits to 57.3 billion; public debt had further decreased to 252.8 billion and was composed of 45.9 billion short-term Treasury securities, 111.4 billion medium and long-term Treasury certificates, for 55, 4 billion from savings certificates (capitalization securities similar to Italian interest-bearing postal bonds) and the remainder from special issues, tax certificates and non-interest bearing debt; the national income, on the basis of the data of the first three quarters of 1948, was estimated for the whole of 1948 at 221.5 milliards.

United States Economy and Finance 2

Canada in World War II

Canada in World War II

On the eve of the Second World War, Canada was showing evident signs of luxuriant demographic and economic development, which ensured that it had great chances of becoming a world power in the near future. The war, which once again saw Canada rush to the aid of the two mother countries, Great Britain and France, has powerfully contributed to accelerating this development.

Internally, Canadian life in the last ten years has been marked in the political field by a notable increase in the votes of the Cooperative Canadian Federation (CCF), a socialist party that in a few years (it was founded only in 1932) has already achieved conspicuous successes., especially in the prairie provinces, to the point of becoming a necessary element in the Canadian political equilibrium. The old liberal leader WL Mackenzie King (who in August 1948 withdrew from active political life by ceding the party presidency to Foreign Minister Saint Laurent) was able to overcome, thanks to his consummate skill, all the difficult tests of war and postwar period; his party, the only one that in the complex Canadian life has a widespread base and therefore can be called the interpreter of the whole country, while experiencing notable setbacks between 1940 and 1945 (from 2,352,000 to 2,029,000 votes), it is still by far the strongest party. The positions of the individual parties, as they appeared after the elections of 11 June 1945, were the following: out of 245 seats the liberals had 119, the conservatives 66, the CCF 28, the party of social credit 13, the progressive Labor (communist) 1.

As for conservatives, whose political base is limited to English-speaking provinces (especially Ontario), the qualification of “progressives” added to the denomination of conservatives after the December 1942 congress may be indicative. The political content of the main parties quite faithfully reflects that of the three major British parties in an older phase of development, corresponding to the most recent industrial development and the consequent weakness of the trade union movement, divided into two main bodies adhering respectively to the AFL and the CIO of the neighboring American confederation, as well as to a non-negligible Confederation of Christian workers in the state of Quebec. Overall, only slightly more than 25% of workers have been registered in trade unions so far.

In the economic field, the Second World War provoked a very intense industrial development, due to the double need to produce for the war and for the internal market. Thus between 1939 and 1943 the net value of production tripled, while between 1939 and 1944 that of exports quadrupled. Even taking into account a certain price tension due to the enormous demand for goods, the figures reported are nevertheless very significant. Another effect of the war was an enormous increase in trade with the United States, which in 1946 rose to as much as 2,250 million dollars (compared to around 800 million in the pre-war period), with a clear preponderance, however, of imports over exports. This latter fact had as a consequence, at the end of 1947 and at the beginning of 1948,

The leaders of Canadian politics had to solve the problems common to all the already belligerent countries after the war; in particular the repatriation of soldiers overseas (about half a million) and their reintegration into productive activities. But, on the whole, these difficulties were overcome without serious complications. Meanwhile, the population had continued to grow rapidly.

Even more striking, for foreign observers, is the increased international importance of Canada, both within the Pan-American community and within the British Commonwealth, in which it has increasingly assumed the role of an independent and sovereign nation, with as a conciliator between the Atlantic interests of the United States and those of Great Britain. In this process, the royal decree of October 2, 1947 authorizing the governor general to sign and ratify international treaties and to accredit ambassadors, a decree that follows another that replaces the qualification of “British citizen” on Canadian passports with that of “citizen Canadian “and more that abolishes the obligation to appeal, in civil matters, to the English private council,

and the exchange of messages between Truman and Mackenzie King on the occasion of the visit of the American president to Ottawa (10-12 June 1947). This political and military solidarity finds its most evident manifestation in the joint preparations for the defense of the Canadian Arctic, a region that has become strategically very important due to the recent technical advances in aviation, which have made it a competition zone between Russia and the United States and that the Canada certainly cannot think of defending on its own. Finally, a notable increase in the importance of Canada on the American level was brought about by the decision (referendum of 22 July 1948) of the people of Labrador and Newfoundland to ask for union with Canada. This political and military solidarity finds its most evident manifestation in the joint preparations for the defense of the Canadian Arctic, a region that has become strategically very important due to the recent technical advances in aviation, which have made it a competition zone between Russia and the United States and that the Canada certainly cannot think of defending on its own. Finally, a notable increase in the importance of Canada on the American level was brought about by the decision (referendum of 22 July 1948) of the people of Labrador and Newfoundland to ask for union with Canada. This political and military solidarity finds its most evident manifestation in the joint preparations for the defense of the Canadian Arctic, a region that has become strategically very important due to the recent technical advances in aviation, which have made it a competition zone between Russia and the United States and that the Canada certainly cannot think of defending on its own. Finally, a notable increase in the importance of Canada on the American level was brought about by the decision (referendum of 22 July 1948) of the people of Labrador and Newfoundland to ask for union with Canada.

Canada in World War II

Tikal National Park (World Heritage)

Tikal National Park (World Heritage)

The ruined city of the same name, located in the Tikal National Park, is one of the most famous Mayan sites with more than 3000 temples, palaces and residential buildings. The Maya left the place more than 1000 years ago. The national park covers an area of ​​575 km² and has the largest area of ​​tropical rainforest in Central America. Visit behealthybytomorrow.com for Guatemala travel package.

Tikal National Park: facts

Official title: Tikal National Park
Cultural and natural monument since 1955 national park with 576 km²; about 4,000 temples, palaces, multi-storey houses as an expression of urban prosperity and dynastic power; i.a. the central acropolis with five courtyards and the 9,300 m² “Great Square” with buildings that are on the axes of the cardinal points; one of the most important Central American ecosystems with more than 2000 plant species, including 300 tree species such as mahogany and chicozapote
continent America
country Guatemala, Peten
location northeast of Guatemala City
appointment 1979
meaning one of the most important Mayan sites and with 221 km² the largest area of ​​tropical rainforest in Guatemala and Central America

Tikal National Park: history

2nd century BC Chr.-9. Century AD Settlement under 39 generations of rulers, including 219-38 reign of Yax Moch Xoc
682 Ah Cacao (Ha Sawa Chaan K’awil) coming to power
1848 Report of the governor of the Péten province on Tikal
1881/82 Visit and research work by Maya researcher Alfred Percival Maudslay
1950-61 extensive exposures
1979-85 Uncovering »Mundo Perdido«
Flora and fauna: 54 species of mammals, including Predators such as puma, ocelot, jaguar, and jaguarundi; Mantled howler and Geoffrey spider monkeys, Central American tapirs, whiskered and collar peccaries, white-tailed deer; Nine-banded armadillo; Giant and pygmy anteater and three-toed sloth; 333 species of birds such as red macaws and 38 species of snakes such as the poisonous coral snake

Jungle concert in the Mayan cosmos

Morning haze rises and is driven away by the slowly rising sun. The jungle “sweats out” the night moisture, or so it seems. Birds start their morning concert, the hunters of the night retreat into the undergrowth. The first warming rays of the sun drive away the night coolness. A symphony of never-before-heard jungle noises mixes with the still life of the rainforest. Happy who managed to climb a Mayan pyramid at this early hour and watch the sunrise over Tikal. In the early morning, the visitor still has what was once the largest city of the Mayas to himself. From here the Mayan cosmos was ruled, here priests and princes sat high up in their temples and determined the fate of thousands of subjects. In the heyday, up to 55,000 people are said to have lived here. Certainly it took very careful planning to keep them all busy and fed. Possibly the lack of food in particular was the cause of the sudden demise of the Mayan culture, but that is still only a guess. Several thousand buildings – temples, palaces, pyramids, shrines and ball courts – were built by the Mayans of Tikal, but most of them are still hidden under the dense green of the jungle and can only be seen as earth-covered hills. After the residents suddenly gave up the city, it fell into disrepair and eventually became part of a rampant rainforest. Possibly the lack of food in particular was the cause of the sudden demise of the Mayan culture, but that is still only a guess. Several thousand buildings – temples, palaces, pyramids, shrines and ball courts – were built by the Mayans of Tikal, but most of them are still hidden under the dense green of the jungle and can only be seen as earth-covered hills. After the residents suddenly gave up the city, it fell into disrepair and eventually became part of a rampant rainforest. Possibly the lack of food in particular was the cause of the sudden demise of the Mayan culture, but that is still only a guess. Several thousand buildings – temples, palaces, pyramids, shrines and ball courts – were built by the Mayans of Tikal, but most of them are still hidden under the dense green of the jungle and can only be seen as earth-covered hills. After the residents suddenly gave up the city, it fell into disrepair and eventually became part of a rampant rainforest.

Just the sheer size of the ruins of Tikal over 16 square kilometers gives an idea of ​​its past size. No other Maya facility that has been researched to date offers anything like it. While other Mayan ruins have been completely exposed, the ruins of Tikal rise here and there from the green of the forest. Colorful feathered macaws screech in the lush green rainforest. Apparently forgetting the force of gravity, spider monkeys jump through the treetops with ease. Isolated jaguars roam largely unnoticed. In muggy weather, numerous visitors marvel at the impressive stoneware in the jungle – a real sweaty undertaking.

The most impressive buildings are around the Gran Plaza, the former center of power. Two large, steep pyramids rise on the east and west sides. The 45 meter high “Temple of the Great Jaguar”, also known as “Temple I”, is a majestic sight. The ruler Ah Cacao was immortalized in it around 700 AD. After his death he was buried in a ruler’s crypt under the pyramid, which contained valuable grave goods such as a jade mask that was only discovered in 1963.

Ah Cacao also had the “Temple of the Masks” opposite, “Temple II” built. Two masks that adorn the steep staircase gave the building its name. There is a kind of temple attachment at the top. A mural showing the execution of a prisoner could once be admired here. The north side of the large square is bounded by the “Acrópolis del Norte”, the northern acropolis, which was originally formed by 16 temples. The pictorial characters on several steles, which have been damaged by the dampness of the jungle, are barely recognizable.

Behind the “Temple of Masks” a 300 meter long path leads through the jungle to the “Lost World” – “Mundo Perdido”. The oldest, restored pyramid, the “Gran Pirámide”, with its 35 meters, only slightly towers over the foliage roof of the jungle. Steep stairs lead up on each side of this square structure. After the efforts of the ascent, you will be rewarded with a wonderful view over the former center of power of the Maya. The eye wanders over isolated gray spots of color that stand out against the omnipresent green. The panoramic view from the much higher »Temple IV« remains even more lasting. This almost 65 meter high “Temple of the Two-Headed Serpent” (“Serpiente Bicéfala”) is today the tallest “ancient building” in Central America.

Tikal National Park (World Heritage)

US Enemies – from the Soviet Union to Islam

US Enemies – from the Soviet Union to Islam

An important component of foreign policy after 1945 was the balance of terror. The United States has always been leading the nuclear armament, from the Manhattan World War II project that involved developing nuclear weapons to their use against Japan in the final phase of the war.

The first nuclear bombs were carried by long-range bombers. Only in the late 1950’s did it become practically possible to use long-range rockets as means of transport for the strategic nuclear weapons. In a few years, the superpowers developed rockets that could target the opponent’s territory with great accuracy. Both World War I and World War II were endurance tests, which were largely determined by the participants’ ability to mobilize their resources for war purposes. An atomic war, on the other hand, will be decided by the weapons immediately available at the outbreak of war. The superpower’s nuclear weapons, therefore, were always in high readiness until the late 80’s. The nuclear weapons stockpiles thus made the strategic assessments a central part of the superpower’s foreign policy in the post-World War II period.

1945-55. During this period, the United States was completely superior to nuclear weapons. But the Soviet Union had great conventional forces that were perceived as a threat to Europe. At this stage, US security policy consisted of three measures: economic reconstruction of Europe, military reconstruction of Europe, and the development of long-range nuclear weapons bombers to give credibility to the doctrine of massive retaliation: If the USSR attacked the United States or some of the US allies, North Americans would respond with full nuclear war. As the North American bombers had limited range, this deterrence depended on an extensive network of foreign bases.

1955-62. At this stage, the Soviet Union expanded its nuclear weapons stockpiles so that the nuclear threat became reciprocal and a beginning terrorist balance between the superpowers developed. With the Russians’ open threat to intervene in the Middle East during the Suez crisis (1956) and the successful launch of the Sputnik satellite (1957), this development led North Americans to place more emphasis on the development of nuclear missiles. At this stage, the doctrine of massive retaliation was heavily criticized because US nuclear weapons were developed at the expense of conventional forces: The doctrine only gave the United States the choice between total nuclear war or surrender, and was useless against limited warfare, it said.

At the end of this phase, President Kennedy put forward the doctrine of flexible response. It aimed, in part, to develop flexible intervention units, adapted to the entire scale of limited warfare, from conflicts between nations to guerrilla actions. In part, it aimed to fight (and win) a nuclear war by directing the attacks against the opponent’s weapons (counterforce strategy). The contingency was sharpened with bombers that were always on the wings and with the posting of tactical nuclear weapons in Europe. When the Soviet Union tried to balance the relationship of strength by placing its own missiles with nuclear weapons in Cuba in 1962, the world was brought to the brink of nuclear war (see Cuba crisis).

1962-72. After the Cuba crisis, the United States was apprehensive that the Russians had developed the ability to win a nuclear war by surprise attack. The United States then sought to diminish the Soviet leaders’ willingness to war – not their ability to strike. This strategy provided the Soviet Union with the knowledge that the United States could withstand a massive surprise attack and yet have enough nuclear weapons left to direct a devastating attack on the Soviet Union. This ability was called Second Strike Capability.

According to commit4fitness, the US nuclear defense consists of bombers, land-based intercontinental rockets (ICBMs) and submarine-based intercontinental rockets (SLMBs). This forms the strategic triad that is the basis of the United States’ resilience. Because even though one leg of the triad is wiped out, each of the other two has enough rockets to launch a devastating attack. The strategic triad was the ultimate means of sanction in the foreign policy of the two superpowers and the basis for the balance of terror.

1972-91. In the 1970’s, the USSR gained some of the US lead in strategic weapons. President Nixon’s security policy adviser, later Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, advocated a policy known as detente, or relaxation. The policy consisted, among other things, in agreements with the Soviet Union on the types of strategic weapons that could be allowed to be developed and how many were to be scrapped (see SALT). Kissinger’s central concept was linkage: the Soviet Union was to be spun into a network of advantageous trade and cooperation that the country would not be able to afford to break with time. But at the same time, the development of new strategic weapon systems continued, and the counterforce doctrine was re-launched in 1974.

For Kissinger and Nixon, the SALT agreements were elements of a larger building. President Jimmy Carter detached the SALT II agreement from its context and demolished large parts of Nixon-Kissinger’s foreign policy structure by boycotting important parts of trade with the Soviet Union in protest against the inmate in Afghanistan in December 1979. At the same time, Carter acknowledged the People’s Republic of China and escalated military spending.

Several elements of the Kennedy period doctrine were brought back again by Carter. By the early 1980’s, plans had been devised to develop new types of long-haul transport aircraft that could quickly transfer special forces – Rapid Deployment Forces, or RDF – to troubled corners of the world. The plan to also develop cargo vessels full of weapons – Maritime Preplacement Ships, or MPS – to be deployed in the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and Persian Gulf showed that RDF was developed specifically with a view to defending the oil-rich areas of the Middle East.

The so-called Roll-back strategy towards the Soviet Union was reinforced during the 1980’s. As early as 79, NATO had adopted its double resolution, which involved the deployment of 572 Pershing II atomic missile missiles in Europe. At the same time, the United States increased its support for counter-revolutionary movements around the world to roll back the Soviet influence. In particular, the NATO double-decree triggered one of the strongest post-war peace movementsin Europe, but it was only when Gorbachov came to power in the Soviet Union that the superpower understood how to exploit this situation. By offensive disarmament in 1986-88, the Soviet succeeded in sabotaging the Roll-back strategy. The political costs of rejecting the Soviet manifestly genuine disarmament proposals were too high. In this way, the United States was forced to agree to a significant disarmament, with the Soviet Union openly giving the largest concessions.

Since 1991. The Soviet Union ceased to exist on December 31, 1991, and Russia’s defense spending in 1998 represented only 5% of Soviet spending. The threat from the “Empire of Evil,” as the United States president in the 1980’s, Ronald Reagan referred to his ideological opponent, had largely disappeared. It had different consequences for the United States. First, to ensure that the remaining Russian nuclear weapons and weapons plutonium did not fall into the “wrong” hands. Second, the need to develop another form of legitimization of NATO’s existence. The Warsaw Pact was disbanded in 1991 and the Soviet Union disappeared. In an attempt to legitimize US continued military dominance in Europe and the North Atlantic, the alliance turned on an aggressive containment of Russia through the conclusion of so-called Partnership for Peace deals with Russia’s peripheral states and subsequently accepts a number of these as actual NATO members – mhp. provoking Russia so vigorously that it could legitimize continued NATO existence. Third, the United States needed to develop a new enemy image, to replace the communist ghost that the superpower had used since World War II. The new enemy that the US now invented was Islam.

Religious fundamentalism has undoubtedly been on the rise since the current capitalist economic crisis broke through in the early 1970’s. In the United States, it is Christian fundamentalism in particular that has characterized the fundamentalist landscape. Right from militant abortion opponents who kill abortion doctors to Christian militias on the far right. In Israel, there have been primarily Jewish fundamentalists – such as Baruch Goldstein, who in 1994 killed dozens of Palestinians at a mosque in Hebron to kill the country’s Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin committed by a fundamentalist Jew in November 95. In India, there has been primarily Hindu fundamentalism targeting the country’s Muslim and Christian minorities. Among the various forms of fundamentalism, the United States has selected the Muslim – personified throughout the Arab world. Interestingly, in the 1980’s, a number of the most extreme groups and individuals were trained and financed by the United States themselves, as the superpower needed them in Afghanistan to fight the Soviet invasion forces.

US Enemies

World Bank Business

World Bank Business

The business

The main purpose of the World Bank is to promote sustainable economic growth in order to reduce poverty in the recipient countries. This is done by offering loans and guarantees, as well as providing support in the form of analysis and advice. The bank is the world’s largest financier of development aid.

Projects supported by the World Bank can focus on, for example, education, health care, road construction, environmental protection or reforms of the financial sector and public administration.

The Bank works closely with the governments of the recipient countries, but also with non-governmental organizations and with other international bodies such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the various UN specialized agencies and regional development banks.

The World Bank’s support for a country is based on an analysis of the causes of poverty in a recipient country. Based on the analysis, the World Bank then, in dialogue with the country’s government, develops a tailor-made assistance program that is described in so-called Country Assistance Strategies (CAS). The help can consist of financial support, advice or technical assistance.

Investments are made on the basis of achieving growth by building competence among representatives of the state and government, creating a functioning rule of law, developing stable financial systems and fighting corruption.

According to six strategic goals developed by Robert Zoellick, World Bank Governor 2007-2012, the work will focus on helping the poorest countries (mainly in Africa), preventing conflicts and supporting reconstruction in failing states, supporting middle-income countries as a majority of the world’s poor live there., safeguard public and public goods (not least the environment), expand cooperation with the Arab world, which is found to be poorly integrated into the world economy, and provide expertise and expertise.

Lending

The World Bank lends money to long-term development projects aimed at fighting poverty and creating growth. The bank is involved in approximately 1,700 projects in developing countries.

Middle-income countries can apply for loans from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which is part of the World Bank. Middle-income countries include countries with a national income per capita between about $ 1,000 and $ 12,000 a year. The recipient country pays interest on the loan, which is repaid within 15 years. The first five years are usually free of charge. Projects must have a good chance of becoming profitable.

The International Development Fund (IDA), which is also part of the World Bank, provides long-term loans to the poorest countries. The loans are given on very favorable terms, which means that they are virtually exempt from interest and have a long repayment period, between 20 and 40 years, of which the first 10 years are amortization-free. However, the projects financed by IDA must also be considered commercially profitable. Thus, IDA’s lending deviates from pure development assistance activities.

Some countries, especially small island states, which have higher incomes may also borrow from IDA as their credit rating is too low for IBRD loans. Other countries have such a low income that they qualify for IDA loans, but still a high enough credit rating to be able to borrow from the IBRD as well. The latter include India, Pakistan and Indonesia. A total of 78 countries qualified for IDA credits in 2009.

To obtain a loan through IDA, a country must develop a credible strategy for combating poverty, a so-called PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper; see also IMF: Progress). At the same time, IDA offers a special loan credit PRSC (Poverty Reduction Support Credit) which is given in parallel with the IMF’s so-called PRGF loan (see IMF: Progress) and which, like the latter, will support various structural and social reforms.

In 2008, the World Bank lent a total of $ 24.7 billion to 298 projects. The IBRD accounted for 13.5 billion, of which a third went to Latin America and the Caribbean and almost as much to countries in Europe and Central Asia. Of the $ 11.2 billion that IDA portioned out, just under a third was grants and the rest loans. Half of IDA’s money went to sub-Saharan Africa and a quarter to southern Asia.

External cooperation

According to commit4fitness, the World Bank works closely with the IMF, not least with regard to the HIPC initiative (see Progress). A 2007 report stated that there is room to strengthen cooperation, not least to better manage crisis situations, coordinate technical assistance and clarify the roles of the two institutions in the work of developing financial sectors. The Bank also works closely with a number of other UN agencies that also work to combat poverty in the world.

In addition to lending from the IBRD and IDA budgets, the World Bank also manages trust funds for assistance to particularly high-priority development needs. These funds are financed outside the World Bank’s own resources, mostly through contributions from about ten countries. The funds include multi-billion initiatives such as HIPC and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFTAM), as well as a wide range of smaller and more specialized projects.

The World Bank contributes to about 170 regional and global partnerships, often with similar purposes. In 2000, the Bank initiated an international collaboration between educational institutes in developing countries, the Global Development Learning Network. Co-financing of specific projects also occurs.

Technical assistance and research

An increasingly important part of the World Bank’s activities is technical assistance. This is given, among other things, in the form of the economic country analyzes that form the basis for designing aid programs for the recipient countries. Often, certain parts of the loans from IBRD and IDA are set aside for counseling, training and other forms of knowledge transfer. Technical assistance is also provided in the form of training in financial management and project analysis for officials from the member states’ public administrations.

The World Bank’s research forms the basis for how its work is designed and how the Bank prioritises the areas to be supported. The bank conducts a number of different research projects in different subject areas and regions. In addition to country analyzes, regional analyzes are produced each year that address various themes, such as regional trade, income distribution and work to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

In addition, the bank issues several reports. One example is the annual World Development Report, which analyzes obstacles to development in the world and provides recommendations for how to bridge them. Another annual report is Poverty Reduction and the World Bank, which examines the effects of the World Bank’s efforts to reduce poverty.

World Bank Business

The 10 longest rivers in the world

The 10 longest rivers in the world

Around 2/3 of the earth’s surface is covered with water. But it is not only the seas and lakes that play an important role. Rivers also occupy a large area of ​​the earth. Find out here which are the longest rivers in the world and what distinguishes them.

10th place: the Amur

The Amur, derived from the Evenk word “Tamur”, which means “Great River”, flows through China and Russia and, with a length of 2,824 kilometers, takes tenth place in the ranking of the largest rivers. The entire length of this river is navigable and travelers can admire the inspiring nature around the coastal mountains of Sichote-Alin. Wild animals such as the Siberian tiger or brown bear can be admired there.

9th place: The Jenissei

This river, which is more than 3,487 kilometers long, flows through Siberia with its entire length and, with its tributary, the great Jenissei, even forms a total length of around 4,092 kilometers.

Place 8: The Ob

Number 8 in the ranking for the longest rivers in the world also flows through Siberia, if only here through Western Siberia. The Ob, which has a length of 3,650 kilometers, has its origin in the Mansi and Khanty languages ​​and is derived from the term “Ac”, which is synonymous with the term “large water”. The peculiarity of this river is that it is covered with ice in its middle lower reaches about 220 days a year.

7th place: The Mississippi

Not only known from many films and songs, the Mississippi has a total length of 3,778 kilometers, making it one of the top ten longest rivers in the world. The river that flows through the United States originates in Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota.

6th place: The Congo

The Congo is not only a name for a city-state in Africa but also the name of one of the longest rivers in the world. With a length of 4,347 kilometers, the Congo is probably the sixth largest river in the world and at the same time the second largest river in Africa.

5th place: The Mekong

The 4,350 km long Mekong River, which means “turbulent river”, crosses six countries in its length in Southeast Asia. The origin of the Mekong is unclear, it is believed to originate in hard-to-reach areas of the Tibetan highlands.

4th place: The Yellow River

The Yellow River, also known as Wade-Giles, is a stream in China and has a total length of 4,845 kilometers. Only the Yangtze River makes it slip into number two in China’s longest rivers.

3rd place: The Yangtze River

With a length of 6,380 kilometers, the Yangtze River is the longest river in the People’s Republic of China and at the same time the longest river in Asia.

The Yangtze River

2nd place: The Amazon

Its total length of 6,448 kilometers makes the Amazon the second largest river in the world. With a water flow of 206,000 m³ / s, the Amazon is one of the richest rivers in the world and extends its water into seven smaller tributaries.

