France Public Finance
Europe

France Public Finance

As early as 1914, inadequate taxation, budget deficits and fluctuating debt worries would have required drastic measures, despite the country’s financial strength. The war came with its many economic needs, which the normal budget revenues (significantly reduced following the invasion and the diminished revenue of the land tax, which was one of the main sources of income […]

France Prehistory
Europe

France Prehistory

During the Clactonian period (see Mousteriana, civilization, XXIII, p. 989) the proximity of the springs is already very important for the establishment of settlements: the Clactonian stations located in the estuary of the Seine, at the Bec-de-Caux and on the beaches dei Régates, in Le Havre, Saint-Adresse, are spread over five kilometers near water sources. […]

France Music From 15th to 17th