1st place: The Nile

Egypt is not only known for its high-quality tradition and majestic buildings such as the pyramids and the Sphinx. Here, in otherwise barren Egypt, is the longest river in the world. With a length of 6,852 kilometers, the Nile leads the ranking of the top ten longest rivers and is the only river on earth to cross one of the two subtropical dry belts, the Sahara.

 

Las Vegas – casinos, entertainment and star splendor

Las Vegas – casinos, entertainment and star splendor

The bustling casino city is a place that many want to experience even once in a lifetime.

LAS VEGAS

Las Vegas is a holiday destination where you will have fun. In the city you can enjoy gambling at casinos, entertainment shows and first-class food.

A city full of festive atmosphere

In the US state of Nevada , Las Vegas is known for its spectacular casinos. The city is a popular celebration destination for weddings, stag / hen parties and birthdays.

Casino hotels are primarily focused on downtown Las Vegas and further afield on The Strip. The Strip’s casino hotels are full-service entertainment centers with everything you could imagine. They have restaurants, bars, pool areas, gyms and even golf courses. Many of the largest casino hotels have luxury brand stores.

In addition to playing at the casino, you can visit Las Vegas to watch concerts and musicals, for example. The city’s restaurant offers fine dining restaurants, international cuisine and traditional American fast food outlets.

Desert hot summers

Desert hot summers

Las Vegas is located in the Mojave Desert, which affects the city’s climate. Summers are really hot. The hottest months are from June to July, when daytime temperatures can approach as high as 40 degrees. In the evening, however, the weather cools down.

The winter is clearly cooler than the summer months and during the winter months the temperatures move around 15 degrees during the day. Since the city is located in the desert, there is no need to fear rain. Although winter is cooler in Las Vegas, the city is still a great destination all year round.

Versatile entertainment

Casinos are the biggest attraction in Las Vegas and many travelers are eager to try their luck at the gaming tables. The age limit for casinos is 21 years and especially in the evening, some are expected to dress neatly. Casino game selections usually include a large number of different table games, some of which can only be played for large sums of money. In addition, casinos have slot machines where you can test your luck with smaller amounts.

Las Vegas is called the entertainment capital of the world because the city has a huge number of performances, concerts and events. Top-class artists, musicals and performances by magicians are on offer. Tickets for the city’s most popular shows can be expensive, so it’s worth looking for deals once you’ve decided what you want to see.

One popular way to fill your stomach in Las Vegas is to dine at the bursting buffet tables of the city’s restaurants. Buffet meals are available at various Price Range restaurants. Las Vegas has a wide variety of restaurants to choose from, from famous chefs to regular fast food chains. In some restaurants the portion sizes are huge and in many of them the main course can be shared between two people. Las Vegas restaurants tend to leave a tip of 15-20 percent of the total bill.

FLIGHTS, ACCOMMODATION AND MOVEMENT IN LAS VEGAS

FLIGHTS, ACCOMMODATION AND MOVEMENT IN LAS VEGAS

The flight takes time

There are no direct flights to Las Vegas from Finland. You can fly to the city by changing planes in either European or US cities – many choose flights via New York, for example, because then the longest leg can be folded on a direct flight.

Those traveling on a tight budget should keep in mind that the cheapest flights typically have multiple exchanges. When planning a holiday, it is good to remember to set aside time to travel, because the flight to the city from Finland is quite long and also recovering from the time difference takes its own tax.

Accommodation in Las Vegas

There are numerous quality casino hotels in Las Vegas, most of which are located along The Strip. However, there are more common hotels in the city for those who do not want to stay in the middle of the casino bustle. There are also many motels in Las Vegas where you can stay cheaply.

If you are on the move with a hotel reservation in time or you are not traveling during the high season, you can get a room at a good price from even the finer casino hotels. Of course, low-cost offers are meant to attract visitors to the hotel’s casino.

Getting around in Las Vegas

In Las Vegas, you should choose a vehicle based on where you are going. On The Strip and downtown, you can move on foot, but then make time for the transitions, as progress can be slow due to both crowds and hot weather.

The easiest way to get between the areas is by taxi or car. You can travel between destinations on The Strip along the Las Vegas Monorail. You can also rent a limousine in the city, for example.

ATTRACTIONS OF LAS VEGAS

ATTRACTIONS OF LAS VEGAS

The Strip

The Strip is the entertainment hub of Las Vegas. The finest hotels and casinos in Las Vegas are located along The Strip. Each of these has more grandiose decorations and performances outside the hotel. Walking along the street, you can experience Venice, Paris, New York and Egypt.

Casino hotels are also worth a visit for their ornate interiors, including shops and restaurants. At the Bellagio Casino Hotel you can stop to admire a show with fountains, with lights and music coloring the movement of the water. Depending on the time of day representation is either at intervals of 15 minutes or half an hour.

Downtown Las Vegas

Downtown Las Vegas is the city’s oldest area. It was a center of casinos and entertainment before The Strip was built. In the center, you can visit older casinos that are centered around Freemont Street. In the evenings, there is a fantastic sound and light show on Freemont Street. The downtown area and the city’s museum offerings are also worth exploring in the downtown area.

Stratosphere Tower

The Stratosphere Tower is part of the Stratosphere Casino Hotel. At the top of the tower is an observation deck overlooking The Strip. At the top are also some of the world’s tallest amusement park equipment where ferocious heads can test their courage.

THE BEST OF LAS VEGAS

THE BEST OF LAS VEGAS

The best casino hotels

1. Venetian Resort Casino Hotel
2. Bellagio Las Vegas
3. Wynn Las Vegas
4. Aria Resort & Casino
5. Palazzo Resort Casino Hotel

The best buffet meals

1. Bacchanal Buffet
2. The Buffet at Wynn Las Vegas
3. The Buffet at Bellagio
4. Studio B
5. Wicked Spoon

 

United States Business

United States Business

According to abbreviationfinder, US is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of United States.

Business and Economics

Since the 1920s, the US economy has been the largest in the world. In 2015, the country’s GDP accounted for 24.2 percent of the world’s total income from goods and services, and it was more than twice the size of the subsequent country, China, and almost as large as the entire EU. The country also has the largest foreign trade, despite the large domestic market. The United States is a world leader in research and development in most areas, and in the United States new trends in the economy and business, consumption and lifestyle are at the earliest. But in several important industrial sectors, the United States is no longer a world leader, and a large deficit in foreign trade and a very large foreign debt continue to grow. In manufacturing and service, computerization and automation have resulted in high unemployment among low-skilled.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the United States

Already in the mid-1900s, half of the employed were in the service industry and the United States was a leader in the development towards a service society. In 2012, less than 10 percent worked on commodity production, just under 4 percent on construction and some percent on commodity extraction and agriculture. All other employment is found in the service industries.

The United States has a market economy where the interaction between producers and consumers determines what is to be manufactured and on what scale it takes place. More than 90 percent of employment in the country is in the private sector. But the state plays an active role in strategically important industrial sectors such as the defense industry, and so does agriculture. With increased awareness of sustainable development and of the negative environmental consequences of raw material extraction and “dirty” industry, more regulation and other state and state interference also follow.

Since the 1990s, China has become an increasingly prominent place on the world market and has now crossed the US in several important industrial sectors. But the United States is still a world leader in high-tech industries such as the aerospace, defense, and pharmaceutical industries. Extremely large, private companies play a prominent role, as before, also globally. In 2010, more than a quarter of the world’s 500 largest companies had headquarters in the United States, and US foreign investment was almost twice that of any other country.

A number of conditions have worked together to give the United States such a special economic position. It is a vast country with large assets of good arable land and most of the minerals and energy needed for food supply and industrialization. Long coasts and inland waterways have enabled cheap transportation of heavy raw materials and finished products, and not least facilitated contacts and relocations. Immigrants from the 16th century onwards came with a willingness to work and entrepreneurial spirit, and gradually venture capital was invested in construction and industrialization. Already in the early 1900s there was a large domestic market, and growing demand propelled an increasingly large-scale business and new forms of production such as conveyor belts. Even then, there were very large companies with operations in various branches of business. Foreign trade was small, because both commodities and markets existed within the country and the United States pursued an isolationist foreign policy that protected its own business. Domestic policy involved private business with free competition in most respects, which promoted innovation and technological development.

Business expansion and differentiation became prominent in the northeastern United States and the Midwest. The area from Pittsburgh to the east via Cleveland and Detroit and west to Chicago was, until the 1970s, the world’s most important center for the iron, steel, machinery and transportation industry, among others. The Center for Financial Life and Research was located east of it from the beginning, in the stretch from Boston to the north and south to Philadelphia.

The United States’ position as the world’s dominant economy was most prominent immediately after World War II and up to the 1960s. Business was widened, mainly in the south and west, where economic growth became noticeable during the remainder of the 20th century and then continued after 2000. More and more of the investments went to the Sun Belt. The trend was reinforced by the emerging computer industry that was headquartered in California and by other high-tech manufacturing, such as the aerospace and pharmaceutical industries, closely related to universities and research institutes on the Pacific coast, in Texas, and on the Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to North Carolina.

The recession of 2008–09 turned out to be the deepest and longest economic crisis in the United States since the Great Depression in the early 1930s. It began as a real estate crisis. rising oil prices and deepened into a banking and financial crisis that spread to most countries with which the US had economic relations. The US economy shrank by nearly 4 percent in 2009 and unemployment rose to close to 10 percent. The federal government decided on a number of measures to stimulate business such as tax relief and infrastructure expansion. Initially, the recovery slowed, but in the mid-2010s it picked up. In 2015, GDP increased by 2.4 percent and unemployment was 5.3 percent.

Business

Year Change in GDP (%) Government debt share of GDP (%) Budget deficit’s share of GDP (%) Inflation (%) Unemployment of total workforce (%)
2016 2.4 107.5 3.4 0.8 4.8
2015 2.4 105.8 3.0 0.1 5.3
2014 2.4 105.0 3.4 1.6 6.2
2013 1.5 104.8 4.0 1.5 7.4
2012 2.2 102.5 6.1 2.1 8.1
2011 1.6 99.0 8.1 3.2 8.9
2010 2.5 94.7 9.4 1.6 9.6
2009 -2.8 86.0 7.6 -0.3 9.3
2008 -0.3 72.8 5.9 3.8 5.8
2007 1.8 64.0 4.0 2.9 4.6
2006 2.7 63.6 3.2 3.2 4.6
2005 3.3 64.9 3.8 3.4 5.1
2004 3.8 65.5 4.7 2.7 5.5
2003 2.8 58.5 4.6 2.3 6.0
2002 1.8 55.4 3.6 1.6 5.8
2001 1.0 53.0 1.4 2.8 4.7
2000 4.1 3.4 4.0

Source: IMF, OECD and World Bank

Agriculture

US agriculture and livestock production account for just over 1 percent of employment and GDP. Despite this, agriculture produces enough basic food for the entire population and the country is also the world’s largest exporter of agricultural products.

US agriculture underwent a major structural transformation during the 1950s-1970s, when the area cultivated declined significantly. At the same time, production nearly tripled between 1950 and 2005. An employed person in agriculture in 1950 was estimated to feed 15 people, while the corresponding number in 2005 was 103. The agricultural export value more than five-fold during the period, and there was also a significant overproduction periodically. This meant low producer prices and thus problems for mainly smallholders, which became even more difficult to cope with rising production costs.

About 2/5 of the US land is agricultural land. Of this, 44 percent go and an equal share of pasture. Of the approximately 2.2 million farms, the vast majority are smaller family farms. Almost half of the farmers have agriculture as their main employment and many farmer households need supplementary income.

The natural conditions for different crops differ considerably between different parts of the United States. The country encompasses both temperate and subtropical areas (Florida and the areas west along the Gulf of Mexico as well as Southern California) and tropical areas (Hawaii). Cultivation also varies as a result of transport conditions and proximity to the metropolitan areas’ huge demand for fresh food.

The United States is by far the world’s largest producer of corn and soybeans, mainly used as animal feed. The crops are primarily grown in the so-called corn belt, which has its center in Iowa, Illinois and Indiana. Further west, where the climate is drier (from North Dakota to Kansas), wheat cultivation dominates instead. The US comes in third in the world in terms of wheat cultivation. The same goes for cotton. It is still an important crop in the Southern States; the largest production is in Texas. After a downturn, cotton cultivation has increased since the 1990s, as consumers are now increasingly choosing cotton over artificial fiber.

Tobacco cultivation, on the other hand, has greatly reduced in recent decades and is mainly found in Kentucky and North Carolina. In the arid and mountainous states of the west, agriculture is mainly conducted in the valleys as irrigation is required. In the United States as a whole, however, only 1/8 of the agricultural area is irrigated.

Fresh fruits and vegetables come from Florida, especially during the winter months and 2/3 of the citrus fruits. The remainder is grown in California and from there also comes more and more wine every year. The United States is one of the two largest producers in the world of most kinds of berries, fruits and vegetables and is a world leader in fresh milk and beef and poultry meat.

The Great Lakes region and neighboring part of the northeastern United States have the best conditions for raising dairy cows and are the center for the production of milk and dairy products. In the “corn belt” south of this, pig breeding is extensive. In the drier states to the west and southwest, carnivores are kept on the vast pastures. The high standard of living in the country means high consumption of animal products, and it increases every year. But increased awareness of dangerous cholesterol levels has led to a fall in demand for some animal foods.

Since the beginning of the 1980s, the use of artificial fertilizers has remained at about the same level, partly as a result of better knowledge of farming methods and the consequences of eutrophication. The use of chemical pesticides decreased during the 00s. The use of gene-refined seed has increased; In 2010, such was used for almost all cultivation of soybeans and cotton and for most of the maize cultivation.

The capital contribution per unit area continues to increase, but now relates mainly to advanced aids, e.g. computers and robots. Through contract cultivation and contract breeding for large food groups at predetermined retail prices, the financial risks to the farmer decrease when there are strong fluctuations in commodity prices on the world market. It is estimated that 1/3 of the total production value comes from such contracted operations.

US agriculture is subject to widespread federal influence. However, direct price support and government purchases have been used only exceptionally and since the 1970s, agricultural policy has been clearly market oriented. Export of surplus has been stimulated, as has contract cultivation, which means that the market has a greater impact on the farmers’ choice of crops. Since 2002, farmers have been paid to use methods that conserve soil, water and natural plant and animal life. Growers also receive compensation for removing less profitable areas from production.

Agricultural products account for only about 1/10 of the US total export value, but exports still play an important role in the US agricultural industry. The most important export goods therefrom are soybeans, maize, wheat, chicken meat, cotton and pork. The high productivity and wide breadth of what is grown mean that agricultural imports are small and most include quite special branded products such as wine and other alcoholic beverages, cheeses, cakes and special meat products as well as things that, after all, cannot be grown in the country such as natural rubber, coffee beans and bananas.

Forestry

The United States is the world’s largest producer and consumer of forest products. When Europeans first came to the area that is today’s United States, the forest area covered about 400 million hectares. Their colonization meant extensive forest clearing in the east, and especially in the 19th century, forests disappeared when the land was cultivated. In the 1900s, forest harvesting continued, but large forest areas were also planted in the southern United States and elsewhere, for example, on less profitable agricultural land in the Northeast. Overall, the size of the forest land hardly changed during the last century. In recent decades, forest area has decreased and now amounts to approximately 300 million hectares, which corresponds to 1/3 of the land area. Warmer climates with more drought have made the forests more susceptible to diseases and pest infestation.

One third of the forest land is owned by the federal government, and most of it is native coniferous forest in the states farthest west. They are referred to as National Forests and are used both for commercial forestry and for recreation as well as to ensure water supply and rich wildlife. Conflicts of interest are not uncommon, mainly between nature conservation and commercial forestry. Länder and local administrative units also own forests.

More than half of the area covered by commercial forestry is owned by private individuals. These are usually relatively small, deciduous forests, most in the northeastern part of the United States. The small states of Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire have a nature reminiscent of Central Sweden, and there are more than 3/4 of the area covered by forests.

A third wooded area is found in the southeastern United States, partly deciduous forests in the southern Appalachians, and coniferous forests near the coasts and in the states of lower Mississippi. Large forest companies own extensive areas that have been planted for commercial use. From there, 1/3 of the annual timber production in the US comes.

The timber industry has a strong emphasis in the state of Washington at the far northwest and is also found in the large forest areas of Oregon and northern California as well as of North Carolina in the southeast. The pulp and paper industry is headquartered in the Southeast and the world’s largest paper and pulp company, International Paper, is headquartered in Memphis, Tennessee. In 2010, the United States was the world’s second largest producer of paper and paperboard in China.

The large American forest companies have to a large extent globalized. Their commitment and investments are increasing in more equatorial countries such as Australia and Brazil, where trees grow faster than in the United States. More and more timber for the American forest industry is imported from “tree plantations”, ie. monocultures with eucalyptus trees or Douglas fir.

Fishing

The United States accounts for just over 3 percent of all seafood catches, ranking fourth in the world after China, Peru and Indonesia. Nearly 2/5 of the value comes from catches along the beaches and consists mainly of seafood, close to 3/5 from catches in the country’s economic zone out to 200 nautical miles and only 6 percent from fishing in international waters, ie. deep sea. The economic zone includes various marine ecosystems from arctic waters off Alaska to tropical waters around Hawaii and the Caribbean. This gives a very wide range in the direction and content of the fishery.

Traditionally, the United States’ most important fishing waters have been in the Atlantic off New England, where fishing increased sharply until the 1970s. Thereafter, an increasingly severe overfishing, especially cod and flatfish, was noticed. During the first half of the 1990s, catches were low there. Various measures have succeeded in restoring some threatened species, but not the stock of cod. However, the assets have increased on lobster, mussels and other seafood. Their catches are of great value in terms of value.

On the Atlantic coast, menhaden are fished on a large scale. Menhaden is a group of species in the herring fish family that is mainly used for industrial production of fish oil and fish meal. On the southern Atlantic coast and in the Gulf of Mexico, seafood and mackerel, both with shrinking stocks, are caught, as well as fish coming in from the deep sea, such as tuna, swordfish and various shark species. Several of these species are overfished, and acutely threatened, for example, bluefin tuna. The major fishing ports are located in the Mississippi Delta. A capital-rich recreational fishing is found on Florida’s coasts.

While overfishing has resulted in less catches along the east coast of the United States, fishing has increased along the Pacific coast. The largest fish stocks are outside Alaska, where some species of flatfish can now be caught to a much greater extent than before. Among other things, catches of seaweed have doubled. The cod fish pollock still yields the largest catches, even if halved during the 00s. Salmon is the second most important fish. Dutch Harbor on the Aleutian coast outside Alaska is the port that handles the largest catches in the entire country. Among other things, it is the center for catching king crab. In addition to salmon, south along the Pacific coast, fish are mainly fished for sardines, mackerel and anchovies, and halibut. Some species are there on the verge of overfishing.

The trapped volume of fish and seafood has stagnated during the 1990s, and over the last decade production has decreased by “wild” fish. Control is now meticulous for the United States to achieve ecologically sustainable fishing. Responsibility for preventing overfishing and restoring damaged ecosystems lies with the states in terms of shoreline fishing and shellfish catching, and with federal agencies regarding fishing in the economic zone further out. For endangered species there are restoration plans, and for a number of important species, the measures have resulted in a negative change in increasing fish stocks, such as outside New England and California.

Lake fishing is insignificant and occurs mainly in the Great Lakes and in the Mississippi water system. Fish farming is also of little importance. All in all, fishing can to a lesser extent meet a growing demand for seafood in the United States. Imports are increasing every year and the US is now the world’s third largest fish importer, after EU countries and Japan. Imports come mainly from China, Vietnam and Thailand and from Canada.

Mineral and mining industry

The United States has deposits of many metals and other minerals that have had a major impact on the country’s economic development. Large-scale ore mining has been going on for a long time, and many deposits have fallen. Low mining costs and cheap ship transports have meant that since the 1960s it has been cheaper for the United States to import the raw materials than to continue to break low-cost domestic occurrences at high costs. At the same time, major American mining companies have invested in mining in many other countries.

Extraction of both metals and other raw materials used in, for example, the construction and chemical industries is closely dependent on the business cycle. Operations therefore shrunk during the economic recession of 2008–09 but then showed some upturn. In addition, there has been a large increase in demand in China, which has resulted in sharply rising world market prices for most base metals. This has meant that closed mines have once again become profitable and therefore reopened. At the same time, stricter environmental regulations have affected mining operations in some cases, mainly in the case of open pit mining. Rising energy costs also limit the domestic mining industry.

Of the value of the entire US metal extraction in 2011, 30 percent came from gold, 27 percent from copper, 16 percent from molybdenum and 5 percent from zinc. The largest deposits of various metals are found in the Rocky Mountains. As for the country’s entire mineral production, Nevada accounted for 14 percent of the value, followed by Arizona (11 percent), Minnesota (7 percent), Utah (6 percent) and Alaska (5 percent).

The United States is a net exporter of a few metals. To meet the domestic need, imports of several important metals are required, and it comes mainly from Canada and countries in South America. The United States is completely dependent on imports of both bauxite for aluminum production and important alloys for the steel industry as well as a number of more rare metals required in modern high-tech industry. Dependence on imports has increased significantly over the last 30 years, as it has done in other industrialized countries, and competition for such raw materials from third world countries is intensifying.

In 2011, the United States was the world’s third largest producer of gold, after China and Australia, with 9 percent of world production. At that time, the annual production had been around 230 tonnes for a number of years. Gold is mined in 13 states, but 80% comes from Nevada. Another 10% comes from Alaska, where it is mainly found in sand deposits (“sink gold”) and is extracted on a large scale in several places. The US is a net exporter of gold.

In 2011, the United States accounted for 7% of the world’s copper ore mining. Recovery had then been at about the same level for a five-year period, while increasing in the world as a whole. The producers were then in fourth place, after Chile, Peru and China. Occurrences are found in the Rocky Mountains, mainly in the southern part, and Arizona, Utah and New Mexico account for virtually all production. Large copper smelters are adjacent to this. The domestic quarry covers 2/3 of the country’s need for refined copper. The remainder is imported mainly from Chile, Canada and Peru.

Domestic deposits of iron ore played a major role in US industrialization. Iron was mined to a great extent until the mid-1900s, both in New England and the southern Appalachians as well as the Upper Lake. But the high-quality iron ore was drained and the extraction of low-grade iron ore became increasingly uneconomical. For the United States it was cheaper to import iron ore then. Iron ore is now mainly mined in Minnesota and Michigan. The largest occurrence is in the Mesabi Range in northeastern Minnesota. In 2011, the United States accounted for 2 percent of world iron ore production and ranked seventh among the world’s countries in mining. The US imports a large proportion of the steel to the engineering industry.

The alloy metal molybdenum is mined in the states of Colorado, Idaho and New Mexico. The United States has the largest extraction (26 percent of global production in 2011) after China, and is the net exporter thereof. Furthermore, the United States ranks fourth in the world in the production of aluminum, despite the fact that the country lacks domestic extraction of the bauxite raw material. The raw material for the aluminum smelters consists partly of bauxite from mainly Jamaica and Guinea, and partly of aluminum scrap.

When it comes to raw materials for the chemical industry, there are the world’s largest deposits of soda (sodium carbonate) in Wyoming. In addition, the United States has large deposits of salt. For the production of artificial fertilizers, the country must import just over 4/5 of the potassium needed and 1/8 of phosphate. Phosphate is mainly extracted in Florida and North Carolina.

The United States produces almost all the cement used in the country. The raw material limestone is found in many of the states, and so is the cement industry. The United States ranks third in the world with 2 percent of world production, after China (54 percent) and India. (For uranium and coal, see Energy).

Energy supply

The United States was the world’s largest energy consumer for many decades, but was passed by China in 2009. However, per capita energy consumption is five times higher in the US than in China and twice as high as in the EU. The United States has significant assets of various energy resources, but imports of oil and natural gas have been cheap for many years. The country therefore became increasingly import-dependent, especially from the late 1990s and mainly in the case of crude oil. In 2011, however, imports of both crude oil and natural gas were lower than 12 years.

Since the mid-00s, there has been an upheaval of energy supply in the United States. Technical breakthroughs in the extraction of natural gas in oil shale have now made it possible to exploit domestic natural gas assets to a completely different extent than before. Natural gas has thus become cheaper in relation to oil and is being used more and more. The use of renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind and hydropower is also slowly increasing. In 2010, these accounted for just over 8 percent of primary energy, while slightly more was nuclear power and just over 83 percent came from fossil fuels.

Coalaccounts for just over 20% of all US energy use. The country has almost 30 percent of the world’s coal reserves, significantly more than the Russian Federation and twice as much as China. They are found especially in Alaska. Both production and consumption have increased steadily since the 1960s, except for 2008–09. The United States was the world’s leading coal producer until 1984. Now China produces three times more than the United States, and these two countries account for more than half of the world’s coal mining. The United States is the world’s sixth largest coal exporter. Coal is mainly mined in large mines in northeastern Wyoming, but also in small, deep mines in the northern Appalachians and south of the Great Lakes as well as in Texas. More than 90 percent of the coal remaining in the country is used for electricity generation (see below), while the remainder is used in the steel, paper and chemical industries.

Oil’s share of US energy consumption was between 39 and 46 percent in 1950–2005, but then declined to 37 percent in 2010. In 2006, approximately 60 percent of crude oil and oil products came from other countries, primarily from Canada but also from Mexico, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and Nigeria. Subsequently, domestic oil production has increased. In addition, natural gas has increasingly replaced oil and oil consumption no longer increases at the same rate as before. However, the United States is still by far the world’s largest consumer of crude oil and oil products.

The United States is the world’s third largest crude oil producer. Crude oil is extracted in 31 states and offshore offshore in Alaska, California, Louisiana and Texas. About 1/4 of all crude oil is extracted offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, but after an oil disaster in the spring of 2010, production has decreased there. Leading oil states are Texas and Alaska.

Natural gas’s share of energy consumption has increased and it accounts for 25% of it. The increase in production is a result of the development of new technology to extract the methane gas contained in extensive oil shale stocks. Extraction takes place in deep shafts and requires a lot of water and also chemicals, but the use of natural gas, on the other hand, gives less environmental impact than oil does. Since 2009, the United States is the largest natural gas producer in the world. More than half of the housing in the United States and other buildings are heated by natural gas. Natural gas is extracted in 33 states, a long time ago especially in Texas, Wyoming and New Mexico. Calculations of total gas reserves show higher figures for each year, as new occurrences are found and technology is developed.

In the US, electric power has always been mainly generated in coal-fired power plants. However, since the turn of the century 2000, the role of coal has gradually decreased, but it still accounts for 42 percent of electric power. At the same time, natural gas has increased in importance, and its share is 25 percent. This is a positive shift, as natural gas produces less carbon dioxide emissions than carbon. Only just over 1% of electricity comes from oil-fired power plants. Nuclear power has long accounted for about 20 percent. Renewable energy sources are slowly gaining importance, and their share in electricity generation is 13 percent. The majority of it consists of hydropower.

The United States is the world’s largest producer of commercial nuclear energy, and most of the country’s more than 100 reactors are located in the states along the east coast and south of the Great Lakes. The power plant wreck at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979, together with low natural gas prices, led to a further expansion of planned facilities in the future. It was not until the beginning of the 2010 century that a new reactor was being completed and possibly a few additional reactors could be completed during this decade. The existing reactors are now being utilized to almost their entire capacity. An opinion poll following the Fukushima disaster in Japan in 2011 showed that the majority of Americans were still positive about maintaining nuclear power plants but negative to nuclear energy expansion.

The United States has large assets of uranium ore, but it is low-grade, and a number of small mines have been closed over the past decade. There are harsh environmental requirements for the extraction and a growing negative opinion highlights the ecological and social conditions of the mining. The uranium is mainly extracted in Wyoming, Nebraska, Utah and Arizona as well as in Texas. Reduced domestic mining has been replaced by increased imports, mainly from Australia, Canada and the Russian Federation.

Among the renewable energy types, it is primarily hydropower that has increased in recent years and accounts for close to 8 percent of the entire US energy supply. The greatest hydropower potential is found in the Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Mountains in the west, and only about one-seventh of the entire country’s assets are expanded. The Grand Coulee in the Colorado River in Washington state is the United States’ largest dam and hydroelectric power plant and the fifth largest in the world in 2011. Wind and solar power and biofuel (ethanol) receive major contributions and guarantees from the state and are slowly increasing in importance.

Industry

For more than a hundred years, the United States has been the world’s leading industrialized country. The manufacturing industry is still the largest in the world and the United States accounts for about one fifth of global commodity production. Industry, including construction and mining, accounts for 19 percent of GDP.

With the exception of temporary declines, industrial production increased steadily throughout the latter half of the 20th century. Growth was particularly rapid during the latter part of the 1990s. However, a new decline came in 2000–01 and it was followed by a slowed growth rate up to and including 2007. The recession 2008–09 meant a sharp decline for most industries. The recovery thereafter has been slow; the only industries that have fully recovered are the aerospace and aerospace industries, biotechnology and to some extent the food industry.

Employment has changed radically. In 2000, more than 17 million worked in the manufacturing industry, in 2012 only 12 million. This corresponds to approximately 8.5 percent of total employment in the United States. In particular, the number of industrial jobs for the low-skilled has been significantly reduced, since a large part of the production in large series has been automated or placed in low-wage countries (see also Social conditions, Education). Fewer than 40 percent of those working in the manufacturing industry are engaged in manufacturing goods “on the floor”. The majority work with administration, finance, marketing, transport and also product development within the companies.

In the mid-1900s, the US steel industry was completely dominant in the world, and US Steel was one of the world’s largest companies. Steel production reached its maximum in 1969, but by then strong competitors had already emerged. In Western Europe and Japan, a modern and efficient steel industry had grown up after the war, while many American companies in the Midwest (the “rust belt”) had old facilities and high production costs. From the mid-1970s there was a sharp decline for the US steel companies.

Following a number of bankruptcies during the years around 2000, the US steel industry has been restructured and streamlined. New steel mills have been established in the southern United States, and the South now accounts for as much of the steel production as the Midwest. But in 2011, the United States came in third in the world in terms of the production of crude steel. From there, less than 6 percent came, while China accounted for 46 percent. In the US, special steel is mainly manufactured.

The heavy machinery industry, which manufactures machines and other equipment for extraction and processing of raw materials and for construction work and construction, has also traditionally had its center in the industrial region of the Midwest. The US comes here in third place in the world, after the EU and Japan, and the industry is prominent in US foreign trade. Much of the manufacturing is based on highly developed technology and the companies have a large proportion of well-trained workers. In recent years, the industry has also grown in other parts of the country, primarily in California and Texas.

Throughout the 20th century, the United States automotive industry was a world leader. In 2003, the largest production was reached, just over 12 million vehicles, but in 2006 the US was passed by Japan and 2008 also by China. Subsequently, the economic crisis led to a sharp decline in both production and demand for cars in the most affected countries. In 2011, the United States was the second largest manufacturer with 8.65 million vehicles. In terms of employment, the automotive industry is one of the most important industries in the United States. In 2010, approximately 675,000 people worked in the assembly plants and another 3 million worked on the manufacture of vehicle components.

General Motors (GM) was for a long time the world’s largest car manufacturer and one of the world’s largest companies, and in addition there were many other former large American car companies. The automotive industry had its dominant focus in eastern Michigan and northern Ohio. Over the past 30 years, the industry has been globalized and the structure has changed. As early as the 1980s and 1990s, Japanese and German companies began producing cars in the southern United States, during the 1990s three Japanese and two South Korean car companies built assembly plants in various southern states and in 2011, German Volkswagen opened a plant in Tennessee. The United States has thus become a second center for the automotive industry with modern factories, and from the South now comes more than a third of the cars manufactured in the United States. In 2012, GM was still one of the three largest car groups in the world and Ford was in fourth place.

The federal government only intervenes in extreme distress and provides support to an industrial sector. The exceptions are the aerospace industry and, to a greater extent, the defense industry, industries that are closely interconnected and show several common features. The United States has always had a clear policy in order to maintain the global superiority of these industries and therefore they receive every conceivable stimulus. There are several of the world’s largest companies of their kind with highly trained workforce and exceptionally high levels of research and development. The Boeing Company is dominant in the production of large civil aircraft and also world leaders. Of the company’s close to 170,000 employees, nearly half work in a assembly plant near Seattle. The company Lockheed Martin Corporation has a similar role in military plan. It is the country’s largest defense industry and primarily produces fighter aircraft, missiles, satellites and strategic defense systems. The company’s largest workplaces are located in California, Texas and states in the southeast as well as in Pennsylvania. The slowing growth of recent years in the US defense budget has led to some cuts in the defense industry, but at the same time production in civil aviation and electronic systems is developing, mainly in terms of information, surveillance and security.

In the electrical and electrotechnical industry, a small number of large companies account for most of the production. The largest is the multinational conglomerate GE (General Electric Company), which has operations in several industrial sectors as well as in energy, transport, finance and entertainment.

The second largest industry in terms of employment is the electronics industry, which has just over 1.1 million employees. It first grew in California, primarily in the Silicon Valley south of San Francisco, close to Stanford University. The United States became a world leader in the development of computers and IT, which has been accentuated since Apple started personal computer manufacturing there in 1976. A multitude of multinational IT companies grew in California and also in other parts of the country, focusing on other electronic communications and also advanced audio, video – and navigation equipment. More and more of the simpler component manufacturing was placed in low-wage countries, another Mexico band. Since the beginning of the 1990s, companies have also put a growing portion of their research and development in these countries, and in the United States employment has decreased significantly in this industry.

The chemical industry, including pharmaceutical manufacturing, accounts for 12 percent of the manufacturing value of the manufacturing industry and is the industry that contributes most to US exports. The largest companies are multinational and operate in a number of countries, but about a quarter of all chemical production in the world takes place in the United States. The most important branch is the petrochemical industry, which is a major consumer of crude oil and natural gas, which is required both as raw material and for energy in the manufacturing processes.

One of the world’s largest chemical companies is the Dow Chemical Company, which mainly produces plastics of various kinds and synthetic rubber, but also detergents and pesticides. The world’s largest privately owned oil company outside the OPEC countries is ExxonMobil, headquartered in Houston, Texas.

Pharmaceutical manufacturing is the segment in the chemical industry that is growing the most. It is the most profitable industry in the United States and the least affected by the recession in 2008–09. US pharmaceutical companies carry out 80 percent of all research and development in medicine and biotechnology in the world and hold patents on most new drugs. In the US there is also almost half the global market for pharmaceuticals.

The food industry is now the industry that has the largest share of those employed, and the share has also increased, from just over 9 percent in 2001 to just over 12 percent in 2012. It was not affected by any major decline in demand during the recession. The United States has long been a world leader in the production of soft drinks. The Coca-Cola Company, headquartered in Atlanta, and PepsiCo, headquartered in the state of New York, are the world’s largest soft drink manufacturer.

The textile and clothing industry was the first industry to experience emerging competition in the early post-war period. Most of that manufacturing has since disappeared from the United States. During the period 2000–11, textile production decreased by almost a quarter and the clothing industry by almost half. Several large clothing companies manufacture the garments in low-wage countries. Nearly 50 percent of all clothing sold in 2011 in the United States was made in China. The textile industry is now found mainly in North Carolina and South Carolina. The companies that perform best are those who focus on producing technologically advanced materials for health, hygiene and safety, for example for defense, fire protection, healthcare and space travel.

Environmental Situation

More than 150 years of rapid population growth and economic growth have put increasing pressure on the environment in the United States, especially over the past 60 years. Both industrial production and average household consumption are the highest in the world, and continued growth poses increasing problems with both declining assets of finite resources and with ever-increasing waste disposal. The high use of chemicals in agriculture and also in households’ everyday lives leads to harmful discharges into watercourses and groundwater. High-tech production means creating products whose long-term environmental impact is unknown. The most serious environmental problems have their roots in the extensive motoring and in that more than two-fifths of electricity is generated in coal-fired power plants. This results in gigantic emissions of air pollution

The overall environmental laws are established at federal level. The United States does not have an environment ministry, but environmental issues belong to several ministries. The most important unit is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which can be designated as the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It prepares federal environmental laws and monitors state compliance with them. The states enact their own laws that specify and regulate within the framework of federal laws, authorize commodity extraction, monitor compliance with laws and regulations, and prosecute violations. States can enact stricter laws and stricter standards, for example in California in some respects. On the other hand, it is not uncommon for states not to comply with federal guidelines. The state of the environment and environmental policy therefore vary considerably between the states; and general information about the country as a whole hides large variations. A variety of citizen groups are active at various levels to monitor the environment, address maladministration and influence decisions on environmental issues.

Environmental interest and commitment to environmental problems emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, and at federal level, laws regulating emissions into the air (Clean Air Act, 1970), sewage and emissions into water (Clean Water Act, 1972) and waste management (Resource) were established. Conservation and Recovery Act, 1976); these later received a number of additions.

The Clean Air Act focuses on six types of emissions: ozone, solid particles, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide and lead. Overall, these have decreased by 63 percent during the period 1980–2011. This is largely due to technological developments in vehicles and fuels, as well as measures to capture sulfur emissions in the smoke from coal-fired power plants and other factories. They also now use more imported coal that has less pollution. It has proven more difficult to limit carbon dioxide emissions. In 2011, the US accounted for 16 percent of its global emissions, the highest proportion after China. The gap between the law’s standards and the actual conditions is large: in 2011, 40 percent of the US population was estimated to live in areas with illegal air quality.

The Clean Water Act is primarily aimed at protecting the groundwater and other fresh water and ensuring access to drinking water. It provides general guidelines for sewage management and water treatment. In 2010, all urban residents had access to clean water, as did 94 percent of rural residents. The EPA monitors the quality of the watercourses according to a list of several thousand chemical substances but, for economic and political reasons, is given too little resources to follow the pace of the chemicalization of agriculture and industry. The levels of most pollutants are higher in the US than in the EU.

Household waste increased sharply for each year between 1960 and 2005. During the following recession, a slight decline occurred and in 2010 the waste amounted to 2 kg per person per day. Nearly a third of them were recycled, of which just over 70 percent of the newspapers and almost the same proportion of canning jars. However, more than half of solid waste still ends up in landfills. In addition, there is already very old, environmentally hazardous waste. Monitoring of how hazardous waste from industries and healthcare is handled is still neglected. In 2009, only 25 percent of the scrap was recycled; most were sent to other countries, mainly China.

Extraction of minerals and energy raw materials (for example from shale and oil sands) is now taking place with ever more technologically advanced methods, which means increased environmental risks. More remote areas are used, which are allocated for indigenous people or for the protection of nature, and conflicts of interest increase.

It has proved impossible at federal level to create climate legislation. This is reflected in US action at global climate conferences, where the country has been one of the major barriers to global agreements. The US line is that standards should be the same for rich and poor countries, while the EU and most other countries have signed agreements that imply less stringent commitments for developing countries. The United States also claims the freedom of individual countries to choose how and to what extent environmental impact should be addressed. Voluntary commitments are the guideline for the United States, both domestically and internationally.

Service Trades

More than four out of five gainfully employed in the US are employed in the service industries. Already in the 1960s, service accounted for half the employment and people started talking about a post-industrial or service society. In 1990, the proportion was up to about 75 percent and the increase has continued to just over 83 percent in 2012. More than four fifths of those who have service jobs are in the private sector.

Over the past two decades, most of the service industries have undergone major changes. Information technology now permeates every part of society, and new forms of services for individuals, households, companies and organizations have replaced traditional types of service work (secretarial work, work in banking and post offices). Many services have become less distance dependent, such as purchases of various kinds. The world’s largest online bookstore, Amazon, is a notable competitor to booksellers not only in all parts of the United States but worldwide. Many service providers in the southern and western US have their customers in completely different parts of the country. Since the mid-00s, it has also become common for companies in the US to employ services abroad, especially in India.

The range of services has changed as wealth has risen and the lifestyle has changed. The proportion of residents over the age of 65 is increasing every year, and for well-off and moving elderly there are more and more forms of housing, travel, recreation and health care.

The service sectors where employment has increased the most in the last decade are computer services, private healthcare and elderly care. More than 20 million work in private education, health care (see further Education, Social conditions) and just as many are in the wholesale and retail trade. The retail chain Walmart is the world’s third largest private company, in terms of both sales and the number of employees (just over 2 million globally).

Trade of all kinds had major problems during the recession 2008–09. Business was closed down and employment declined, and the industry still has not returned more than halfway to the level it was in 2002. However, the hotel and restaurant industry has enjoyed steady growth for almost the entire ten-year period and the employed 11.7 million. persons 2010. For a number of years, several hamburger chains have been the largest restaurant companies. In 2011, McDonald’s was still the largest, followed closely by the Subway sandwich chain and the Starbucks coffee chain.

Some service sectors show a clear downward trend. New social media has resulted in the traditional activities of book, music and film companies facing stiff competition and many large companies have shrunk their staff. In the financial, insurance and brokerage sectors, there has been a decline that can be directly related to the economic crisis 2008–09.

Foreign trade

Over the past 60 years, US foreign trade has been increasingly liberalized, especially in the case of most industrial goods. However, for agriculture and several strategic industrial sectors, such as steelmaking, liberalization has been slower. Imports have increased more than exports and, above all, the United States has become dependent on imports of oil and oil products and some minerals needed in the modern high-tech industry. Therefore, in US trade policy, it is still important to get other countries to reduce their import restrictions in order to increase exports and achieve a balance in foreign trade. The most important way then is to establish free trade agreements and agreements on preferential treatment with groups of countries.

During the first decades after World War II, the United States was by far the most important trading partner in Western Europe, but quite soon came a large import of cheap industrial goods from Japan. Gradually, trade also increased with the new industrial states in East and Southeast Asia, and in recent years, trade in China in particular has grown substantially. Trade shares for the various countries within the EU have decreased, but the EU as a whole is still the most important trading partner.

According to Countryaah, trade with Canada has always been extensive. The United States has imported raw materials from there and exported industrial products such as motor vehicles and heavy machinery, and the two countries have greatly complemented each other. Since the entry into force of the NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement in 1994, trade has increased significantly between the three members USA, Canada and Mexico.

For many countries, access to the large US market has become significant, perhaps especially for the countries of South America and Central America, and in 2011 the US was the most important export market for close to 60 countries. Since 2004, there is CAFTA-DR, a free trade area that, in addition to the United States, includes the five Central American states of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic of the Caribbean. It is an example of how a free trade agreement means increased collaboration in many areas of society, not just increased trade.

In 2017, US exports went primarily to Canada (18 percent), Mexico (16 percent), China (8 percent) and Japan (4 percent), while imports came mainly from China (22 percent), Mexico (13 percent).), Mexico (13 percent), Japan (6 percent) and Germany (6 percent).

Exports account for almost 50 percent of technically advanced capital goods such as aircraft, computers, motor vehicle components and telecommunications equipment, and that commodity group also accounts for just over 30 percent of imports. Raw materials and semi-finished products to industries account for close to 27 percent of exports and 33 percent of imports. Household consumer goods, ranging from cars to toys and pharmaceuticals, account for 15 percent of exports and 32 percent of imports, while agricultural products accounted for just over 9 percent of exports and close to 5 percent of imports in 2011. A large proportion of imports are crude oil.

The United States is the world’s largest importing country and the third largest exporting country. Despite this, foreign trade still plays a relatively small role in the country’s economy. In 2011, exports represented only 10 percent of GDP and imports 15 percent. The deficit in foreign trade in goods has grown since the early 1970s. A clear decline in foreign trade came during the recession in 2008–09 when demand for consumer goods declined, but it was followed by an upturn the following year. In 2017, exports amounted to just over US $ 1,500 billion, while imports were just under ISK 2,400 billion. Foreign trade in services shows a rising surplus, but it is not enough to get a balance; the balance of payments has been negative for decades and continues to be so.

Tourism

The United States has in many respects a magnificent nature with great contrasts between different parts of the country, and domestic tourism is extensive. It appears in tourist streams from the cold states of winter in the north to the heat of the south and west, from densely populated areas to the east to national parks and recreation areas in the Rocky Mountains and from the contiguous United States to wildernesses in Alaska and beaches in Hawaii. At least as much domestic tourism is generated by historical monuments in New England and Washington DC and by modern meeting places such as Disney’s theme parks in California and Florida. Long-distance leisure travel has a long tradition in the United States and has grown as car ownership has become exceptionally high. For many years, tourism has also been promoted by relatively cheap and well-developed air services.

About 42 million foreign tourists visited the United States in 2012. International tourism then accounted for 2.7 percent of the country’s GDP and is estimated to provide employment for 7.5 million people. Direct revenues from travel and overnight stays were $ 814 billion, and another $ 555 billion came from other tourism-related businesses. Since 2004, tourism has accounted for about 5 percent of all US goods and services exports, and their revenues have increased each year, with the exception of 2009.

In 2011, just over a third (21.3 million) of tourists came from Canada and nearly a fifth (13.5 million) came from Mexico. Next, the UK followed with Northern Ireland (3.8 million), Japan (3.3 million) and Germany, Brazil, France, South Korea and Australia, all with over 1 million visitors. In 2010-11, the tourist flow increased most strongly from China and Brazil.

The United States was the target of 6.4 percent of all international tourist travel in 2011, and in that regard, the country was ranked second in the world, after France. In terms of tourist income, the United States is a world leader: just over 11 percent of the money tourists spend abroad is paid in the United States.

The US government is investing more in foreign tourism than before. The tourists’ money reduces the current account deficit, and more visitors also mean more jobs in many remote regions where the business sector’s structural transformation has led to high unemployment. For a more detailed description of tourism see Tourism and gastronomy for each state.

Trinidad and Tobago Business

Trinidad and Tobago Business

According to countryaah, Trinidad and Tobago is one of the oldest petroleum producing countries in the world, and revenues from this sector are of great importance to the country’s economy. Petroleum exploration on land started as early as 1902, with production starting a few years later, and in 1955 petroleum was also found at sea. It was previously assumed that oil deposits would end around 2003–05, but new major discoveries of oil and natural gas in the 1990s and 2000s brought new growth. Revenue from the petroleum business has been used to establish other industries, and Trinidad and Tobago have become one of the more industrialized countries in the Caribbean.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, TNT is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Trinidad and Tobago.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Trinidad and Tobago

Until recently, Trinidad and Tobago have had the region’s most extensive state-controlled economy. From the beginning of the 1980s, the country experienced financial problems due to falling oil prices and related products. As the economic problems increased, the International Monetary Fund contributed to liberalization of the economy. a large part of the former state-owned enterprises were privatized. From the latter part of the 1990s, the economy showed signs of recovery, but as in so many other countries, this occurred at the expense of the country’s social development, and the proportion of poor people increased.

Agriculture and fisheries have a modest economic scope, and in 2004 the sector contributed only 0.9% of GDP and employed approx. 5% of the working population. In the same year, industry and mining contributed about 50% of GDP and employed approx. 30% of the working population. Service industries have been growing rapidly, and contributed in 2004 with nearly half of GDP and employed close to 2 / 3 of the working population. The tourism industry represents a significant part of this, and is also an important source of foreign currency. Various tourist facilities such as hotels, harbors etc. have been improved to attract more tourists, and the country receives around 400,000 visitors annually. Around 1/3 coming from the US.

In 2005, GDP per household was estimated at USD 12,900.

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

The earth is partly volcanic in origin and very fertile. The cultivation of sugar on large plantations was formerly the main industry in the country, but today sugar accounts for a very small part of export revenue. In 2004, 680,000 tonnes were produced, which is half of the 2002 production. Oranges, cocoa and coffee are also grown for export. Corn, sweet potato, vegetables and rice are also grown, mostly for their own consumption. The livestock team includes pigs, cattle, goats, sheep and chickens; In addition, beekeeping is run with honey production. Trinidad and Tobago were formerly net exporters of food, but now have large food imports.

Some forestry is being run. Of the annual harvest around 90,000 m 3 is 2/3 to the industrial processing (sawn timber, pulp and paper) and the rest of the fuel.

Fishing is of no great economic importance, but is important in the local diet.

Mining, energy

After considerable efforts on oil and gas exploration, new big discoveries were made in the 1990s that gave rise to optimism for the industry. In the mid-2000s, production was 7405 million m 3. Trinidad and Tobago have the world’s largest occurrence of natural asphalt (bitumen) in Pitch Lake. Cement and limestone are also extracted.

Industry

The chemical and petrochemical industries are significant. There are petroleum refineries in Pointe-à-Pierre and Point Fortin with large production and exports of petroleum and petroleum products. Trinidad and Tobago are among the world’s largest producers of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and ammonia. Artificial fertilizers, plastic and glassware, as well as electronic equipment are also produced. Near the capital there are also iron and steel mills and cement industry; in addition, the electronics industry, the textile and clothing industry and the production of food and beverages (juice, sugar, rum etc.).

Foreign Trade

Trinidad and Tobago have a current account surplus abroad. The main export goods are petroleum and petroleum products. In addition, chemicals (ammonia, etc.), textiles and food and beverages are exported; machinery and means of transport are partially re-exported. The country has significant imports of machinery (oil drilling equipment etc.) and transport equipment, as well as industrial finished goods and food products. Trinidad and Tobago have a surplus in the balance of trade abroad. According to Countryaah, the United States is the most important trading country in terms of both exports and imports.

Transport and Communications

The road network is well developed, with approx. 8300 km of public roads. Main ports are Port of Spain, Pointe-à-Pierre and Point Lisas in Trinidad, and Scarborough in Tobago. Piarco International Airport in Trinidad and Crown Point in Tobago.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Business

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Business

According to abbreviationfinder, VC is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of St. Vincent and The Grenadines.

Business

In the 1980s, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines had a relatively weak economy relative to their neighboring countries, which is very dependent on the world market for a few goods and the influx of tourists.

Agricultural employment has declined sharply, but its importance to the economy remains. Exports mainly consist of agricultural commodities. As in the neighboring islands, bananas are the most important crop and account for 1/3 of export earnings. Other important crops and export goods are coconuts, sweet potatoes, vegetables, arrow root (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are the world’s largest producer) and spices.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

The fairly small industry that exists mainly deals with the processing of agricultural products. With the help of foreign aid and loans you try to build up the industry. In addition to the food industry, there are, for example, the textile industry, cardboard factory and shipyards for leisure boats. Tourism has developed strongly in recent times, but is not of the same importance as in most other Caribbean states. According to Countryaah, the country’s most important trading partners are Trinidad and Tobago.

Tourism and gastronomy

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines have no significant tourism, but it is under development. The country’s infrastructure is poorly developed, and the beaches of Saint Vincent volcano mainly have dark sand, which is not always attractive to tourists. These amount to about 100,000 annually, plus about as many sailors and cruise passengers, who visit Kingstown, which has America’s oldest botanical garden and two cathedrals. The area south of the capital has some beach tourism, while the island also offers exciting nature with tropical rainforest, beautiful waterfalls and the active volcano Soufrière in the north. For sailors, the Grenadines with their many small islands is a popular destination.

The islands diet has influences from all over the world. The Arawak Indians came with corn, sweet potatoes, cassava and chili, the African slaves with, among other things, the mallow plant okra. The Indians’ preference for curry stews and the British crab for cakes have left their mark. The Arrow Root is part of the pastry-type pastry. The breadfruit leaves its mark on bread, soups and stews. Otherwise, seafood dominates: mackerel, red snapper, crabs, which are filled with hot chilli stews, and crawfish that are grilled and served with citrus fruit. Sheep stew, preferably with liver, stomach and other inner foods in the company of pimiento, garlic and cloves, is one of the islands’ specialties.

Saint Lucia Business

Saint Lucia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, ST is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of St. Lucia.

A larger oil port and foreign small industry together with the tourism industry and agriculture constitute the island’s economic backbone. Bananas are the main selling product of agriculture (bananas replaced sugar in the 1920s). Otherwise, coconuts, mangoes, citrus fruits, cocoa and spices are grown for export. Increased competition for bananas in the European market has increased the need for differentiation of agriculture and business.

The development of the tourism industry has contributed to a large service sector. The tourism industry is very important for the country’s economy. The tourism industry is growing steadily.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Saint Lucia

Foreign Trade

According to Countryaah, Bananas exported to the UK are the main export goods. Next comes the confectionery and stationery. Main import goods are foodstuffs, basic factory products, machinery and transport equipment, fuels and chemicals. The main trading countries are the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as the other member countries of Caricom, especially Trinidad and Tobago.

Transport and Communications

There is no railway on the island. There is a main road connection between all cities and villages. Main port cities are Castries and Vieux Fort. Petroleum terminal at Cul de Sac Bay, south of Castries. Two airports.

Saint Kitts and Nevis Business

Saint Kitts and Nevis Business

Business

According to countryaah, Saint Christopher and Nevis have had a relatively favorable economic development. However, this has not cured the underemployment and unemployment, which, like everywhere in the Caribbean, is high. Agriculture with a focus on sugar is the traditional main industry; sugar has been responsible for the bulk of exports for many years. As sugar production has become increasingly unprofitable, attempts have been made to replace sugarcane cultivation with other crops (including cotton and coconuts). In 2005, the government decided on the dramatic measure to shut down the state-owned sugar industry. To alleviate the effects of the closure, the country received a grant from the EU of US $ 10 million.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, KN is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of St. Kitts and Nevis.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Saint Kitts and Nevis

The country is not self-sufficient in food but must import up to half of its needs. The industry is small and mainly comprises the processing of agricultural products and the manufacture of consumer goods (shoes, clothes, beer and rum). Saint Christopher and Nevi’s main trading partners are the United States, Canada and Trinidad and Tobago.

The trade deficit is mainly covered by revenues from the tourism industry, which has developed rapidly since the late 1970s. The country is visited annually by more than 100,000 people, of which more than half cruise passengers. The largest tourist facilities on Saint Christopher and Nevis are located southeast of Basseterre on Frigate Bay, but also on Nevis are luxurious facilities. The foremost historical monument is the impressive Brimstone Hill fortress, since 1999 listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List, south of the small town of Sandy Point on the west coast of Saint Christopher.

Tourism and gastronomy

Tourism plays a major role in the country’s economy. More than 100,000 visitors per year, of which more than half cruise passengers, account for about half of the country’s export revenue. The largest tourist facilities at Saint Christopher are located southeast of Basseterre at Frigate Bay, but also at Nevis there are luxurious facilities. The foremost historical memorial is the impressive Brimstone Hill fortress south of the small town of Sandy Point on the west coast of Saint Christopher. In addition to these, mainly the fine sandy beaches and scenery in the mountainous parts of the country attract.

From the Arawak Indians, corn, cassava and chilli have been mixed with the fruits of okra and akee (a cold plant) introduced by African slaves, the Indian curry and the rich catches of seafood. Peanuts or pickled mangoes are often flavored with fish or meat dishes; stew on goat meat and intestines with vegetables is common, bread with peanuts in for shrimp stew as well. Stuffed crab, skewers of meat mixed with chili fruits and pineapple and so the ubiquitous callaloo, soup on taro leaves with crab meat and okra, are a few examples of the variety in the rich and mixed cuisine on the islands.

Panama Business

Panama Business

According to abbreviationfinder, PM is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Panama.

Business is largely concentrated to the Channel Zone. In the densely populated, urbanized zone of Ciudad de Panamá-Colón, service industries dominate; in 2003, service industries accounted for over 80% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and employed approx. 2 / 3 of the working population.. In the country at large forms primary industries the largest industrial base.

Tourist revenue, especially at the Channel Zone, is substantial. In addition, due to its liberal establishment and tax rules, the country has significant international banking and financing activities.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Panama

Agriculture, fishing

Agriculture (incl. Hunting and fishing) employed 20% of the working population in 2003 and contributed approx. 6% of the national product. The country still has large unused agricultural land, and only 9% is fully cultivated land. The earth is very unevenly distributed. The vast majority of farms are very small, while 30% of agricultural land belongs to large estates and plantations. There, bananas, sugar and coffee are widely grown for export. Bananas alone account for approx. 1/3 of the country’s export earnings. Most important products for local consumption are rice, corn and beans. Otherwise, some cattle and pig teams are run.

During the 1980s, forestry was run to such an extent that the country’s forest areas were reduced by several percent annually. The heavy cutting also resulted in growing erosion problems, and during the latter part of the 1980s periods of chopping restrictions were introduced. About. 10% of the forest is protected in national parks. The timber and timber products are exported, among other things. of mahogany and mangrove bark (for tanning leather).

There is some fishing. Shrimp and anchovies are important export products.

Industry, mining

The industrial sector is relatively small and produces most consumer products for the domestic market. In 2003, the industry (including mining) employed 17% of the working population and contributed 14% of GDP. The industry is mainly concentrated in the Ciudad de Panamá – Colón area. Main industries are food industry, refining of imported petroleum (Colón), beverages, stationery and various consumables.

Panama has deposits of copper, coal and molybdenum.

Foreign Trade

According to Countryaah, Panama’s deficit on the balance of trade abroad is mainly covered by revenues and fees from the Channel Zone, by international banking and revenues from the tourism industry and ships sailing under the Panama flag (convenience flag). Thus, service exports are more important to Panama’s economy than goods exports. Colón has a free trade area with offices and business premises for a number of foreign companies. The Frison was established in 1953 and is today the second most important free trade area in the world (after Hong Kong).

In 2001, the United States accounted for 10% of Panama’s imports and 49.6% of exports. Other important trading partners are Japan, Ecuador, Germany, Costa Rica and Venezuela. The main export goods are bananas, shrimp, oil products, coffee and sugar. Electrical and electronic equipment, chemicals and chemical products, metal products, foodstuffs, transport equipment, textiles etc. are introduced.

Transport and Communications

The Pan-American Highway passes through the country from the north and approx. 550 km to the south. There is a stretch to the border with Colombia, Darién Gap (sp. Tapón de Dariél), which consists of alternating rainforest and wetlands. The development of this stretch is disputed. The road network is also best developed in the central parts of the country in the areas around the Panama Canal. The total road length is approx. 11 000 km. The Atlantic and Pacific Ocean are linked by the 82-kilometer Panama Canal. It is now registered approx. 10,000 vessels under the Panama flag (convenience flag), amounting to approx. 20% of the world’s trading fleet. The main ports, Balboa and Cristóbal, are located in the Channel Zone. Tocumen near the capital Ciudad de Panamá has an international airport.

Nicaragua Business

Nicaragua Business

According to abbreviationfinder, NI is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Nicaragua.

Business

Nicaragua’s business is based on agriculture and industry, primarily small-scale manufacturing. During the 1980s, the country’s business was paralyzed as a result of the civil war. After 1990, a great deal has been restructured; significant parts have been transferred from state to private ownership. Despite this, a large part of the country’s income comes from international aid and in the form of money that guest workers in the US send home. In 2004, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank decided to write off 75 percent of Nicaragua’s foreign debt within the framework of the HIPC initiative. This was 60 per cent of GDP at the time, and the country’s economic outlook was very poor at that time.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Nicaragua

The country’s economy has subsequently improved, but the importance of international lending institutions for the country’s economic stability has continued. Nicaragua has also for a long time received financial and material support from the US, EU, Venezuela and Cuba, but in 2009 the US and EU froze much of its aid after alleged election fraud in the Nicaraguan municipal elections in 2008.

The country’s GDP has grown by an average of 4 percent per year during the 1990s.

Nicaragua has for a long time had a high unemployment rate. In addition to this, the country also has a large informal sector; half of Managua’s economically active population is found within this.

Agriculture and fishing

The uneven distribution of land in Nicaragua, as in several other Latin American countries, has been the root cause of wars and conflicts. After the 1979 revolution, former large estates were nationalized, but the state farms produced poor results and the government instead invested in cooperatives and small farmers. Since the end of the war in 1990, ownership in Nicaragua’s countryside is often unclear, and the same land may have three different owners at the same time: the cooperatives of the 1980s, large landlords who returned from exile and former soldiers who were allotted land at the disarmament. Violence and murder have often been used to resolve conflicts around land ownership.

Although Nicaragua has a good soil and a good climate, agriculture does not meet the needs of the home, and agricultural production has declined since the 1970s. Large areas are used for the export products coffee, sugar and bananas and as a pasture for steak cows. For house needs, corn, rice, sorghum, beans, vegetables and fruits are grown.

Nicaragua has large fish and shellfish populations off the long coasts. Fishing for shrimp and lobster is increasing but is still modest. Export revenues from fishing are increasing.

Forestry

The use of forests was strong during the 1950s and 1960s, when American companies mainly exploited the Atlantic coast. Since then the withdrawal has decreased, but in the northern Atlantic coast there is the world’s largest stock of Caribbean pine, which is widely exported. Illegal logging and exporting has been a major problem for periods.

Minerals and energy

Nicaragua’s mineral resources mainly consist of gold and silver. The Talaver mine was opened in the early 1980s with Swedish assistance.

Wood is the most widely used energy source. Nicaragua imports electricity from neighboring Costa Rica. Several large hydropower plants have been planned, but hydropower’s contribution to energy production is modest; In 2010, water energy accounted for about 10 percent of electricity generation and geothermal heat for 5 percent.

Industry

In recent years, growth in Nicaragua’s industry has been mainly in the tax-exempt economic zones. There have emerged a large number of assembly plants, called maquilas, which produce for the American and European markets. The majority of these factories are foreign-owned, mainly by Asian companies, and they mainly produce shoes, clothing and jewelry.

This type of production is sensitive to the fluctuations of the world market, and during the global financial crisis of 2008–09, many factories had to close.

Nicaragua’s traditional industry is little developed. It produces tobacco, cement, sugar, beer, ice cream, chemical products and simpler consumer goods for the domestic market. The craft industry is concentrated around Masaya.

Foreign trade

According to Countryaah, Nicaragua has for a long time had a deficit in its trade balance. The largest export revenue comes from coffee, meat, seafood, sugar and bananas.

Imports of consumer goods exceed total exports. Imports, which are mainly paid for with aid money, consist mostly of machinery, oil and food. Nicaragua primarily exports to the United States, El Salvador and Venezuela, while the country imports from the United States, Venezuela and Mexico.

Tourism and gastronomy

Tourism was severely hampered by the long civil war. However, from the late 1980s, governments have taken the initiative to develop the industry by promoting hotel construction and ecotourism. In the late 00s, tourism grew rapidly and developed into one of the country’s most important industries. In 2012, the country was visited by 1.2 million tourists.

Nicaragua attracts with a beautiful and exciting volcanic landscape in the west as well as extensive rainforests in the east. In the Caribbean off the Bluefields on the Mosquito Coast are the Maíz Islands with great opportunities for swimming and fishing. Also on the Pacific coast there are conditions for bathing tourism, for example at the beaches west of Managua and in San Juan del Sur further south. The tourist stream is also looking for the big cities, especially the old colonial cities of Leon and Granada.

Maize and vegetables play the main role in Nicaraguan cuisine, which removes strong influences from Colombia in the south, including in the form of meat and vegetable stews. Chayote, a cucumber plant with fairly tasteless but saturating meat, was grown by both Aztecs and Mayan Indians and is included as the main ingredient in, among other things, the sopa de chayote, often extruded with chicken meat. Bananas and flour bananas in puddings, breads and pots are often found. Nacatamales is heavily seasoned chopped meat that is wrapped in banana leaves and then steamed. Fish soups with potatoes and beans or coconut fish pots are common.

Mexico Business

Mexico Business

According to abbreviationfinder, MX is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Mexico.

Business and Economics

Mexico is the world’s fourth largest economy and the 11th most populous country. Periodically, oil resources have played an important role in economic development, but now Mexico is primarily an industrialized country with a strikingly strong focus on exports. In 2017, agriculture accounted for 4 percent of GDP, mining industry and construction for 32 percent and service for 64 percent. According to the World Bank’s classification, Mexico is an upper middle-income country. For the years 2011–12, annual economic growth was 3.9 percent. Mexico has been a member of NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Association since 1994, and the United States is its most dominant trading partner, especially in terms of exports.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Mexico

Old farmhouse.

Thousands of years ago, agriculture in southern Mexico was the most developed in the western hemisphere. Already during pre-Columbian times, the assets began to be used on metals, mainly silver. The Spanish colonizers exploited the metal assets as early as the 16th century, and silver and gold flowed home to Spain. In the countryside, large estates were established with farm workers who lived in ever greater poverty and starvation. Independence in 1823 changed little of this. The revolution in the 1910s was aimed, among other things, at creating its own business life and by obtaining land reform in rural areas through a land reform. The state took over ownership of the natural resources and then handed over the right to use the land to the villages.

Industrialization.

A consumer goods industry began to emerge and the state protected it from foreign competition through long-running protectionism. At the same time, imports of the capital goods needed for industrialization were facilitated. The economic development of 1940-70 was such that the outside world talked about “the Mexican wonder”. In the mid-1970s, large oil deposits were encountered and this was followed by a short period of even faster economic growth. The state embarked on costly projects, including to improve transport conditions.

1980s economic crisis.

When the international oil market began to decline in the 1970s, Mexico was forced to take out large foreign loans. An overly optimistic economic policy and, in addition, financial neglect meant that the country could not cope with borrowing costs and the economy was in a serious crisis. In 1985, the government succeeded in getting the foreign creditors to agree to a debt restructuring plan, but the entire 1980s was a crisis period. Poverty remained, unemployment increased and slums grew in the cities. The misery was reinforced after the catastrophic earthquake in Mexico City in 1985.

Business liberalization.

The only way to achieve stabilization and secure economic growth in the country was a gradual liberalization in the business sector in order to increase trade and a better climate for foreign investment. The state’s dominant role in the business sector was subdued and increasingly privatized. Foreign investment also increased, especially in the form of maquiladoras, US-owned factories with favorable conditions in cities on the border with the US (see Industry). However, much of the other industry was not very competitive abroad. It was inefficient and had to be modernized, but there was a lack of domestic capital. It became important to continue to engage foreign investors through further liberalization, a position that still remains. The internationalization that followed the increased free trade, mainly within NAFTA, has led to a division in the economy and society. A highly advanced, capital-intensive industry is emerging, but the vast majority of industry employees are in traditional, labor-intensive and low-paid operations.

Increased poverty in the countryside.

In rural areas, poverty in recent years has increased further among small farmers, especially in the South Indian population. In the early 1990s, land reform was initiated to modernize agriculture and increase yields and thus prosperity among small farmers. Co-ownership within ejidos is increasingly being replaced by safer use rights and also by private land ownership. But just over half of Mexico’s population lived in 2012 below the official poverty line, a larger proportion than five years earlier (see Social Conditions).

Farmers with market-oriented cultivation, on the other hand, earn a lot from growing demand for fruits and vegetables, especially in the southwestern United States. Thus, the economic growth of recent years has meant that differences have increased between different parts of the country. Länder with good transport conditions and telecommunications have attracted more and more foreign direct investment, where jobs have increased and wages have risen. For other parts of the country, liberalization and NAFTA have meant that many businesses are out of competition. Jobs have disappeared, which has resulted in continued large relocation to other bands. USA.

Rapid recovery from the financial crisis.

The strong connection of the economy to the US meant that the financial crisis there from 2008 onwards became very noticeable in Mexico as well. But the country recovered within a year, and it has subsequently been judged to have stable growth and a good business climate, despite extensive violence between drug leagues, mainly in the north. Unemployment is relatively low, but a large part of employment is in the informal sector, which reduces the state’s ability to collect taxes.

Both in the world market and at home, Mexico has faced increased competition from China and other countries in East and Southeast Asia. China has become the second largest trading partner and an increasing share of imports comes from there. However, in 2012-13, a new trend began to be noticed. The differences in production costs between the two countries are decreasing, as Chinese wages have increased significantly, while Mexican wages in several industries have remained almost unchanged for a long time. In addition, Mexico competes by strictly following international copyright and trademark rules. In addition, the transport distances are shorter for the large US market than they are from China.

According to the current development plan, the Peña Nieto government that took office in 2012 works primarily with improving transport and telecommunication systems, reducing poverty and improving education. In addition, energy supply should be facilitated. Oil recovery has stagnated but hopes are linked to natural gas extraction. The country also has great potential in terms of renewable energy raw materials, which have so far played a minor role. The latest governments have prioritized measures to achieve sustainable agriculture and forestry, because the serious consequences of the ongoing climate change in the country, ie. the drying out of the landscape. In an international perspective, Mexico has strict environmental legislation but much of it has not been possible.

Agriculture

In 2013, agriculture together with forestry and fisheries accounted for 11 percent of employment in Mexico. During the 00s, agricultural production increased steadily but slowly, by 1.7 percent per year, and during the 2010s the increase has been even smaller. Since 1993, Mexico has been a net importer of food.

In 2010, 6 percent of the country’s exports of agricultural products, mainly coffee, fruit and vegetables. Approximately 7 percent of imports were agricultural goods, mainly cereals and meat. The increased free trade has been positive for those who grow fruit and vegetables but negative for cereal and meat producers.

Land use and ownership structure.

Most of Mexico is too dry or too mountainous for agriculture, and only just under 14 percent of the land is used for permanent agriculture. More than half are pasture or forest land and the remainder is desert or semi-desert. The best conditions for farming are in southern Mexico, where one of the world’s earliest agricultural societies grew and several large Native American civilizations later flourished. There, maybe 9,000 years ago corn was grown, and eventually also beans, squash, chili peppers and cotton. The Spanish colonizers introduced large-scale agriculture in the form of extensive but low-productivity properties, haciendas, where the peasants (peons) lived under almost slave-like conditions. In the context of the Mexican Revolution, the state took over all land and handed over the agricultural land to the village communities (ejidos), whose members were granted the right of use, individually or collectively. This redistribution was enacted in 1917 and carried out most consistently in southern and central Mexico. The result was a small-scale farming and better conditions for the rural population. Production increased, but agricultural methods hardly changed.

As free trade grew from the early 1990s, the eidos system emerged as low-productivity. The land could not be sold or bequeathed, nor could it be given as collateral for loans. It hardly provided opportunities for investment for modernization. A law in 1992 opened for a radical ownership and structural reform in which the individual member can sell his land to an outsider. The processes are very complicated and time consuming. The changes are therefore slow and still much of the land is uneconomically fragmented. In 2010, 72 percent of farms comprised less than 5 ha and 94 percent less than 20 ha. About half of all land in Mexico is still owned by ejidos, while 40 percent is privately owned and the remainder is owned by the state. The poorest farmers have become even more disadvantaged. Their ownership is often unclear,

Crops and cultivation conditions.

Small farmers in Ejidomark still grow the old basic foods corn, beans, tomatoes and squash. On the central plateau and in the south, it is mostly self-sustaining agriculture with sometimes a small surplus sold in the local market. Most private small farmers also have little opportunity to improve their situation. Costs for inputs such as seeds and fertilizers are rising faster than revenue does. Poor road network and weak trade organization make growers’ contacts with the market more difficult. There are almost no banks in such areas and the farmers therefore do not have access to loans and financial services. Government loans for agricultural development are no longer granted and subsidies of various kinds mainly end up with major landowners. The poorest farmer households are in the south where farmers make up a large proportion of the population,

During the 1950s and 1960s, the state implemented large-scale irrigation projects in northern Mexico, particularly in the state of Chihuahua and along the California Gulf coast, which more than doubled the agricultural area. It mainly grows wheat and cotton and vegetables for export. Mexico is self-sustaining with durum wheat used for pasta, while most of the wheat for bread is imported from the United States.

In the coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico, the rainfall is sufficient and fairly reliable. There it operates a market-oriented agriculture that produces, among other things, sugar cane, vegetables and tropical fruit such as avocado, bananas, pineapple and mango, partly on multinational companies’ plantations and partly on small farmers, some of which grow on contract. At the bottom of the south conditions are suitable for cultivation of cocoa and coffee, then old important export goods. As a coffee producer, Mexico was the seventh in the world in 2010. More than 90 percent of the coffee comes from small farmers, most Indians with farms on only a few acres. They are weak towards the buyers and receive only a small part of the selling price.

White corn is the most important basic food and is grown in all parts of the country. It is a climate-sensitive crop and most small farmers have not yet started growing the more dry-resistant varieties. The area sown has decreased significantly, but Mexico is still the world’s fourth largest producer of maize. Apart from the southernmost part and the Gulf Coast, Mexico is rainy and it is located in a part of the world where the climate has become drier with more and more fateful dry periods. Artificial irrigation is of great importance and gives a double yield most years, but only a quarter of the field is irrigation.

The sharp increase in population from the 1970s onwards and the slow increase in production have meant that agriculture no longer provides enough basic food and that grain imports have gradually increased over the last decades. The NAFTA agreement meant that trade in agricultural commodities increased sharply, especially during the 1990s. The United States receives about 80 percent of Mexico’s exports from agriculture, and demand there has increased, especially for winter vegetables, but also for fruit juices and cut flowers.

European colonizers introduced cattle breeding in the 16th century, and on the haciendas there were usually both horses and cattle and goats. Larger farms with animals (ranches) still exist in the arid areas of the north, but the uncertain supply of water and the high price of imported feed maize have made the breeding of meat animals less important. Imports of cheap meat from the United States have instead multiplied. In the central highlands, it is common with sheep and goats, and there the breeding of dairy cows has increased. Livestock accounts for about 30 percent of all agricultural production and now the most important animals are poultry.

Forestry

Nearly a third of Mexico’s area is wooded. In addition, there are also semi-desert areas with dry shrubbery and steep-grazed pastures with sparse populations of trees. About half of the forest area consists of temperate trees, while the rest is tropical forests. These are found in southernmost Mexico, mainly in the Yucatán Peninsula and in the state of Chiapas. Temperate forests grow mainly on the western part of the Sierra Madre Occidental. Of forest production, 90 percent comes from temperate forests and only 10 percent from tropical forests in the south. But these are a versatile resource: from there, people from tradition collect materials for construction, dyeing and not least for health care. About 1,500 plants are used as medicinal plants.

The forest area fell sharply during the latter part of the 20th century; during the 1980s at an average of 1.4 percent per year. Mexico was then one of the countries that had the fastest rate of deforestation. Most of the cut down was used for fuel and at the same time the need for imports of forest products increased. The forest clearing provided more agricultural land, but at the same time increased erosion and a drier environment. As a result, the water shortage became increasingly evident in the country. Thus, there were several reasons why the government in the 1990s began to pursue a modern forest policy. It invested heavily in commercial forest plantations and in 2006 there were 1,400 km2plantations with monoculture of fast-growing eucalyptus, cedar, teak or pine. Since then, even more have been planted, and after twenty years now the earliest plantations have harvested mature forest. Such production will increase each year, reducing the need to import forest raw materials and forest products.

Of the forest area, however, 99.5 percent is natural forest with mostly low productivity, mainly as a result of poor management and illegal logging. Halting the environmental impact requires extensive measures. After the environmental consciousness has awakened within the country’s government, after 2000, an increasingly ambitious policy was developed to achieve sustainable forestry and thereby be able to protect the forest, land and water resources and also reduce carbon dioxide content. New forest is planted on degraded land, and ejidos, which is still responsible for more than half of Mexico’s forests, receives support to start with sustainable forestry. New laws exist to protect fauna and flora and to promote ecological balance, and nature conservation areas have been set aside. More generally, rural development support is also provided in forested areas.

At the state and local level, resources and often insights and understanding for concrete planning and implementation of forest policy are lacking. The large forest companies are also usually not interested in sustainable forestry. In addition, there are areas with organized groups of illegal harvesters and in their areas also guerrilla bands that challenge the authorities. Many planting programs fail and generally, at most half of the planted trees survive. In southern Mexico, most of the forest is contained in ejidos, a form of ownership and use that is likely to delay changes. Forest clearing and fires in burning agriculture still occur, mainly in Chiapas, but deforestation is no longer a national problem in Mexico.

Less than a third of the forest area is still used for economic forestry. The proportion of sustainable forestry is considerably smaller. Modern forestry is mainly found in the highlands in the north, mainly in the states of Chihuahua and Durango, where larger forests are privately owned. Many wooded areas are mountainous and difficult to access with a lack of good transport routes that can be used all year round. There, the timber is usually used in the many small and low-mechanized sawmills. A large part of the new forest plantations is owned by forest companies that also invest in cardboard and board manufacturing. So far, most packaging material has been made from recycled paper while fine paper has been imported.

Fishing

In the country’s economy, fishing has little significance, but locally it plays a certain role. Annual catches from sea fishing increased until the beginning of the 1990s, but then stagnated around 1.6 million tonnes annually. That level of production has subsequently become the guideline in the country’s fisheries policy.

The best fishing opportunities are at the top of the northwest, where the California stream contains a lot of plankton. Shrimp are mainly caught in the relatively shallow waters of the California Gulf. Farther out to sea, primarily California sardine is fished (Sardinops Sagax), which is by weight the dominant Mexican fish. Nearly three-quarters of the annual catch from fishing to sea is landed in ports along the Pacific coast: Guayamas in the state of Sonora, Mazatlán in Sinaloa and Manzanillo further south. Sinaloa and Sonora together account for 45 percent of the value of all fishing in Mexico. From there, both wild caught and cultivated shrimp are largely exported to the United States, a country with steadily growing demand for seafood. Mazatlán is the base for high sea fishing off the Pacific coast. There mainly landed large catches of sardines and also tuna. On the east coast, Tampico and Veracruz are the main ports for the Gulf of Mexico fishing. There, oil spills and overfishing have significantly reduced catches. Fish is no longer considered a viable resource.

Overfishing is an acute problem in several areas and the federal state seeks to achieve sustainable fishing using fishing quotas and fishing permits. At the same time, the state in various ways provides support for the development of more modern fishing further out at sea. However, such large-scale fishing is a greater ecological threat than the small-scale using traditional methods. By making it easier for fishermen to switch to fish farming, they seek to counteract overfishing, while at the same time looking to increase production. Fish farming has also increased and now accounts for about a tenth of the country’s total seafood production. The shrubs mainly come from high quality shrimp but also trout.

Mineral

Mexico has long been an important mineral producing country. In 2011, the mining industry became Mexico’s second most important industry, after oil and natural gas extraction but before tourism, and in 2010, accounting for coal mining, accounted for just over 8 percent of the country’s GDP. Of this, 26 percent came from gold and 20 percent from silver, 16 percent from copper, 10 percent from zinc and 5 percent from iron ore.

Already in pre-Columbian times, the indigenous communities used silver and gold, and mining has a more than 500-year history in Mexico. The Spanish conquerors were accompanied by minerals and soon silver and gold gave Spain the largest income from the new colony. Eventually, however, the deposits decreased and the mining industry declined in importance. General poverty, political instability and capital shortages in the country caused new exploitation to be delayed. In addition, from the beginning of the 1950s until 1992, the country was closed to foreign investment in mining. Only then has there been a sharp expansion, also promoted by NAFTA and not least by growing demand and thus rising world market prices for the minerals that exist in the country.

Mexico became the world’s leading producer of silver in 2010with close to 1/5 of all extraction in the world. In an 800 km long zone with silver deposits along the Sierra Madre Occidental are many large mines. The center is located in the state of Zacateca, where almost half of the silver production comes from. Fresnillo has one of the largest mines. Fresnillo plc is also the name of the country’s leading mining company, one of the world’s largest in terms of silver and gold mining. Silver is also mined on the east coast of California and in the south not far from the metropolitan area. In general, the gold deposits are in the same areas. More than half of that production comes from the states of Sonora and Chihuahua. Rapidly rising gold prices have meant that gold has become the country’s most productive mineral, but in a global perspective, Mexico ranks first in about 10th in gold mining.

Lead and zinc are mainly mined in the northern part of the Sierra Madre Occidental. Mexico was the world’s fifth largest producer of lead in 2010 and the eighth of zinc. Copper ore occurs in a belt west of the silver belt in the Sierra Madre Occidental, especially in the northwest, and the state of Sonora accounts for 2/3 of that production. The center for the iron ore mining is the city of Monterrey in the northeast. In the case of copper and iron ore, Mexico is not among the top ten producers in the world.

Only a small part of the country has so far been geologically mapped. Every year new ore deposits are found, and new areas are explored and evaluated. The outside world shows great interest in Mexico’s mineral resources and in 2011 the country was one of the four in the world that attracted the most foreign investment in the mining sector. Three-quarters of these came from Canadian mining companies. Since 2010, China has also shown strong growing interest in Mexican deposits of copper, iron, zinc and lead ore. Another reason for the booming mining industry in Mexico is that the companies have very favorable taxation.

The growing mining industry faces problems as Mexican environmental legislation is strict in terms of, among other things. water. Discharge of chemical agents destroys drinking water, and forest clearing and quarrying reduces vegetation cover. Mining requires a lot of water and when it rains there can be conflicts with other industries such as agriculture and tourism. In order to open new mines, companies must also negotiate with the locals, who are usually organized in ejidosis and often negative to such new businesses. New mineral deposits are found especially in northern Mexico, where the companies’ work is also hampered by contradictions between drug cartels.

Energy

Mexico is one of the world’s ten largest oil-producing countries. In 2011, oil accounted for about 55 percent of total energy consumption in the country and also contributed one sixth to export income. However, oil’s share of consumption has declined in recent years, while natural gas plays an increasingly important role with a share of about 30 percent in 2011. Coal accounted for 5 percent and nuclear power for 1 percent, while water energy accounted for 4 percent and other renewable energy sources. about 5 percent.

Already in the early 1900s, foreign companies extracted oil in Mexico and in the 1920s and 30s the country was one of the largest crude oil exporters in the world. In the mid-1930s, the country’s natural resources and thus all extraction and trade in oil and natural gas were nationalized, decisions that were written into the Constitution. The state-owned oil and natural gas company Pemex (Petróleos Mexicanos) was founded in 1938 and is one of the largest companies in Latin America. Mexico is not a member of OPEC but acts in its spirit.

During the 1970s and early 1980s, a number of new oil deposits were found along the Gulf of Mexico, both onshore and offshore. With the deposits as collateral, the state took out large foreign loans and was thus able to finance offshore extraction and also the construction of oil refineries. The increase in production was particularly strong in 1977–82. Mexico was in fifth place in the world as an oil producer in 2004 and exported a lot of crude oil to mainly the US. That year, oil recovery reached its maximum. Then came a sustained decline, and in 2011 less than three-quarters of the volume was produced seven years earlier. At that time, Mexico was down to nine as a crude oil producer, accounting for only 3.6 percent of world production. The country was then no longer among the fifteen largest exporters.

Since the 1970s most extraction has been in the Cantarell field, which has been one of the world’s five largest oil fields. It is located at sea in the southeastern part of Campeche Bay, at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico. The reserves there are not as large as previous calculations have shown, and Cantarell is now an aging field which in 2012 only produced 1/5 of the production during the peak year 2003. Since 2009, the extraction has been greater in the neighboring, smaller fields Ku – Maloob – Zaap. Small oil fields are also found on the coast to the south and along the coast between Veracruz and Tampico.

Pemex is the state’s “dairy cow” and has not been able to maintain sufficient resources to drive the oil exploration and technology development needed to find and exploit new deposits, especially not in deeper water. Professionals and many politicians have for a long time considered that this can only be solved by opening the country to foreign oil companies, a development made possible in 2013 when the congress’s two chambers decided to end the monopoly in oil and gas extraction. Demand for oil products is gradually increasing in the country and Pemex has also not been able to expand sufficient refinery capacity. The country is therefore a net importer of oil and oil products.

Mexico has significant assets in both conventional natural gas and shale gas. Ordinary natural gas is mainly associated with the oil deposits in the southernmost part of the country, and onshore and offshore fields in the states of Tabasco and Campeche account for just over 60 percent of all natural gas production. Another 25 percent comes from gas fields in the northeast, adjacent to the Texas border. Recovery increased during the first half of the 1990s and has subsequently remained at approximately unchanged levels. Domestic demand for natural gas is gradually increasing, which has led to a steadily growing import of cheap natural gas via pipelines from the USA. Mexico also imports liquefied natural gas from mainly Qatar, Nigeria and Peru.

It has now also become possible for private companies to enter into service agreements with Pemex. They can then exploit Mexican natural gas to sell it to Pemex, which is then responsible for all distribution and sales thereof. One third of all natural gas is used to generate electricity. Mexico, like the United States and Canada, has large shale gas assets, mainly in the arid states of the north. So far, there have been no resources and knowledge to start utilizing them, and recovery is also hampered by areas where the drug cartels are active. In addition, such gas extraction is a process that requires a lot of water.

Coal is used in Mexico mainly in the steel industry and to generate electricity. Two-fifths of the coal used is imported, mainly from China and Australia. Domestic coal is of poor quality with a high content of ash. Most of the coal mining takes place in the state of Coahuila in the northeast and production has fluctuated widely from year to year.

Over the past decade, the importance of oil has decreased for electricity generation, while natural gas has become increasingly important. In 2009, natural gas produced 53 percent of electricity, oil 17 percent, coal just over 11 percent and nuclear power 4 percent. The remainder came from renewable energy sources, of which just over 10 percent was hydropower and the rest geothermal energy, wind power and energy from biofuels. Mexico’s only nuclear power plant is Laguna Verde in the state of Veracruz. There is great potential for solar power in northern Mexico and for wind power in the southwestern part of the country.

Industry

In 2012, the manufacturing industry together with mining and construction accounted for just over 33 percent of employment in Mexico, while 56 percent worked in the service industries. However, the scope and focus of employment cannot be stated quite safely, as many still work in the unofficial sector. Most of them are devoted to trade and personal services.

The manufacturing industry grew by an average of 3.7 percent per year in 2011-12, accounting for about three quarters of export earnings. It was developed seriously from the 1940s and forty years on. The production of consumer goods was then supported by high import duties and other trade restrictions that protected it from foreign competition. It was also stimulated by improved economic conditions, which increased household demand for goods. When the barriers to trade began to reduce in the 1980s, the large and modern companies were able to reach a larger market abroad and also cope with new competition, while many small and medium-sized companies with more traditionally designed operations had problems.

In the late 1960s, maquiladoras began (compound factories) grow in the cities at the border in the north. These were owned by subsidiaries of major US companies. It was a corporate form that would become a very expansive element of Mexican business during the 1980s and 1990s, in particular. They were able to import, without restriction, components that were merged into electrical and electronic machines, which were then exported, mainly to the United States without import duties. Textile and clothing factories of this kind also grew up in the Mexican border cities. The success was a result of both a large and low-paid labor force in Mexico and a large and growing demand for products in the US. The NAFTA agreement in 1994 provided additional stimulus to maquiladoras, and similar factories also grew in other parts of the country.

In 2011, the approximately 3,000 maquiladoras companies together had approximately 1.3 million employees. Products from there have for many decades accounted for a large part of exports from Mexico’s manufacturing industry. The free trade agreements have also meant that foreign investment has increased more and more, especially from the US but also from countries within the EU. In addition, more and more multinational companies from countries other than the United States have placed manufacturing in Mexico to more easily benefit from NAFTA’s large market.

During the 1990s, a slowed growth rate was noticed in industries with labor-intensive manufacturing. Some such companies were attracted to China where wages were lower. Instead, more advanced industry grew, primarily vehicle manufacturing. The largest European, Japanese and American car manufacturers have built or are in the process of building large factories in Mexico, and now virtually all components for the cars can be manufactured there. These companies also build research and technological development departments. In 2011, Mexico had become the eighth largest automaker in the world. Similar developments have also occurred in the aviation industry. A large number of companies in these industries are located near the U.S. border, for example, in the Tijuana – Mexico area just south of California in the United States, but in recent years, these have also been established in the new high-tech manufacturing center that is emerging in the states of Querétaro and Guanajuato north of Mexico City. These industries require highly educated workforce, and large multinational companies often invest in technical upper secondary and college education for young people in the regions where they establish themselves.

At the beginning of the 2010s, the manufacture of transport equipment, telecommunications equipment and office equipment was the most expansive industry in Mexico. A smaller but growing industry is the manufacture of instruments. All in all, this means that high-tech industry is gaining importance in Mexico’s economy and 16 percent of industrial goods exported in 2011 came from there.

The petrochemical industry, metal smelters and metal foundries are of great economic importance. They are highly mechanized industries and therefore have a small share of employment. The first steel mill was built in the early 1900s in Monterrey in the state of Nuevo León in the northeast, and that city is still the center of the country’s steelmaking. Demand for steel has risen sharply as the automotive industry has grown in recent years. Domestic steel production has not increased at the same rate, and steel imports have increased every year. In 2012, it corresponded to half of domestic steel production.

The food industry is still the largest industrial industry. In 2012, it accounted for about 25 percent of the country’s industrial production and for an even larger share of industrial employment. There is a wide range of raw materials from agriculture and food factories are scattered throughout the country. The domestic market is large and growing in terms of tobacco products, beer and other alcoholic beverages, such as agave-based such as tequila. In addition, there is the large market for fruit and vegetable preserves, also in many exporting countries.

service industryshowed strong growth around 1990 and continued to increase until 2002, when it accounted for close to 70 percent of the country’s GDP. One of several driving forces was the growing tourism. Subsequently, a sharp decline followed and in 2015 the share was only 62 percent. The reason for this is mainly due to the increasing violence from the drug cartels. reduced tourism, entertainment and trade. The subsequent financial crisis further reduced the number of tourists from primarily the United States. It was also a period when employment in the informal sector increased, with its small, cheap and flexible service places. In 2013, the service industry accounted for 59 percent of GDP, following a slow improvement. Mexico’s economic growth as a whole in 2011–12 means that tourism and financial services are regarded as the service industries with the best prospects.

Foreign trade

Three traits are striking in the country’s foreign trade: oil exports have varied greatly over different decades, the importance of industrial products has increased greatly in recent years, and for a long time Mexico has been heavily dependent on the US as a trading partner, especially with regard to exports.

From the 1930s to the early 1980s, Mexico pursued a strong protectionist trade policy. However, the country ended up in serious financial difficulties and trade liberalization appeared inevitable. Trade barriers began to be lowered and, above all, negotiations began with other states on free trade agreements. Liberalization has continued gradually and Mexico has become one of the world’s most open countries in terms of trade, which has grown exceptionally well. Exports increased by 475 percent from 1994 to 2011 and imports by 342 percent.

The 1994 Free Trade Agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) became by far the most important agreement. During the following decade, many other free trade agreements, especially bilateral ones, were also signed with countries in South and Central America but also with, for example, the EU and Japan. Mexico (2012) has 12 free trade agreements with a total of 44 countries and negotiations are ongoing on further agreements, mainly with countries around the Pacific. The agreements usually concern both goods and services and entail a gradual reduction of trade barriers and also easing of rules for foreign investment.

According to Countryaah, the main reason for the many free trade agreements alongside NAFTA has been that Mexico seeks to reduce its dependence on trade with the United States. However, the pattern of trade has hardly changed with regard to exporting countries. In 1996, 83 percent of all exports to the United States went, in 2011 the share was 79 percent. In 2011, the EU received only 6 percent of exports, other countries with free trade agreements with Mexico received 8 percent and other countries 7 percent.

As far as importing countries are concerned, there have been changes, but not as a result of the free trade agreements. The US share has decreased, from 75 percent in 1996 to 50 percent in 2011, and the share of other free-trade countries has increased slightly, from 17 percent to 19 percent. The major change has occurred in the case of non-free trade countries, which increased their share of Mexico’s imports from 8 to 31 percent. This is mainly explained by the fact that China in the 00s and mainly since 2008 appeared as one of the country’s most important trading partners. In 2011, 15 percent of Mexico’s imports came from there. In the exchange with the United States, Mexico has a large surplus in commodity trade, but there is currently a small deficit in all foreign trade.

Both the extent of oil recovery and the level of oil prices affect Mexico’s trade balance. In the early 1920s, crude oil provided more than half of the country’s export earnings, but after a few years the deposits subsided and Mexico eventually became a net importer of oil and oil products. Extensive discoveries of oil deposits in the early 1970s again made the country a major oil exporter and in 1982 the oil’s share in exports was close to 80%. Reduced recovery, falling world market prices and rising exports of Mexican industrial goods made the oil in 1995 accounted for only 10 percent of export earnings. In 2011, the share had risen to 14 percent and crude oil was again the most important export commodity. Next in importance came passenger cars (5.4 percent), TVs, mobiles, trucks, base metals, chemical products and fruits,

The most important import goods in 2011 were machines for metalworking and agriculture, as well as petrol and other oil products, steel, mobile phones, passenger cars and grain. A significant proportion of imports are semi-manufactured to the engineering industry, such as TV components.

Mexico’s balance of payments is affected by two other major sources of income, tourism and private US dollar transfers. The funds that Mexican guest workers in the United States send home to family and relatives correspond to several percent of GDP each year.

Jamaica Business

Jamaica Business

According to abbreviationfinder, JA is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Jamaica.

Jamaica’s economy is mainly based on tourism, bauxite and aluminum production, bananas and sugar. In the 1970s, the authorities sought to create a more socialist society, with land reforms, nationalizations and more welfare schemes, etc. on the program. Growing financial problems, however, put an end to this experiment, and to overcome the financial problems. the substantial government debt and high inflation, a tight monetary and fiscal policy was subsequently implemented, privatization of state enterprises.

A large proportion of the population lives below the poverty line and the country has a relatively low purchasing power domestic market, which hinders economic development. Other problem areas are a poorly developed infrastructure, drug traffic and corruption. In addition, low prices on the world market come for the important products bauxite and aluminum, as well as the lack of new investment and unstable weather conditions affecting sugar and coffee production. However, a bright spot in the economy is a positive development in the tourism industry. In 2003, service industries contributed just over 60% of both GDP and employment.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Jamaica

Jamaica flag source: Countryaah.com

Agriculture

In 2002, agriculture (including fisheries) contributed just over 5% of GDP and employed just under 20% of the working population. Agriculture still plays an important, but declining, role in the country’s economy. Agriculture has repeatedly been severely hit by devastation associated with hurricanes. by Hurricane Ivan in 2004, when nearly 2/3 of coffee crops were destroyed.

Most of the cultivated land belongs to plantations, and approx. 75% of farmers are small farmers. Both small and large farms produce for export. Sugarcane is the most important export growth, and is grown especially on the coastal plains. Raw sugar production was 153,540 tonnes in 2003 (against 355,000 tonnes in 1975). Other important sales growths are bananas, which are especially grown on the humid northeast coast, as well as citrus fruits, coffee and cocoa. Some spices are also grown; Jamaica is the world’s largest producer of all kinds. For local consumption, i.e. corn, root vegetables (sweet potatoes, yams, cassava), tobacco and coconuts. It encourages the cultivation of rice and fruit, both to reduce food imports and to vary agricultural exports. Jamaica is not self-sufficient with food grains and other basic foods. Goats, cattle and pigs are most important in animal husbandry.

Timber production in 2001 was 874,000 m. Forest covered 16% of Jamaica’s total area in 2000. This was a decrease from 23.5% ten years earlier. Deforestation in the country is happening at a pace that is among the highest in the world. Fishing has little economic significance

Mining

Jamaica is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of bauxite. Bauxite is the most important raw material in aluminum production. Production of bauxite (13.4 million tonnes in 2003) and alumina contributed in 2003 with approx. 65% of the country’s total export revenue. Employment is of less importance to the industry; Mining in 2003 employed only 0.4% of the working population.

Limestone, some plaster and marble are also mined. Gold deposits.

Industry

The industry is largely based on the processing of bauxite and agricultural raw materials, especially sugar. The manufacture of food and beverages and tobacco accounts for approx. 70% of total industrial production. Especially in the metropolitan area, a versatile consumer goods industry has grown, where the products range from textiles and footwear to metal products and building materials. However, parts of this industry face strong competition from cheap imports of goods from low-cost countries in Asia.

In an effort to promote industrial development, economic fronts have been established at Kingston, Montego Bay and Spanish Town, aimed at establishing foreign companies. However, the new industries have been less able to improve the economic situation in the country. In 2003, the industry (including mining) contributed just over 30% of GDP and employed approx. 18% of the working population.

Tourism

Tourism makes an important contribution to the economy. The industry is sometimes hit by periods of political and social turmoil. In 2003–04, 1.4 million tourists visited the island, excluding cruise ship tourists. About. 70% of tourists come from the United States. Most tourist destinations are along the north coast; in Montego Bay, Ocho Rios and Port Antonio are a number of luxury hotels

Foreign Trade

Since the mid-1970s, Jamaica has had a trade deficit abroad. The imbalance is due to both reduced prices of the country’s export products (bauxite and sugar) and rising imports. At the same time, the dramatic devaluation of the country’s currency in the first half of the 1980s increased import costs. Exports, which were previously dominated by sugar and bananas, now consist primarily of alumina and bauxite (8%). In 2003, sugar accounted for only 5% of exports.

Jamaica is a member of the Caribbean common market CARICOM, but the main buyer of exports is the United States, then Canada and the United Kingdom. Other EU countries and Norway are also important recipients of exports. Main import goods are machinery and transport equipment, fuel, chemicals, food and various consumables. The majority of imports come from the United States (44%), secondly from CARICOM countries and elsewhere in Latin America.

In the latter part of the 1980s, it was estimated that the value of illegal marijuana trafficking (both domestic and transit sales) exceeded the value of all legal exports.

Transport and Communications

The island has a relatively well-developed road network that follows the coast around the island, which cuts through the island in the north-south direction where the mountains make it possible. A smaller railway, approx. 200 km, Kingston connects with Montego Bay on the northwest coast, and with Port Antonio on the northeast coast. International airports can be found at Palisadoes (Norman Manley) 22 km outside Kingston and at Montego Bay (Sangster). Main port cities are Kingston, Montego Bay and Port Antonia.

Honduras Business

Honduras Business

Business

According to countryaah, Honduras is one of the poorest countries in Central America, and the economy is dependent on commodity exports, mainly coffee, sugar cane and bananas. This makes the country’s economy very sensitive to world market prices, which were falling for these products during the 1990s. The situation for the country’s commodity exports worsened further in 1993, when the EU imposed tariff restrictions on banana imports.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, HN is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Honduras.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Honduras

During the early 2000s, the country enjoyed good economic growth, mainly as a result of the establishment of compound factories (maquiladoras) in the country and the expansion of tourism and the construction industry. During the first eight years of the 1990s, the country had stable GDP growth. The financial crisis 2008–09 and the 2009 state coup were hard blows to the country’s business and positive economic development was reversed. In the 2010s, the country’s manufacturing and construction industries began to recover, but the tourism industry is still suffering from the unrest that followed the coup d’etat.

Honduras has had a large foreign debt for many years, and in 2005 the country was approved for debt relief under the HIPC initiative. This meant some debt reduction, but the country is still heavily indebted.

The country is heavily dependent on the US as an exporting country as well as as aid and lenders.

For information on GDP and other business statistics, see Landsfakta.

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

Agriculture, forestry and fishing employ almost 40 per cent of the workforce, even though only 18 percent of the land is suitable for cultivation. The best soil in the lowlands is owned and used by the large US-owned banana companies Chiquita and Standard Brands. Production of basic crops such as maize, beans and rice for local consumption is managed by small farmers on usually poorer soils.

At least half of the rural population are landless farmers. Meat production has decreased in importance due to falling world prices and inefficient organization.

The forest is exploited heavily, among other things by harvesting for the production of hardwood. Fishing, which has increased in importance, is dominated by seafood.

Mineral

The mining industry is concentrated in the largest mine, El Mochito, in the province of Santa Bárbara in western Honduras. The most important minerals extracted are silver, zinc and lead. Minor amounts of iron and gold are also extracted.

Honduras energy supply is based on oil imports, which is an important economic factor. The price trend for oil has led to, among other things, increased gasoline prices, rationing and sometimes even driving bans. Other sources of electricity generation are heat and hydropower plants. A hydroelectric power plant in El Cajón with 290 MW of power has been in operation since 1985. In the countryside, firewood is the most important energy source.

Industry

Honduras traditionally has the smallest industrial sector in Central America, but during the 1990s, an area of ​​compound factories grew, called maquiladoras. These mainly produce simpler clothing items that are exported to the United States primarily. In the context of the international financial crisis in the late 00s, these factories were hit hard and many had to close. It is estimated that about 40,000 jobs disappeared in connection with these closures.

In the 2010s, there was a certain recovery, a trend favored by increased interest from investors after the Central American states in 2012 agreed to enter into a free trade agreement with the EU.

The industry employs about 20 percent of the workforce. The city of San Pedro Sula is Honduras industrial center. The country’s traditional industry mainly produces cement, sugar, beer, soft drinks and cigarettes. Mining is important for mining, construction, forestry and tourism. More than half of the traditional industrial companies are small family owned units with less than ten employees. Often, the larger companies have foreign owners. The large banana companies are also active in the manufacturing sector and make soap, plastic, cement, margarine, cooking oil etc.

Foreign trade

Traditionally, Honduras exports consist of raw materials. However, the growth of compound factories, so-called maquilas, during the 1990s changed the country’s export pattern, and during most of the 1990s the textile industry dominated the export. However, in the wake of the international financial crisis at the end of the 1990s, the country’s textile exports have declined. The main export products next to clothing are coffee, seafood, bananas, meat and wood products. Import products are mainly machinery and transport, chemical products and oil. To offset a negative balance of payments, loans are taken abroad, which has created a large foreign debt. The most important trading partner is by far the United States. Others of significance besides the Central American neighboring countries are Germany and Belgium. Honduras is heavily dependent on foreign aid; here, too, the United States is responsible for the majority.

Tourism and gastronomy

Honduras tourism gained a boost during the 1990s when the tourism industry received tax relief. The upturn continued until the coup in 2009; In 2008, the country had 1.5 million visitors. In 2012, the country was visited by 895,000 visitors.

The memorials to past Native American cultures are among the country’s top tourist attractions. The most important goal is the ruins of the ancient Mayan city of Copán on the border with Guatemala. Furthermore, there are a number of interesting colonial cities, such as Comayagua, which was the country’s capital until 1880.

The swimming tourists mainly go to the bays of the Caribbean or to the islands off the coast (Bahia Islands), which are surrounded by coral reefs and which offer good opportunities for diving. The adventure tourist is also looking for the Masquiti region in northeast Honduras, an almost uninhabited wilderness area with large unspoilt rainforests and rich plant and animal life.

The Mayan Indians, Spain and Mexico have characterized Honduran cuisine, which is very similar to that of the other Central American countries. The corn is the most important staple in the country and the main contribution of Indian culture to the food industry; another is the use of the other tree’s fruits to color the food yellow. With the Spaniards came the pork, rice and mill to fry the food. The location by the sea means that fish and seafood are important sources of protein, which complements the many dishes with corn and beans. Tortillas (corn pancakes) are served in a variety of variations, stuffed called the enchiladas, empanadas or tacos. Tapado de carne saladois a stew of salted beef that is popular in the hinterland. In general, chickens are more common than pork and beef. Chili peppers dominate spice to a great extent.

Haiti Business

Haiti Business

According to countryaah, Haiti is America’s poorest country. An estimated 60% of the population lives in great poverty (World Bank 2014). According to the same source, the proportion living in extreme poverty is 23.9%. Percentages are far greater in rural poverty than in urban areas.

Haiti shares the island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic. The economic difference between the two countries is very large, both in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and annual GDP growth. There is a difference that is huge and is constantly growing. The economic difference between the two countries is among the largest in the world between two neighboring countries.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, HT is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Haiti.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Haiti

The UN Living Conditions Index for 2014 places Haiti in a 168th place in the world, with an expected life expectancy of 63.1 years and below five years of average schooling (figures from 2012). When it comes to social inequality, Haiti is ranked 6th in the world by the UN (2014), which means that Haiti is not only poor compared to other countries, there are also very large internal differences.

Gross domestic product in 2014 was estimated at approximately USD 1800 per capita, one of the world’s lowest, and clearly the lowest in the region. The next US country on the same list is Honduras, with $ 4700 per capita.

Trade sanctions and cancellation of all foreign aid following the 1991 military coup until 1994 had a devastating effect on the economy. High unemployment combined with high inflation hit the population hard. At the same time, the country is subject to a strict restructuring program for reforms in the economy by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Agriculture

Agriculture is the second most important trade route and accounted for around 38% of employment in 2014, according to the service industry (50.4% in 2010). This is a decrease of 22 percentage points for agriculture compared to figures from 2001. At that time, agriculture accounted for over 60% of employment. Agriculture suffers from low productivity, and much of the land is not cultivable. This is due to both Haiti’s mountainous topography and the fact that the earth is divided into very small units and only simple tools are used. Coffee is the most important agricultural product. Essential oil for use in cosmetics and medicines is also produced for export.

For their own consumption, bananas, corn, sweet potatoes and rice are grown. Sugarcane is grown for the production of sugar and alcohol. Sisal hemp is produced for export and for the production of ropes. However, the cultivation of both sugar cane and sisal hemp has gone down since farmers have needed more land for food production.

The use of charcoal as the country’s most important fuel source has led to the cutting of the country’s forests. Deforestation has been known as a major problem, and a common estimate has been that only between 1% and 4% of the country’s area was covered by forest. This has compounded the problems with soil erosion. Still in 2015 deforestation is a major problem for the country, but we now know that the most dramatic estimates are no longer correct. Around 30% of the country is more likely to be covered by forests. This does not change the fact that Haiti is experiencing major problems as a result of deforestation, but that only between 1 – 4% of the country has forests must be considered a myth.

Industry

Haiti saw industry growth of around 4% in 2014, an indicator that outperforms most other living conditions indicators for the country. An unstable political situation has long been an obstacle to foreign investment, and at the same time the conditions for the employees have been subject to heavy international criticism.

Almost all industry is located in or near Port-au-Prince. Its share of GDP was 20% in 2014 and employed about 11.5% of the working population. The main industrial industries are the production of food, textiles, leather goods and footwear, plastic and rubber products.

Foreign Trade

The country’s most important trading partner is the United States, followed by the neighboring Dominican Republic. Since 1965, foreign trade has produced large deficits. The US-led trade sanctions in 1991-94 contributed to a significant reduction in both export and import value. When the sanctions were lifted, the economic value of imports was more than three times the value of exports.

In 2001, lighter industrial products, coffee and essential oils were the most important export goods. Food (and live animals) accounted for 22% of the import value that year. Machinery and transport equipment and fossil fuels (petroleum) were also the most important import goods.

The country’s most important trading partner for imports is the neighboring Dominican Republic, but in recent years (2013 – 2015) there have been regular disturbances in the important border trade as a result of the sometimes poor conditions between the two countries in between.

Transport and Communications

The road network outside the capital Port-au-Prince has slowly but surely been rebuilt after the earthquake in 2010, including in collaboration with Dominican builders. In 2012, Michel Martelly’s government undertook a major upgrade of the road network, a work in progress (December 2015).

At the capital is an international airport; Toussaint Louverture International Airport, which after being damaged in the 2010 earthquake, reopened in 2012.

The main port city is Port-au-Prince, which handles 60% of foreign trade; other port cities are Cap Haïtien on the north coast, Les Cayes and Jacmel on the south coast.

Guatemala Business

Guatemala Business

According to abbreviationfinder, GT is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Guatemala.

Business

For a long time, agriculture was the basis of the country’s business, but in the 2000s, the service and service industries and industry became increasingly important. Clothes and coffee are the country’s largest export products.

In the 1970s and 1980s, a longer period of economic stagnation was initiated, partly because of unfavorable price developments in the world market. The industry, which has held a leading position in Central America, has stagnated. Private investment fell sharply and capital flight from the country was enormous. The largest investor in banking and communications was the military. The tourism industry was exposed to international boycotts in the early 1980s, but increased again at the end of the decade, making it one of the most important sources of income during the 1990s. When the military left power in 1986, economic crisis prevailed in the country, and the first democratic government failed to improve the economy. GDP per inhabitant fell by 20 percent during the 1980s.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Guatemala

When the civil war ended with a peace treaty in 1996, an economic recovery led by increased foreign investment began. Growth was stable, although the country was temporarily hit hard by the financial crisis in 2008 when many investors left Guatemala. Thanks to continued good prices for raw materials that the country produces, growth was able to rebound quickly.

Some Guatemalan companies grew large both regionally and globally by adapting to global economic trends and conditions. But at the same time, large parts of the business community are still dependent on a corrupt interaction with the political elite and government institutions.

Parallel to the country’s economic growth, social indicators have turned downwards. Guatemala is one of the few countries that showed a negative trend for some of the Millennium Development Goals, such as increasing extreme poverty and child malnutrition.

The corrupt economic model has been favorable for some selected companies and sectors, but has made the business sector largely weak in terms of competitiveness and preparedness to meet international competition. The uneven distribution of resources, poor infrastructure and low educational attainment among the majority of the population also impedes long-term sustainable growth.

Agriculture

Land ownership is among the most uneven in Latin America, with 2 percent of the population owning more than 70 percent of the arable land. On the large goods, the export products are grown coffee, cotton, sugar and bananas.

During the latter part of the 20th century, the growth of export agriculture was more than twice the rate of food cultivation. Domestic food production has not kept pace with population growth during the same period. Although more than half the population is employed in agriculture, Guatemalan imports food and receives grain assistance from the United States.

The small farmers grow maize and beans, which is the basic food in Guatemala. Of the country’s land plots, 90 percent are too small to support a family, and the proportion of landless farm workers’ families has grown. The export products coffee, sugar and cotton are grown mainly on the fertile Pacific coast, while bananas are grown on the Atlantic coast. Since the 1980s, Guatemala also exports vegetables, cut flowers, nuts and plants.

Forestry

Guatemala has large unspoilt lands, and more than a third of the country’s area is covered with forest. The rainforest in the north (in the province of Petén) is larger than neighboring El Salvador. As a result of the demand for cedar and mahogany, this forest is seriously threatened. Guatemalan environmental interests have tried to protect the forest, but so far without much success. The rainforest is also threatened by the many poor Swede farmers. Guatemala exports raw rubber from the balata tree to chewing gum factories in the United States. There is a great demand for wood throughout the country, which accelerates deforestation.

Mineral

Guatemala has oil deposits in the country’s northern and northwestern parts. The deposit area is called Tranversal Norte and is a vast and pathless jungle. The military’s attempt to exploit the oil became one of the conflict causes during the 1970s. Today, extraction and refining take place to a small extent; the country imports twice as much oil as it exports. Guatemala also contains copper, zinc, lead and antimony.

Energy

Wood is the major source of energy with over 50 percent of total energy consumption. In the countryside, but also in the cities, wood is used for cooking as well as for heating and lighting. In the highlands there is small-scale charcoal production. Large hydropower plants were built in the 1980s to replace oil-based energy production, and hydropower contributes 85 percent of Guatemala’s electricity generation. About 60 percent of electricity consumers are in the capital. Guatemala was severely affected by the oil crisis in the 1970s and has since begun to produce oil but is dependent on imports from mainly Mexico and Venezuela.

Industry

Guatemala’s industry, which expanded during the 1960s, is the most developed in Central America. The country was favored by the Central American Common Market and was therefore also affected by its collapse in the late 1970s. Decreased exports to neighboring countries were replaced by exports to the United States. However, since the late 1980s, exports to neighboring countries have increased again. The industry is hampered by the fact that the indigenous population is weak.

As in several of its neighboring countries, so-called maquiladoras have been established in Guatemala. These are assembly plants for simpler manufacture of mainly clothing, household appliances and electronic components. The factories are usually located in special economic zones. Other industries are concentrated in the metropolitan area, producing food, clothing, textiles, consumables, medicine and cement.

Foreign trade

According to Countryaah, trade with the United States dominates and accounts for more than a third of exports and imports. In recent years, import spending has exceeded export earnings. During the 1960s and 1970s, Guatemala was favored by the Central American Common Market (CACM), which subsequently collapsed due to wars in the region. During the latter part of the 1980s, Guatemala worked to restore the CACM. In 1991, the presidents of Mexico and Central America signed a free trade agreement, which is valid from 1996.

Important export products are textiles, coffee, sugar, oil, bananas, cotton and cardamom. Important import products are oil, workshop products, building materials, telecommunications and electrical materials, fertilizers, insecticides, medicine and cereals. Guatemala’s trading partners are primarily the United States, El Salvador and Mexico.

Tourism and gastronomy

The external conditions for the tourism industry are good in Guatemala. The country offers visitors a varied and grand nature as well as opportunities to get acquainted with Native American cultures from both the time and modern times. Tourism has also been a significant source of income for the country at times, but the industry has occasionally declined due to the troubled political situation, including during parts of the 1980s. In the 2000s, tourism has increased sharply, and in 2012, the country was visited by 2 million tourists. Despite the large increase in tourism during the 2000s, there is a great concern within the tourism industry that the many violent crimes in the country should scare away tourists.

In the Quezaltenango area and east towards Guatemala City are a series of volcanoes. There is also the lake Atitlán with both tourist resorts and Indian villages, surrounded by 3,000 m high volcanoes. Another interesting lake area is Petén Itzá in the department of El Petén in the north, whose capital, Flores, located on a small island, was the last Native American city-state to be conquered by the Spaniards. It was first conquered in 1697. Northeast of the lake lies Tikal, the largest excavated ruin area (about 3,000 buildings) from the Maya era and one of Guatemala’s most important tourist destinations. Other ancient Mayan cities in El Petén are Uaxactún(north of Tikal) and Piedras Negras (at the border with Mexico), but also in other parts of the country there are ruin areas from past Native American cultures. Those who would rather get to know the colonial era and its architecture seek first and foremost the ancient capital of Antigua. Native American crafts, not least textile products, such as fabrics, can be admired in the Indian villages and purchased in one of the many markets.

The influence of the Mayan culture and especially the Spanish conquerors’ kitchen is noticeable in Guatemala. The corn and the yellow-orange dye from the fruits of the Annata tree, used to color the food, are traits that remain from the Mayan culture; the rice and pig farming are Spanish imports. Pork meat is common in Guatemala, preferably in pots with bananas. Otherwise, the diversity of fresh vegetables is a hallmark of the country’s cuisine, which shows considerable similarities to Mexican cuisine.

Carne a jocon, a beef stew with green and red tomatoes, a variety of hot spices and a rescue of masa harina (cornmeal), is something of a national dish. It is often served with arroz Guatemalteco (rice cooked with vegetables). Stuffed peppers with pacido de rabano (salad on radishes), fish pots and shrimp sauces for rice, fresh mango and papaya are other very common elements on the dining table. In the larger cities, international cuisine has come through.

Grenada Business

Grenada Business

According to abbreviationfinder, GD is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Grenada.

Since 1983, Grenada’s economic policies have been characterized by liberalization and emphasis on market management. The country’s economy is still largely based on agriculture, but service industries have become increasingly important, and in 2002 accounted for 70% of the country’s GDP. Blue. the tourism industry has become increasingly important, and since the latter part of the 1990s, efforts have also been made to get foreign banks and other businesses to establish themselves in the country.

Gross national income per capita in 2002 was USD 5000. Unemployment is constantly high and the economy is strained with large current account deficits abroad. The country is dependent on loans and assistance from, among other things. World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Grenada

Agriculture, fishing

Agriculture and fishing include approx. 10% of GDP (2002) and employs 14% of the working population (2002). Grenada is the world’s second largest producer of nutmeg and nutmeg (after Indonesia). Other important export products are bananas and cocoa, but production varies from year to year due to varying weather conditions and diseases. On the plains along the coast, sugarcane is grown on a smaller scale. Lime (lemon) is grown both on the main island of Grenada and Carriacou, and on Carriacou also cotton. The rest of the agricultural area is used for growing a variety of fruits and vegetables. Caring is important at Carriacou.

Fishing contributed approx. 7% of export revenues in 2002.

Industry

In 2002, the industry contributed 6% of GDP and employed just over 7% of the working population. Production includes little other than processing and processing of agricultural products and the production of clothing, spice products (including nutmeg oil) and electronic components. The fish processing industry is under development with Japanese capital.

Tourism

Tourism has long been the fastest growing part of the economy, but after 2000 there has been a decline in cruise ship traffic. Scenic scenery with white beaches and mountainous inland with rainforest, as well as a historically interesting capital are the main causes of tourist growth. Most tourists come from the United States, the United Kingdom and other Caribbean countries.

Foreign Trade

According to Countryaah, the export value comprises only 35% of the import value (2002). Nutmeg, bananas, rum and electronic products are among the most important export goods. Main trading partners are the United States, the United Kingdom and Trinidag and Tobago.

Transport and Communications

The road network is a total of approx. 1100 km of which 2/3 is paved. Grenada has no railroad. International Airport is at Point Salines 10 km from St. George’s city center. There is a smaller airport at Lauriston on Carriacou. St. George’s is the main port city. Communication between Grenada and Carriacou takes place by boat and plane.

Greenland Business

Greenland Business

According to abbreviationfinder, GL is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Greenland.

Business

The cornerstone of Greenland’s economy is the fishing and fishing industry, which accounts for just over 90 percent of the export value. However, this income is not enough to cover the needs of investment; Greenland is highly dependent on the annual capital transfers from Denmark, which cover just over half of public spending. The average income level of the Greenlanders is relatively high, though not as high as in Denmark, but the cost of living is also high. Many Greenlanders still live on fishing and hunting at self-catering level.

About 1,300 of Greenland’s approximately 28,000 professionals are professional fishermen; another 3,000 are full-time employees in the fishing industry. In addition, a significant part of the workforce in service activities is linked to the fisheries industry. Primarily, shrimp, halibut and salmon are caught. Cod dominated the catches in 1950–83, but has subsequently declined in importance. Shrimp fishing has increased significantly since the mid-1980s, and exports of shrimp – mostly frozen – are now Greenland’s most important source of income. The completely dominant company in the fishing industry is the self-owned Royal Greenland A / S.

Catches of fur animals (mainly seals and foxes) still occur in northern and eastern Greenland. Agriculture and livestock management are conducted to a limited extent on the coast in the southwest. Primarily, grassy plants and vegetables are grown. Sheep were introduced in the early 1900s, and reindeer husbandry also occurs.

Greenland has many known mineral deposits. Previously, cryolite, marble and coal were mined. In the mid-1970s, exports of lead and zinc ore contributed more than half to Greenland’s total export value. In 1989, the proportion had dropped to just over 18 percent, and in 1991 the quitting ceased. There are far-reaching plans to resume mining operations (mainly zinc and gold mining) in western and southern Greenland. Other minerals (nickel, chromium, platinum, copper and iron ore) are present, but have not yet been considered quenchable. Many international companies, mainly American, British and Chinese, have shown great interest in Greenland’s mineral resources. Drilling for oil is ongoing in northern Greenland and in the sea outside eastern Greenland. There is great potential for water energy.

With the exception of fish canning industries, freezer series and smaller shipyards (which are found in the larger towns on the west coast), Greenland’s industry is still of very small size.

Greenland has had deficits in foreign trade for many years. Exports, predominantly from fishing, are mainly to Denmark, China, Japan and the Russian Federation. Imports cover virtually all consumer and investment goods. The most important import goods are machinery, transport equipment and food. Two thirds of imports come from Denmark and the remaining one third primarily from Sweden, Iceland, Germany, Norway and the USA.

Political and administrative order. – With the Treaty of Kiel of 1814 the colonies and possessions in Greenland passed from the Norwegian to the Danish crown which, in 1894, extended its sovereignty to also include the district of Angmagssalik on the east coast between 65 ° 35 ‘and 66 ° 30’ N.

In 1920 Denmark, wishing to extend its sovereignty over all of Greenland, turned to the powers for recognition. Some governments undoubtedly agreed to the Danish government’s request, others gave their consent with reservations, but Norway – arguing that the part not actually occupied by the Danes is “terra nullius” – refused to recognize Danish sovereignty over all of Greenland, given his vast interests there and the long-standing activity of his subjects on the east coast, where there are numerous establishments of Norwegian hunters and fishermen. With a treaty of 9 July 1924, which left open the disputed question of sovereignty, some problems of a practical nature, inherent to the operation by the Norwegians of their industries on the east coast. By cutting off the diplomatic delays, Norway, which considered the free exercise of its subjects to be threatened, proceeded to the effective occupation of Erik Rauda’s Land, which goes from 71 ° 30 ‘to 75 ° 40’ N., and on 10 July 1931 declared that region under Norwegian sovereignty. Denmark in turn protested and the dispute was brought before the Permanent Court in The Hague. Considering its interests threatened also in the southern area, Norway considered it appropriate to proceed with the effective occupation of that region as well and on 12 July 1932 proclaimed its sovereignty over the stretch of the east coast ranging from 60 ° 30 ‘to 63 ° 40’ N The Hague Court will also have to decide on this dispute.

The administration of the Danish colonies depends on the Ministry of Navigation and Fisheries and the Ministry of Education and Worship; Greenland is divided into two prefectures, the S. and the N., with a council each (Landsraad), governed by the Landsfoged (prefect), to which is added, for the possession on the coast of E., a special office under the supervision of a Kolonibestyrer (chief), resident of Angmagssalik. The territories occupied by Norway are administered by a prefect. (See tables CCV-CCVIII).

El Salvador Business

El Salvador Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SV is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of El Salvador.

Business

El Salvador is considered a middle-income country, but assets and income are unevenly distributed. The country’s economy has traditionally been based on agriculture but has been dominated since the 1990s by service and manufacturing, mainly from production in compound factories, called maquilas (maquiladoras), in tax-free export zones. There is also a large informal sector in the country.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of El Salvador

El Salvador’s economy is closely tied to the United States which provides the country with assistance and is its main trading partner. An important source of income is the money that Salvadoran overseas send home to their relatives.

El Salvador was characterized by stable economic growth in 1950–79. During this period, the country had an average GDP growth of 5 percent per year, and the country developed into Central America’s most industrialized country. The Civil War 1979–92 largely destroyed the country’s economy. In 1979–82 GDP fell by 23 percent, while the country had an annual population increase of 2.6 percent. After 1983, the economy recovered somewhat, but the country continued to be highly dependent on strong US support. In addition to the civil war, natural disasters have also hit the country, including an earthquake in 1986 that partially destroyed the capital of San Salvador.

After the end of the war, stricter market economies were introduced and large parts of the former state-owned sectors were privatized. Declining world market prices for coffee during the early 1990s had a major negative impact on the economy, but a new free trade agreement between the US and Central America led to a strong increase in trade between the countries, and El Salvador’s economy grew by just under 5 percent in 2007.

El Salvador’s close relations with the US meant that the country was hit hard by the global financial crisis of 2008–09. To reverse the negative trend, the country has implemented social changes to reduce the economic gaps and introduced new taxes, but the country still has a large external debt (about 60 percent of GDP). The country also suffers from widespread violence that discourages foreign investors.

Agriculture

Agriculture is the country’s main industry and accounts for 3/4 of export earnings. About 35 percent of the land is cultivated land, and almost as much is pasture land, while the forest accounts for only 6 percent. All arable land has been used. However, an expansion of the irrigation can provide increased returns. During the 1980s, attempts were made to implement a land reform with the aim of, among other things, improve conditions in the agricultural industry, but without much success. After the end of the war, the distribution of land to demobilized soldiers has created major problems.

Coffee is the dominant product, and El Salvador is a significant coffee producer. The coffee is grown at an altitude of 1,000–1,800 m. However, they want to reduce the country’s overly strong dependence on coffee harvests. Cotton and sugar cane have become more important, but attempts have also been made with cultivations of e.g. coconuts and citrus fruits. For domestic consumption, corn, beans, rice, vegetables are grown, mainly by small farmers. Production in the agricultural sector, especially by export goods (coffee, sugar, cotton), was strongly adversely affected during the 1980s by the civil war. After the Civil War, attempts have been made to escape the unilateral dependence on agriculture, and investment in manufacturing and service has been given priority.

Forestry has no major economic significance. The fish industry has expanded, and shrimp has become an important export commodity.

Minerals and energy

El Salvador is largely devoid of its own mineral resources. Hydropower resources, including in the river Lempa, however, are good and partly exploited. In anticipation of a better expansion, energy needs must be based primarily on imported oil. In the future, geothermal energy is also expected to be important, especially in the eastern part of the country. Under prevailing conditions, wood and charcoal, despite the lack of forestry, play an important role in many places.

Industry

Industrial growth in El Salvador has been relatively steady and strong since the 1950s. The Central American Common Market, CACM, has benefited. However, the Civil War caused a sharp decline in the 1980s. The food industry, with the production of coffee powder and sugar, the beverage and tobacco industry as well as the textile industry, has been the most important sectors. Thanks to tax cuts, the textile industry has grown sharply in the 2000s. The metropolitan area and Santa Ana are the main industrial areas. In the port city of Acajutla there are oil refineries and petrochemical factories.

Foreign trade

According to Countryaah, El Salvador’s most important export commodity is coffee, which gives the country 25-30 percent of its export revenue. Furthermore, among other things. textile products, cotton, raw sugar, tobacco and beer. Also important is the sale of fresh shrimp and lobster. About 45 percent of El Salvador’s exports go to the United States. Important buyers are also the countries within CACM and Germany. Imports come from the US (just over 1/3) and from Guatemala and China. In addition, El Salvador buys large quantities of oil from Mexico. The import goods are mainly made up of machinery and means of transport and chemical products. The previous trade surpluses were transformed into significant deficits during the 1980s. Financial assistance from the United States has been very large. El Salvador has also raised large loans elsewhere, so the country has received a considerable foreign debt.

Dominican Republic Business

Dominican Republic Business

According to abbreviationfinder, DR is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Dominican Republic.

In 2014, the Dominican Republic was among the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean with the highest GDP growth, according to figures from CEPAL. In the years 1991-2013, the country experienced an average 5.5% increase in GDP, according to the World Bank. Despite this, poverty has risen sharply, especially in the early 2000s, according to the same source.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the country was well-paid for sugar, and economic growth was among the strongest in the Caribbean. Weak markets and falling sugar prices have weakened the country’s economy since 1980. Since 1990, the economy has also been hit hard by an unstable electricity supply. There is high unemployment and underemployment, and unemployment is high.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Dominican Republic

The country’s main sources of income have evolved into an ever-growing tourism industry as well as repatriation of foreign currency from exiled Dominicans. A heavy foreign debt has forced the country to seek debt negotiations with the International Monetary Fund. In 2002, the gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at USD 6000 per capita.

The tourism industry is a focus area and in recent years there has been a significant expansion of hotels, improvement of roads and more. The best developed places are the Puerto Plata and Sosua area, Punta Cana and the Samaná Peninsula. In 2014, the country was visited by 5,141,377 tourists, according to figures from the Dominican Central Bank, which is a new record.

Agriculture

Agriculture used to be the most important trade route and now comprises 12% of GDP (2002) and employs approx. 15% of the working population. Of the land area, 30% is cultivated. The Ciba Valley in the central northern part of the country has the most fertile soil. However, sugar cane, which is the most important export product from agriculture, is grown mostly on large plantations in the eastern part of the country. Until 1984, sugar production produced large export revenues to the country. Since then, changing import needs in the United States have hit sugar exports hard. In the first half of the 1990s, both production volume and export revenue declined. Sugar cane production was 4.8 million tonnes in 2002 and the export value of raw sugar and sugar products accounted for only 7% of the country’s total export value.

Other export crops are coffee, cocoa and tobacco, which are mainly grown in the Cibao Valley. However, most of the farmers run low-yield self-storage farms. The production of the most important nutritional products (including corn, rice, cassava, yams, sweet potatoes) is often not sufficient to meet local needs.

Livestock farming on a commercial basis is particularly concentrated in the north of the country and in the lowlands in the east, with the production of beef for domestic consumption. Milk production takes place substantially in the south and in Sousa on the north coast. There is a modest coastal fishery.

Energy

Energy consumption is low. Most of the energy comes from thermal power based on imported oil. The country has been affected since the early 1990s by an energy crisis with unstable power supply up to 20 hours per day. This is due to a combination of old and poorly run energy plants as well as lack of heating oil, which in turn is due to a lack of foreign currency. In addition, hydropower plants’ production has been affected by low water levels. A new hydropower plant; Monción in Santiago Rodríguez, opened in 2001.

Industry and mining

In 2001, the industry (including mining and more) accounted for 33% of gross domestic product and 21% of employment. A large part of industrial capital is in American hands. The industrial activities are to a large extent based on refining sugar and processing other primary agricultural products, including the large production of beer and cigarettes. Large cement production. Most of the industry is concentrated in the capital Santo Domingo.

Several economic frisons have been created with special incentives such as low taxes and fees to attract foreign production establishments. Manufacturing finished products for the North American market is an important part of this business.

It is estimated that the country has approx. 10% of the occurrence of ferric nickel in the world, and in 2000 ferronicle accounted for approx. 25% of export revenue. However, fluctuations in prices and demand in the world market have led to mining cessation of periods. Some gold and silver are also extracted. An earlier significant bauxite recovery has now completely ceased.

Foreign Trade

According to Countryaah, the main export goods are iron and steel, sugar and sugar-based products. Petroleum, petroleum products and food are the most important import goods. Major trading partners are the United States, Haiti, Venezuela, Mexico, the Netherlands, Belgium and Japan. The country receives large shipments of currency from persons residing abroad.

Transport and Communications

The road network is relatively well developed. The main roads extend from Santo Domingo to the north, east and west and connect the capital with Port-au-Prince in Haiti, among others.

There are railways, but these are mainly run by the sugar companies, in connection with sugar production.

International airports can be found at Santo Domingo (Aeropuerto Internacional de las Americas), Santiago de los Caballeros (Aeropuerto Internacional del Cibao), Punta Cana (Aeropuerto Internacional de Punta Cana), SAmaná (Aeropuerto Internacional Samaná El Catey) and Puerto Plata. Santo Domingo, with approx. 80% of exports are the largest port city; Puerto Plata is the most important port on the north coast.

Dominica Business

Dominica Business

Business

According to Countryaah, Dominica’s business is dominated by agriculture and bananas are the most important export commodity. For a long time, the economy has been very dependent on banana production. Although banana exports suffered a sharp decline when the trade agreement with the EU was wound up in 2006, production is still important for the country. On several occasions, natural disasters have seriously damaged banana production, primarily in 1979, 1989, 1994, 1995 and 2007, when hurricanes devastated large parts of plantation crops.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, DM is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Dominica.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Dominica

Otherwise, mainly coconuts, citrus fruits and avocados are grown. Livestock breeding and fishing are mainly conducted at the local level.

Most of the country’s energy supply is met by water energy, and only 7 percent of imports are fossil fuels. The industry is mainly small-scale and agricultural connected. In order to make business more diverse, the government has tried to stimulate the manufacturing industry.

The main trading partners are the United States and Trinidad and Tobago. The most important export goods are bananas and soap, while food, machinery and industrial goods dominate imports.

DOMINICA. – Island of the Lesser Antilles, British possession. It is located at 15 ° 25 ′ N. and at 60 ° 52 ′ W., between the French possessions of Guadeloupe, about 50 km. to N., and of Martinique, at the same distance towards S. Dominica, which has an area of ​​780 sq km. and a population (1930) of 41,480 residents, is one of the five “presidencies” that form the federation of the Leward Islands and is located 136.5 km. to SE. of Montserrat, which is the closest presidency. The island was discovered by Columbus on Sunday (hence the name), November 3, 1493; Charles I included it in the donation of several of the islands of the Caribbean Sea made to the Earl of Carlisle (1627), but several attempts to subdue the indigenous population were unsuccessful. In 1748, with the Peace of Aachen, it was established that possession of the island to the Caribs and that both the French and the English considered it a neutral territory. Over time, many French citizens settled on the island and founded plantations there. In 1756 Dominica was taken by the English and from that time until 1805 it was the scene of many conflicts between the French and the English. In 1833 a general federal government was established for the whole group of the Leward Islands. Under the current constitution there is an executive council and a legislative council in Dominica. English and from that time until 1805 it was the scene of many conflicts between the French and the English. In 1833 a general federal government was established for the whole group of the Leward Islands. Under the current constitution there is an executive council and a legislative council in Dominica. English and from that time until 1805 it was the scene of many conflicts between the French and the English. In 1833 a general federal government was established for the whole group of the Leward Islands. Under the current constitution there is an executive council and a legislative council in Dominica.

Dominica has a volcanic structure and is very mountainous: the highest area is to the north (M. Diablotin, 1447 m.). The smallness of the island does not allow the formation of remarkable rivers: the land is however well irrigated. Internal communications are scarce and difficult. The climate, always healthy, is very pleasant between October and June. The summer temperature on the coast sometimes reaches 32 °, 5. Precipitation varies from 2000 mm. on the coast at more than 6200 mm. inside. The total population includes about 300 Negro-Carib mestizos and 100 pure Caribs. Roseau (7400 residents) Is the main city of the island; other centers are St. Joseph and Portsmouth, all located on the more sheltered west coast. The ancient French colonists cultivated coffee, which was later replaced by sugar cane; but the extraction process was impractical and the industry declined. Today the main activity consists in the cultivation of lemons and in the preparation of citrate, essence, lemon preserves; lemon and orange scented oils are also produced, as well as cocoa, coconuts, copra and oranges. In 1929 imports (mainly from Great Britain) had a value of 232,140 l. st .; exports (mainly to the United States and Great Britain) of 194,130 l. st. In 1929 imports (mainly from Great Britain) had a value of 232,140 l. st.; exports (mainly to the United States and Great Britain) of 194,130 l. st. In 1929 imports (mainly from Great Britain) had a value of 232,140 l. st.; exports (mainly to the United States and Great Britain) of 194,130 l. st.

 

Cuba Business

Cuba Business

According to countryaah, Cuba has been a socialist country with a plan-driven economy since 1961. The country has also been affected by US economic sanctions (often referred to as embargo or blockade). The country received generous subsidies from the Soviet Union, which paid well for Cuban sugar, including oil supplies. With the fall of the Soviet Union, Cuba was hit by very serious financial problems and a dramatic fall in living standards, a crisis known as the “special period”.

Cuba today has left much of the crisis behind. The country has gained new business avenues and trading partners. The authorities have implemented limited reforms, but these have not produced expected growth. The sanctions, combined with an ongoing crisis with Cuba’s closest ally Venezuela, have created a complicated and uncertain situation for the Cuban economy.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, CU is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Cuba.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Cuba

Business and commerce

All three quarters of Cuba’s economy is service-based, while industry accounts for 21 percent of GDP, agriculture accounts for just 4 percent. Health services and tourism are the major sources of currency and are more important than the once dominant sugar industry. Other export industries include tobacco and beverages, mining (nickel and cobalt), agricultural products (including citrus fruits), and biotechnology (medicine). For a period, the export of Venezuelan oil was also a significant source of income.

The state controls strategic parts of the economy. It sets wages, prices and controls trading. Cuba has for years been struggling with low productivity and achieving its growth goals. The country depends on importing most of the food it consumes, and wages for government employees are rarely sufficient (real wages are well below the 1989 level). The opening for tourism, remittances from emigrated Cubans and private businesses has given parts of the population a more comfortable financial situation, but has created economic differences. Cuba is ranked much higher on the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) than the economy would suggest, which is probably due to a lot of welfare schemes.

Since the 1990s, the authorities have sought to spread the trade in several countries, but the US sanctions and penalties make this difficult – among other things, a billion dollars have been given to an international bank that had relations with Cuba. In 2016, the most important trading partners were China, Venezuela, Spain, Canada, Brazil and Mexico. Under Raúl Castro, Cuba has renegotiated its foreign debt and left 90 percent of Russia’s major debt, with roots in the Soviet era. During Barack Obama, some of the sanctions against Cuba were eased, but Trump administration has subsequently tightened these again.

The economic crisis in Venezuela is causing major problems for Cuba. From 2016 to 2017, Venezuela went from receiving 42.9 percent of Cuba’s exports to 27.7 percent.

Agriculture and fishing

Agriculture employs 18 percent of Cubans, but accounts for only 4 percent of GDP. Cuba has never managed to become self-sufficient in agricultural products and is largely dependent on imports.

When Fidel Castro fell ill and his brother Raúl Castro became the country’s top leader in 2008, the authorities began giving farmers the right to use land that is broken. The trial has so far yielded limited results. Coffee is grown on the mountain slopes of the southeastern provinces, and to a lesser extent in the middle parts, but production is marginal compared to the time before the revolution. Otherwise, citrus fruits are produced for internal consumption and export (especially oranges and grapefruit).

The grasslands in the middle and eastern parts of the country formed the basis for an extensive cattle industry. The industry weakened in the years following the revolution and further in the 1990s.

Fishing

Fishing has provided the basis for a significant export industry, and is still of importance. The annual catches in the 1980s were about 200,000 tonnes, but in the period 2010-2013 was around a tenth of this. Cubas exports shellfish to a certain extent.

Tobacco

Tobacco is an important export item, it is exported especially in the form of the famous Cuban cigars. The Vuelta Abajo area west of Havana is referred to as the world’s best area for tobacco production.

Sugar industry

Sugar production reached 8.5 million tonnes in 1970, accounting for 75 percent of the country’s exports in 1988. In 2017, total production was less than two million tonnes.

Mining

Nickel, which is used to make stainless steel, is the most important metal. Cuba has managed to increase production during the crisis years, despite the fact that the United States introduced punitive measures against a Canadian firm that has been heavily in recovery (Sherritt). Nickel is one of the country’s most important export goods, and Cuba has the world’s third largest deposits. There are also significant deposits of iron ore, cobalt and manganese.

Most of the mineral resources are found in the mountainous regions of the southeast.

Oil and gas

Petroleum is mined off the north coast and around Ciego de Ávila. Cuba aimed to increase its own oil production from the 1980s and especially after the fall of the Soviet Union.

The production now covers a considerable part of the country’s consumption, but the oil is strongly sulfate-containing, which limits its applications. The country depends on imports, especially from Venezuela.

Other industry

Except for the factories that processed agricultural products such as sugar and tobacco, Cuba had little industry before 1959. After the revolution, a number of industrial plants, often on a large scale, were built with financial and technical support from the Soviet Union and the other countries in the Eastern bloc.

Production fell dramatically during the 1990s, when oil, spare parts and wages, among others, were lost. In 2017, industrial production remained at 68 percent of the 1989 level.

Much of the industrial production is aimed at building and construction activities.

Cuba established a medical industry in the mid-1980s. The biopharmaceutical industry has gradually become a significant export industry, exporting to 40 different countries.

There is also a certain food industry that produces canned foods and various beverages, mostly for the internal market, but Cuban space is exported to many countries.

Tourism

Cuba has long regarded tourism as not ideologically compatible with socialism. Since 1987, the sector has grown gradually. In 2018, the country received 4.7 million visitors, a number that includes Cuban emigrants visiting the homeland. It is an important source of jobs and the authorities aim to be a “locomotive” for the rest of the economy.

Exports of (health) personnel

The most important source of currency is the export of qualified personnel, mainly health workers.

50,000 Cuban doctors and health workers work abroad at any time through government agencies, and are present in 67 countries. The root of the project is Cuban “internationalism” where, under Fidel Castro, auxiliary workers were sent to much of the world. In recent years, the state has increasingly paid for these services.

As of 2000, Cuba has agreed with Venezuela to switch health services to oil. Cuban authorities have agreements on the export of health services with Brazil, with around 10,000 doctors and health workers in this country. The crisis in Venezuela and political changes in Brazil create uncertainty about this business and how lucrative it will be in the future.

Infrastructure

The transport network is well developed, but is characterized by many years of economic crisis. Cuba got railways as early as 1837, before it came to Spain, ie the colonial power that controlled Cuba. Today there is a well-developed state-run railway network of just under 5000 km, but it is characterized by poor maintenance. Cuba has signed an agreement with Russia to modernize the railway.

The road network has a length of around 13,000 km with a fixed tire, and a motorway crosses the island from Pinar del Río in the northwest via Havana to Santiago de Cuba in the southeast. The main port cities are Havana, Cienfuegos, Santiago de Cuba, Nuevitas and Matanzas.

A major investment under Raúl Castro (2008-) has been the construction of a free trade zone with a port in Mariel, built with Brazilian investments. The country’s strategic location in the Gulf of Mexico, opportunities for receiving so-called Postpanamax ships, created, along with the relief of the Barack Obama embargo, expectations that this could be the beginning of a Cuban trade and industrial adventure. However, the embargo persists and has been tightened under Donald Trump, and so far there is little activity at the new port.

History

During the colonial period, Cuba was a commodity-producing economy characterized by monoculture and slave labor. Tobacco became an important export commodity and one had a short-lived coffee boom, but sugar was to become the dominant product.

The indigenous people of Cuba were almost exterminated during the colonization in the first half of the 16th century, and the plantation system the Spaniards established, based on the labor force of African slaves. From the second half of the 18th century, the country’s economy accelerated. The trade monopoly and dependence on Spain was weakened by the British occupation of Havana (1762-1763), which brought businessmen from North America into Cuba, as well as economic reforms under Spain’s King Charles 3. In Haiti, the revolution (1781-1804) led to a collapse in coffee and sugar production, and capital instead drifted towards neighboring Cuba. There was a dramatic increase in slave imports from Africa; by 1825, the black population was in the majority.

Although Cuba was a Spanish colony until as late as 1898, North American economic interests were heavily inland until the late 1800s. Cuba was occupied by the United States (1898-1902) and then turned into a protectorate under its neighboring country, but even after the status of protectorate ceased in 1934, economic dependence remained great.

Cuba was considered one of the richer countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Cuba was the world’s largest sugar producer in the 1920s, and received significant labor immigration from Spain, among others. However, the contrast between modern Havana and poverty and the distress that characterized most of the country was great. The monoculture made it very vulnerable to fluctuations in sugar prices. Seasonal work created a demand for labor during the harvest, but unemployment was high most of the year.

The post-revolution economy

Fidel Castro’s revolution of 1959 led to a reshaping of the country’s economy, including land reform and extensive nationalization. The revolution was declared socialist in 1961.

The 1960s were marked by tumultuous and ever-changing attempts to develop. The socialism model still allowed private small businesses. Towards the end of the decade, the authorities tried a series of ultra-radical experiments that included the nationalization of the latest small businesses, and that a number of goods and services were made free of charge.

In 1972, Cuba joined the Soviet- dominated trade cooperation Comecon, and largely followed Soviet economic management principles, which were more pragmatic than the many followed in the previous radical experiments. Market relations and material incentives were accepted to a limited extent, especially in the period 1980-1986 where one had privately owned farmer’s markets where prices were determined by supply and demand.

The economic dependence on the Soviet Union was high. Although Cuba had made an investment law (1982), the start for new industries such as medicine (1986), and opened to tourism (1987), increased dependence and towards the end of the decade, 85 percent of foreign trade with Comecon countries. When the Soviet Union collapsed, the authorities implemented painful reforms such as legalizing previously banned US dollars. New sources of income were added, such as money transfers from emigrated Cubans, and the authorities invited investors to build tourist facilities. They also opened to private small businesses in certain selected industries, but this process stagnated and was partially reversed in the 2000s.

It was not until around 2010 that Cuba to a greater extent opened up to private companies owned by Cuban nationals, and then within a group of pre-specified categories of businesses. Around 70 percent of the workforce still works for the public sector, and the private sector must be regarded as complementary. Today, however, the private sector is recognized by the authorities as a “natural” part of a socialist economy, while in the 1990s it was viewed more as a foreign element or a necessary and perhaps transient crisis response.

Costa Rica Business

Costa Rica Business

According to abbreviationfinder, CR is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Costa Rica.

Business

After several years of good economic growth during the early 1990s, the country’s economy was adversely affected by the global financial crisis during the late 1990s. Business is based on the electronics industry, tourism and agriculture.

According to countryaah, the country has for a long time been dependent on its agricultural production, mainly coffee and bananas. In the 1990s, this changed because foreign companies invested in the country’s duty-free zones. Most important for the country’s economy was the establishment of electronics factories that, among other things, produced microprocessors. Since the mid-1990s, the value of electronics exports has exceeded that of coffee and bananas. The tourism industry has also increased and is an important source of foreign capital.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Costa Rica

Agriculture

Agriculture employs just over 10 percent of the labor force. The most important export crops are coffee, bananas, sugar and cocoa. For domestic consumption, rice, maize, beans and root vegetables are mainly grown. The most important agricultural area is the central plateau, Meseta Central. Here, for example, the best coffee is grown, mainly by small farmers.

Bananas are grown in coastal areas on large plantations built with capital from transnational US companies such as Chiquita and Standard Fruit. However, the former closed down its facilities on the southern part of the Pacific Coast (Golfito area) in the mid-1980s. In addition to social problems, this meant that banana exports decreased by 25 percent. The land was purchased by the state to be partially transferred to cocoa production. Elsewhere in Costa Rica, we are trying to reduce banana dependence through complementary cultivation of sugar cane, palm trees and exotic fruits. But during the first three years of the 1990s, new investments were made in banana production, which led to more than 3,000 ha of rainforest being cut down to make room for new banana crops. The cotton plantations are usually small but high-tech.

Livestock management was central to the country early on, but since the end of the 20th century its importance has diminished. Instead, the country has invested in large-scale cultivation of flowers and tropical fruits.

Natural Resources

Costa Rica’s known mineral resources are small. In addition to insignificant amounts of silver, only gold is extracted. Iron ore and sulfur deposits exist, but the assets have not been considered commercially viable. On the other hand, work is being done on the exploitation of the relatively large bauxite resources in the southern part of the country. This project also includes the construction of an aluminum smelter and the use of hydroelectric energy.

Forestry does not play a major role as an industry. Although the proportion of forest land is between 1/3 and half of the land area, the boundary between forest, bushland and extensive pasture land varies in the statistics. Valuable woods such as rose wood, cedar and mahogany are felled.

The fishing industry has hardly had any significance. However, some development of fishing in the Pacific is ongoing; the most important catch is shrimp.

Energy

Energy consumption is low in Costa Rica. Water energy generated electricity accounts for 75 percent of the electricity demand, 15 percent is extracted from volcanoes and small amounts from wind and biomass. The opportunities to expand water energy are good, and the country has great potential for exporting electricity.

The oil deposits in Costa Rica are considered sufficient for their own needs, but commercial extraction is still at the experimental stage. Crude oil is imported from Mexico and Venezuela to the refinery in the port city of Limón. From here, an oil pipeline has been built via San José to the Pacific coast.

Industry

Although Costa Rica is one of the most industrialized countries in Central America, the industry played a limited economic role until the late 1990s when a number of major US electronics companies established themselves in the country. Microprocessors are the largest single product in the manufacturing industry. Alongside the electronics industry, there is also the food and plastic industry. The industry is mainly concentrated in the San José area.

Foreign trade

Almost 15 percent of Costa Rica’s foreign trade takes place with the countries in the free trade area in Central America. According to Countryaah, the largest trade exchange (45 percent) takes place with the United States. The most important export goods are electronic products, bananas and coffee. Imports include: raw materials, machinery and crude oil. The trade balance is negative, but the strong increase in tourism gives the country a much needed foreign exchange supplement.

Tourism

The country is visited annually by more than 2 million visitors, and tourism plays an increasingly important role for Costa Rica’s economy. Primarily, tourists from the United States and neighboring countries visit the country, but the number of tourists from Europe has increased in recent years. Costa Rica largely lacks historical monuments from, for example, past Native American cultures, but it is a mountainous country with varied and beautiful scenery. You are consciously and successfully investing in a qualitatively oriented ecotourism. In some coastal areas, hotels and other facilities for mass tourism are also being built.

Canada Business

Canada Business

According to abbreviationfinder, CA is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Canada.

With its large land area, its vast natural resources and its relatively scarce population, Canada, until the 1950s, relied heavily on primary industries such as agriculture and forestry as well as mining. Subsequently, there has been a strong expansion in the industry, while mineral production has increased significantly, particularly the extraction of petroleum. Canada, after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia, has one of the world’s largest known petroleum reserves.

GDP per capita is US $ 48,400 (2017). The service sector has become the dominant part of the economy with 2 / 3 of GDP and employs 2/3 of the employees. It includes, among other things, a huge public sector. Otherwise, banking, insurance, educational institutions, transport and consultancy services are built up, all of which contribute to foreign exchange earnings.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Canada

Agriculture

Canada is one of the world’s largest agricultural countries, and is a major net exporter of agricultural products. Agriculture and forestry as well as fishing and catching account for about 1.5 percent of GDP (2018). Cultivation of agricultural products is partly carried out in very large interconnected areas in monoculture and often in an industrial way, with large efforts of machinery and a strong dependence on artificial fertilizers and chemical pesticides. Organic cultivation is still on the rise. The ripple effects of agricultural processing make agriculture very important for Canada’s economy.

Two percent of the population is employed in the agricultural industry. Particularly important is grain production, which is concentrated in the three prairie provinces. Wheat (durum wheat which is particularly suitable for pasta production) is by far the most important product. Other major plant products are high (mostly in Alberta and Ontario), barley and oats (prairie provinces), vegetable oils (prairie provinces), potatoes, corn (sweet corn), vegetables, fruits and tobacco. The production of rapeseed oil has become especially important. Apples are the main fruit variety. Canada is the world’s largest producer of blueberries, while other fruits and berries grown are cranberries,strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and grapefruit.

The livestock team focuses on cattle, pigs and poultry. Large-scale business is widespread in all provinces outside Newfoundland, but mostly in Alberta. The total stock of cattle is 13.5 million (2003), of which close to 40 percent in Alberta. However, milk production is concentrated in the populous provinces of Quebec and Ontario (which together account for over 70 percent of the dairy cows). The total population of pigs is 14.4 million (2003) concentrated to the provinces of Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta. The stock of sheep is 975,600, half in Ontario and Quebec. Export of live livestock is an important source of revenue for Canada. About 24 million hens produce just under seven billion eggs per year. Fur husbandry is also important.

Main agricultural products

  1. Wheat and barley
  2. oilseeds
  3. Fruits and vegetables
  4. dairy products
  5. Fish

Forestry

About 40 percent of Canada’s land is forests, and half of this is considered productive. The largest viable forests are located north of the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes, as well as in British Columbia. Approximately 4 / 5 of the estimated timber volume in forests are softwood. Although less than annual growth is cut, Canada is among the world’s largest producers and exporters of wood products. Many forests are destroyed by insects and forest fires. More than half of the forest is owned by the public, mostly by the provinces. The maple tree is Canada’s national symbol and reproduced in the national flag. Among other things, sugar is extracted from salaries.

Fishing and hunting

Canada is a leading exporter of fish and other marine products. The Atlantic coast usually accounts for about 80 percent (mainly Newfoundland and Nova Scotia) and the Pacific coast for about 20 percent of economic value. Traditionally, cod has been the most important fish species. In 1992, cod fishing was stopped around much of Newfoundland due to overfishing, and 25,000 fishermen were landed. Parts of the fishbanks extend beyond Canada’s 200-mile zone, and Canada has been involved in fisheries conflicts with the EU whose trawlers fish right outside Canada’s zone. Major products on the Atlantic coast are lobster, shrimp, crab, scallops, cod, herring and clams. On the Pacific coast, the most important products are skate, clams, halibut and salmon. The aquaculture industry is significant in the provinces of British Columbia and New Brunswick.

Fur breeding and hunting for wild fur animals are also important in Canada. A quarter of the fur farm (by economic value) is located in Ontario.

Mining

Canada has enormous mineral resources, and much of the country is yet to be explored geologically. Due to relatively low domestic consumption, Canada is a leading international exporter of minerals. Mining, mining, oil and gas extraction account for 8.21 percent of GDP (2017).

Canada is the world’s largest pottery producer, and among the world’s largest producers of uranium, niobium, nickel, gemstones, indium, aluminum and platinum metals. Cobalt, cadmium, graphite, sulfur, diamonds, titanium, gold and mica are also produced. For a long time Canada was also a major producer of asbestos until the last mine was put out of business in 2011.

Canada is also a major oil and gas producer and, together with Venezuela, has the world’s largest known deposits of oil sands. The country is also the world’s fifth largest producer of natural gas (2015). In 2017, Canada’s crude oil production averaged 4.21 million barrels per day; most of the production takes place in Alberta. The rest of the production is distributed across several provinces, but large oil reserves are found both in the Arctic part of Canada and off the east coast. Most of Alberta’s production is exported to the United States, and most of the oil needs of the industrialized provinces of the East are imported from outside.

Among other things, thanks to oil and gas resources, Alberta is the most important mineral producing province followed by Ontario. Nickel is produced at Sudbury, Ontario, and the town of Elliot Lake is known for its uranium deposits. Ontario is also a major producer of gold, copper, cement and zinc. Other major mineral producers are British Columbia (copper, coal, oil and gas, and gold and silver), Saskatchewan (oil, potash, natural gas and uranium), Québec (iron ore, copper, gold and zinc) and Manitoba (nickel, zinc and copper). New Brunswick has Canada’s largest production of zinc and bismuth and the second largest production of lead and silver. In Nova Scotia, coal and plaster are the most important. Nova Scotia also has oil producing fields on the continental shelf (offshore). Labrador produces about half of Canada’s iron ore. Uranium and gold are also important in Labrador. Lead, zinc, silver and gold are the major minerals in the Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut.

Main mineral products

Mineral Product Value (USD billion 2017)
Gold 8.7
Coal 6.2
copper 4.7
Potash 4.6
Iron ore 3.8

Energy

Canada is a net energy exporter. In 2016, energy products were exported equivalent to 8.2 EJ (exa joule), while domestic consumption of primary energy was 11.7 EJ. Per capita consumption was 323 GJ.

The consumption of electrical energy is very high, and the per capita figure is the final consumption of around 15,000 kWh, which is the third largest electricity consumption in the world after Norway and Iceland.

In 2017, power generation was 655 TWh. The country usually has a large power surplus and in 2017 net exports were 62 TWh. The dominant energy source for power generation is hydropower, with a share of 59.6 percent, followed by nuclear power 14.3 percent, gas power 8.9 percent and coal power 8.7 percent. Solar and wind power account for around 5 percent.

Hydropower is mainly produced in Québec, British Columbia, Ontario and Labrador, while the vast majority of nuclear power plants are located in Ontario. Conventional thermal power is produced in the oil and gas extraction areas (Alberta) and the large industrial areas (Ontario).

Industry

Property, rental and leasing account for the largest single sector in the country, with 13.01 percent of GDP (2017). In addition, the industry is large and multifaceted. The largest industry is the service industry, which accounts for over 70 percent of GDP.

The main industrial products are the production of means of transport, food, chemical products, the paper and cellulose industry, metal production, the production of wood products, telecommunications equipment and computer equipment. The high-tech industrial sector is small but growing.

The University of Toronto is considered the “birthplace” of insulin and stem cell research, and one of the first electron microscopes was developed here. The movable lift arm of the US spacecraft was also developed in Canada, and the country has been a leader in the development of short-haul aircraft.

The industry as a whole shows a strong concentration to the most populous provinces of the East, Ontario and Quebec. There are major regional differences not only in total industrial production but also in the composition of the industry. The industrial provinces of the East (Ontario and Quebec) have a much larger proportion of finished goods production than the rest of the country, where production of raw materials and semi-finished products means more. In the provinces of the Atlantic coast, the food industry (especially the fishery industry) and wood processing dominate. In the prairie provinces, the food industry also dominates, but here the processing of agricultural products (meat, grain) is most important. In the Alberta, the petroleum industry is of great importance. In British Columbia, the forest industry is the most important. Quebec and Ontario have a very varied industry, but the workshop industry is most important, especially the means of transport in Ontario. This has close links with similar industry on the US side of the border (in Detroit). Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut have little industry.

Industry is not dominated by large corporations to the same extent as in the US. There is a high degree of foreign ownership in Canada’s business. About. 40 percent of the industry has foreign ownership interests, mainly US.

Foreign Trade

Foreign trade in Canada is highly regarded per capita due to the country’s wealth of resources and low population numbers. Exports account for over 30 percent of GDP, compared with around 5 percent in the United States. Canada’s foreign trade is strongly influenced by trade with the United States.

In the post-war period, trade with the United Kingdom was significantly weakened, despite traditional customs preferences vis-à-vis the Commonwealth countries. In 1994, Canada joined the North American Free Trade Organization (NAFTA) with the United States and Mexico, strengthening bilateral trade with the United States.

According to Countryaah, Canada traditionally has a foreign trade surplus. Exports have traditionally been characterized by raw materials and unprocessed industrial goods, but machines and vehicles have gradually gained a greater share of exports.

Transport and Communications

Shipping

The most important ports (ship cargo by weight) are Vancouver in British Columbia (coal, wheat, sulfur), Port Cartier in Québec (iron ore, wheat), Thunder Bay at Lake Superior in Ontario (wheat) and Sept Îles in Québec (iron ore). A special feature of Canadian shipping is the St. Lawrence Seaway which, with canals and locks, provides access to the Great Lakes for seagoing vessels. Here mainly grain and iron ore are transported. Several of the ports at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River have experienced strong traffic growth as a result of the transfers from “lakers” to larger seagoing vessels, in particular Port Cartier.

Railways

Canada has a large and well-developed rail network, which today is primarily used for the transport of goods. Railway development has played an important role in the country’s history, and it is an important prerequisite for the formation of today’s Canada. The first major period in the railroad development was in the 1850s. In 1866, the first transcontinental railroad was completed from Montreal to Vancouver. This helped connect British Columbia with the rest of Canada. The transcontinental route now runs from Toronto to Vancouver. The total runway length in 1995 was approximately 71,600 km, of which the main lines covered 38,000 km.

The railway has in recent years been hit by cuts from the public, several lines have been closed and other lines have been reduced in frequency. There are two major transcontinental systems: the Canadian National Railway (CN), privatized in 1995, operates approximately 32,500 km of tracks, and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CP), which is a corporation and which disposes of approximately 30,000 km. Common rail networks from 2000. There are subways in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, and trams in Calgary, Edmonton and Toronto.

Road transport

The road network is by far the densest in the southern parts of the country, and the car density is high. The road network is a total of 1,021,000 km. 35 percent of the total road network is paved. Trans Canada Highway runs through all the provinces from St. John’s on Newfoundland to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. A number of car ferries link the islands on both the east and west coasts with the mainland.

Aviation

The huge distances in the country have resulted in the aircraft taking over large parts of the transport over longer distances. Air Canada (privatized 1989) is the most important company. The main airports are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.

Foreign Trade

Main trading partners

Figures in millions of CAD, 2016:

trading Partner Export Import
United States 297 260 210 915
EU 41 827 52 288
China 15 359 48 593
Mexico 8 879 18 901

Main export goods

Exportable Billions of USD
crude oil 54.1
cars 46.5
Refined petroleum 11.5
Car Parts 10.4
petroleum Gas 10.2

The Economic Complexity Observatory, 2017

Main import goods

Import Product Billions of USD
cars 28.5
trucks 15.6
Refined petroleum 12.1
crude oil 10.8
computers 7.19
Belize Business

Belize Business

According to abbreviationfinder, BZ is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Belize.  State of Isthmian Central America, independent since 21 September 1981 within the British Commonwealth, member of the United Nations and associated with the European Economic Community. The current name has been official since 1973, when it was chosen to replace the colonial one of British Honduras (v. XVIII, p. 556; App. II, i, p. 1189; III, i, p. 817; IV, ii, p. 137).

22,965 km 2 wide, the Belize borders to the north with Mexico, which lays claim to a small part of the territory, to the west and south with Guatemala, which claims it in full; to the east it overlooks the northern side of the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) with a low and partly marshy coast. The territory is completely flat in the North, while in the South rise heights that culminate at more than 1100 m, even if on the whole they are modest.

The population, which amounted to 145,353 residents at the date of the last census (1980), it had risen to 179,800, according to an estimate, in 1988; it is not very dense (7 residents per km 2) and is made up of more than 50% of blacks and mulattoes, almost 20% of Amerindians and the rest of mestizos, whites and Asian immigrants. The capital is the town of Belmopan (4500 residents); the only notable urban center is the port city of Belize (pop. 50,000). The official language is English, but Spanish and a Creole-English idiom are used fluently. Almost all of the population is Christian, predominantly Catholic. Overall, the Belize, due to the cultural and socio-economic influences exerted by the British domination and the administrative model inherited from it, constitutes a political-territorial reality somewhat foreign to Isthmian Central America and in many respects more similar to the countries of the Antilles.

The main resources come from the forest, which covers almost half of the territory and provides precious woods (cedar, mahogany, rosewood) and a latex used in the manufacture of chewing gum. Agriculture is less important, however it should be remembered for the cultivation of sugar cane and for the production of citrus fruits (oranges and grapefruits which are partly exported and partly feed local canning industries). In the continental shelf of the Gulf of Honduras, promising searches for hydrocarbons have been underway for years. Belize exports timber, latex, sugar, citrus fruits and fish. The trade balance is highly passive, the per capita income it remains very low and the country is still forced to rely heavily on British aid. Good opportunities seem to open up to tourism (arrivals were over 144,000 in 1988), for which a large promotional project is underway at the initiative of the United Nations.

Agriculture

Although almost 40% of the land is suitable for agriculture, only 6% of the land is cultivated land. Nevertheless, agriculture employs approx. 30% of the employed and contributed 15% of GDP. Agriculture represents close to 90% of export earnings. Most important agricultural products are citrus fruits, sugar and bananas. Sugarcane is grown on plantations around Corozal in the far north of the country. Citrus fruits, mostly grapefruit, are grown around Stann Creek. Cocoa, coconuts, peanuts and mangoes are also grown for export. For local consumption, corn, rice, beans, sweet potatoes, yams and vegetables are grown. Some livestock, especially cattle.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Belize

Forestry

Almost 1/3 of the land is covered by forest and timber (mahogany, pine) is an important export. Most of the timber comes from the northern and western parts of the country and floats on the rivers down to the sawmills on the coast.

Fishing

Fishing is carried out by lobster, shrimp and turtles. Exports of lobster and shrimp have slowed due to overfishing.

Industry

The industry is relatively modest and is mainly based on the processing of agricultural products and clothing. The industry employed 17% of the working population in 2000 and contributed 24% of the gross domestic product.

Tourism

Tourism is the country’s second largest industry, and it is part of ecotourism. The country’s distinctive nature, beautiful beaches, good diving opportunities and Mayan ruins are important tourist attractions.

An important source of income is financial contributions sent by emigrated family members, especially in the United States.

Transport and Communications

Communications in the interior of the country are poorly developed. Some of the roads are only navigable during the dry season (Feb-May). River transport is of great importance. The main port city is Belize City, which can take seagoing ships. Belize City International Airport. There are close to 40 airstrips for local traffic. No railroad.

Foreign Trade

According to Countryaah, the trade balance with abroad is negative. The main export goods are sugar, citrus fruits, orange concentrate, bananas, textiles and confectionery. In particular, various industrial products, machinery, petroleum and foodstuffs are introduced. The United States, the United Kingdom and Mexico are the most important trading partners.

Barbados Business

Barbados Business

According to abbreviationfinder, BB is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Barbados.

Business

Sugar production has traditionally been the mainstay of the island’s economy, and half the area is covered by sugar plantations. However, during the 1960s, sugar was replaced by tourism as the main source of income. The tourist facilities, which have raised major land claims, have also had sugar cultivation gradually decline. The service industries account for most of the employment and are heavily dependent on tourism.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Barbados

The industry is dominated by the production of food and textiles. There are some natural gas and oil deposits as well as an oil refinery.

Both sugar and tourism are cyclically sensitive sources of income. Declines in world market prices and the tourist flow have hit the country’s economy hard in the last decade and have caused constant high unemployment. The government has tried to encourage the cultivation of other crops such as cotton and vegetables, and has sought to make the industry more versatile through, among other things, subsidies to foreign companies that establish themselves in the country. According to Countryaah, the economy is heavily dependent on imports, and foreign trade shows a deficit, which is to some extent covered by tourism income, money from the many emigrants and foreign aid.

BARBADOS. – Island of the West Indies, located at about 59 ° 37 ′ long. O. and 13 ° 4 ‘lat. N. about 34 km long. and 431 sq km wide. The population was calculated at 198,588 residents in 1901 and 169,385 in 1926. The structure of this island, which is an eastern outpost of the Antilles has aroused much interest, as the coral limestone rises in some places up to 335 meters above sea level and the living coral formations surround it largely extending up to more than 4 km. from the coast. Under this limestone there are oceanic deposits, such as globigerine and radiolarî muds, as well as red clays, all formations of deep water. Below these, there are still folded layers, at the edges of which oceanic formations have deposited. These folded layers are carboniferous and in some places contain petroleum and anthracite. The temperature of the island is relatively mild, compared to latitude, and oscillates between 18 ° and 30 ° with prevailing rains in the hot season (June-October), which reach an average of 1500 mm per year. The island is frequently damaged by cyclones (memorable those of 1780, 1831, 1898).

The island of Barbados is an important transit site (Bridgetown has about 20,000 residents), a traffic center for all the West Indies.

Barbados is one of the most densely populated islands in the world, averaging 394 residents. per sq. km. About 10% of the residents is given by Whites, while the remainder is made up of Negroes and black people, who form a very distinct group by type and dialect. The soil, which is fertile, has been producing sugar since the 10th century. XVII and the irregular supply of beets during the war of 1914-18 favored the production of Barbados to such an extent that in 1924 the export rose to a value of 1,500,000 pounds of sugar and derivatives; a certain amount of cotton was also exported. Most of the products go to Canada.

Bahamas Business

Bahamas Business

According to abbreviationfinder, BS is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Bahamas.

The Bahamas economy is based on tourism, finance and the ship register established in 1976. In 2002, per capita GDP was $ 17,000. The role of the Bahamas as an important intermediary for drug smuggling into the United States is likely to have generated significant revenue.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Bahamas

Agriculture

Prerequisites for agriculture are relatively poor; only 1% of the area is cultivable and the industry is of modest economic importance. Fruit and vegetable cultivation is the most important. It is cultivated i.e. cucumbers, tomatoes, pineapples, avocados, citrus fruits and bananas. Some animal husbandry.

Fishing

The waters around the Bahamas have a rich fauna. Commercial fishing is concentrated on shellfish, crawfish, sea ​​crabs and shrimp.

Industry

The industry is relatively modest. State attempts have been made to develop industry based on processing of raw materials from agriculture and fisheries. Clothes, furniture, plastic products, pharmaceuticals, beer, rooms, cement, souvenirs etc. are produced. Some petroleum activities, mainly transit trade. Extraction of salt and aragonite. Exploration for offshore petroleum is underway.

Service industries

The mild climate and beautiful beaches attract millions of tourists each year, and the tourism industry is the most important industry in terms of both value creation and employment. The best tourist season is December – April, and most tourists come from the United States. From the late 1980s, the Bahamas received increased competition from other Caribbean tourist destinations, but has managed to maintain its position as the Caribbean’s leading tourist destination. In recent years, the number of tourists arriving by cruise ships has increased at the expense of the country’s hotel industry.

Banking and finance are also an important industry. Many financial institutions and firms are registered in the Bahamas for tax reasons, and real estate sales and banking are an important part of economic life. One of the world’s largest trading fleets is registered in the country’s international ship register (1135 ships in 2002).

Foreign Trade

According to Countryaah, main export goods are petroleum (re-export of petroleum imported from Venezuela and Mexico), seafood (lobster) pharmaceutical products and space. Imports include: food, finished goods, transport and petroleum. The United States is the largest trading partner.

Transport and Communications

The road network on the largest islands is well developed and of a good standard. There are international airports at Nassau (New Providence) and Freeport (Grand Bahama). The main port is Nassau on New Providence. By the way, Freeport (Grand Bahama) and Mathew Town (Inagua) are important ports. Freeport got a new container terminal in 1997. The boat and air connection between the islands is good.

HISTORY

The fight against crime and corruption, largely linked to drug trafficking, remained the country’s main challenges even in the 21st century. The conservative governments, an expression of the Free National Movement (FNM), in power since 1992, had in fact failed to give a convincing answer to these questions despite the adoption of extreme measures, such as frequent use of the death penalty. The tourism sector was particularly damaged as a result, also proved by the decline in US inflows following the climate of fear generated by the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001.at the Twin Towers in New York and the Pentagon. On the other hand, the attempt to impose greater transparency on offshore financial activities, as requested by the international community, had a partially better outcome. The persistence of a widespread state of uncertainty and the worsening of the economic situation penalized the government forces. In May 2002 the legislative elections marked the defeat of the FNM, and restored the Progressive Liberal Party to power after ten years., whose leader, PG Christie, was appointed prime minister. The new executive continued the financial policy of its predecessor and committed to improving public services. On the international level, the country continued to have privileged relations with the United States, while relations with Cuba and Haiti remained strained due to the persistence of massive illegal immigration.

Antigua and Barbuda Business

Antigua and Barbuda Business

According to abbreviationfinder, AG is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Antigua and Barbuda.

Business

Antigua and Barbuda’s traditional industries, cotton and sugar processing, have now been replaced by tourism as a leading industry. During the 1990s, the country was hit by several hurricanes, which temporarily halted growth in the tourism sector. Antigua and Barbuda are visited annually by about 300,000 overnight tourists and about 700,000 cruise tourists. The tourism industry contributes about 80 percent of GDP and employs 35 percent of the workforce. Some importance to the economy also has easy manufacturing industry, fishing and livestock management. Dependence on the United States is strong, and one of the state’s most important sources of income is the rent that the United States pays for its two military bases.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Antigua and Barbuda

According to countryaah, the capital of Saint John’s is the dominant port city and also has an international airport.

POPULATION AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

Independent since 1981, this small Central American state, made up of the two islands of Antigua and Barbuda and the tiny, uninhabited island of Redonda, has a predominantly black and English-speaking population of 67. 000 residents (1998 estimate), concentrated on the largest island, Antigua (280 km ²). The density is very high: it reaches, in fact, 152 residents / km ², which rises to 230 if Antigua alone is considered. At a 1995 assessment, the capital, Saint John’s, had 30,000 residents.

The main economic resources are represented by agriculture, fishing (especially lobsters) and tourism; furthermore, agricultural products (cotton, vegetables and sugar cane) feed small local food and textile industries. Like most of the Caribbean islands, Antigua and Barbuda annually attract an ever-increasing number of visitors, now around half a million (without taking into account the tourists who use their own boat), coming in particular from the United Kingdom (38 % in 1995), the United States (35 %) and Canada. In the first half of the 1990s the sector contributed, directly or indirectly, 70 % to the formation of GDP, employing about 35% of the workforce.

Another large contribution to the state’s revenue is the annual rent paid by the US government for the two military bases located on Antigua and Barbuda, as well as corporate tax; moreover, to create alternative sources of currency to those represented by tourism, the government has created favorable fiscal conditions for the growth of offshore financial activities . However, the organizational problems deriving from independence, the scarcity of internal resources and unexpected weather adversities (most recently, Hurricane Luis, which struck the islands in September 1995) make it difficult for the country to take off, afflicted, among other things, by a high degree of unemployment and a substantial trade balance deficit, which is affected by significant imports of consumer goods only partially offset by income from tourism . Antigua and Barbuda while seeking, in recent years, an ever closer economic integration with the other CARICOM (Caribbean Community and Common Market) countries, maintain the traditional and privileged commercial relations with the United States and the United Kingdom.

North American Business

North American Business

The North American economy is characterized by a great diversity of products and services, a strong use of technology and a workforce, in general, specialized. There is also a great regional disparity when we compare the productive capacity of the countries in the north, Canada and the United States, and Mexico, in the south. Even within countries we have regional inequalities, since all have territories of continental proportions. In 1992, these countries created the Northern American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA abbreviated by AbbreviationFinder.org), a free market agreement that provides for the end of tariff barriers between the three countries.

Economic activities

When we talk about North America, we immediately think of the presence of high-tech economic activities in Silicon Valley (USA), as well as the strong film industry in Hollywood (also in the USA), the auto industry with companies like Ford and Chevrolet (General Motors), but we don’t remember much about the agriculture of these countries.

Even the great world economic power, such as the United States of America, has a rich and enviable presence in livestock and also in agriculture. The so-called belts are areas specialized in certain types of crops. Among the most famous: Corn Belts (corn), Cotton Belts (cotton), among others. A great highlight goes to corn, which is present in the diet of these countries, as well as in several industrial uses, for example in the manufacture of Ethanol (fuel alcohol), as well as the production of orange, which is among the largest in the world.

In Mexico, there are the typical agave plantations, a plant from which agave syrup is made (which serves as a syrup and sweetener), Tequila and Mezcal are also made, alcoholic beverages that have gained popularity around the world. Mezcal being famous for possibly containing a small harmless worm in the drink and which is consumed with it, with supposed benefits (without scientific proof) for virility and sexuality.

Country Total GDP (million US dollars) Agriculture’s share of GDP (percent) Manufacturing industry’s share of GDP (percent)
Antigua and Barbuda 1 624 (2018) 1.7 (2018) 2.4 (2018)
Bahamas 12 162 (2017) 1.0 (2017) 2.6 (2017)
Barbados 4 674 (2017) 1.4 (2016) 4.8 (2016)
Belize 1 925 (2018) 10.8 (2017) 6.6 (2017)
Costa Rica 60 126 (2018) 4.6 (2018) 11.9 (2018)
Dominica 504 (2018) 12.7 (2018) 1.3 (2018)
Dominican Republic 81 299 (2018) 5.5 (2018) 13.1 (2018)
El Salvador 26 057 (2018) 4.9 (2018) 16.2 (2018)
Grenada 1,207 (2018) 4.9 (2018) 3.1 (2018)
Guatemala 78 460 (2018) 10.0 (2018) 17.9 (2018)
Haiti 9 658 (2018) 21.0 (2016) 19.0 (2016) 2
Honduras 23 803 (2018) 11.8 (2018) 16.8 (2018)
Jamaica 15 718 (2018) 6.7 (2018) 7.7 (2018)
Canada 1 712 510 (2018) 1.7 (2015) 10.3 (2015)
Cuba 96 851 (2017) 3.8 (2017) 13.5 (2017)
Mexico 1 223 809 (2018) 3.3 (2018) 17.0 (2018)
Nicaragua 13 118 (2018) 15.5 (2018) 14.2 (2018)
Panama 65 055 (2018) 2.2 (2018) 5.8 (2018)
Saint Kitts & Nevis 1,040 (2018) 1.2 (2018) 5.1 (2018)
Saint Lucia 1,876 (2018) 2.1 (2018) 2.3 (2018)
St. Vincent & the Grenadines 813 (2018) 6.7 (2018) 5.0 (2018)
Trinidad & Tobago 23 410 (2018) 0.5 (2018) 15.9 (2018)
USA 20 494 100 (2018) 0.9 (2017) 11.2 (2017)

Industry

According to Countryaah, the great economic engine of the North American continent is undoubtedly the strong industry in Canada and the United States, especially the latter. With a high use of cutting edge technology and specialized labor, these two countries are responsible for a large part of the manufactured items of the American continent – which also has South and Central America.

We can highlight products with high added value, such as automobiles, appliances and electronics. With regard to heavy industry, these industrial parks are located mainly in the northeast of the United States and southeast of Canada, in the Great Lakes region, and also in the southwest of the United States, more precisely in Silicon Valley, California.

The Mexican industry is one of the most developed in Latin America, however it does not stand up to its northern neighbors and is characterized mainly by the production of textiles, industrialized foods and chemicals, concentrated in the region of Mexico City and Guadalajara. A characteristic of the Mexican industry is the production units specialized in finalizing the assembly of imported products, the maquiladoras. This type of industry had a great boost with the entry of Mexico in NAFTA, these units are concentrated in northern Mexico, mainly in the state of Sonora.

Agriculture

North America has a diversified agriculture, cultivating corn, soybeans, and wheat on the plains of southern Canada and the midwestern United States, in addition to the production of warm climate fruits in California and the southwestern United States, and cold climate fruits in the Great Lakes region and on the northeastern coast of the USA and southeastern Canada. Agriculture in these countries has a strong technological apparatus and many government subsidies to maintain competitiveness in both the domestic and foreign markets. Mexico produces a wide variety of agricultural crops such as beans and corn, the basis of the Mexican population’s diet, in addition to coffee, fruit, cotton, sisal and soy. These last three are mainly for export. Mexico, like most of Latin America, suffers from a serious concentration of land, making it difficult to develop sustainable agriculture. Livestock is very present in the North American continent, with a strong presence of sheep herds in southern Canada and, mainly, of cattle in the central west and southeast of the USA, with a strong production of milk and dairy products. This sector, as well as in agriculture, has a strong use of technology. In Mexico, the presence of cattle and pigs stands out.

Mining and Oil

North America has large reserves of minerals, such as oil in the southern center and Alaska, the United States, western Canada and eastern Mexico, and natural gas in the same spaces where oil reserves are found. The Gulf of Mexico is full of oil extraction platforms. The uranium is much explored in northern Canada, as well as silver in the desert regions of Mexico. It is also possible to find deposits of coal, iron, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in different regions of North America.

North American Business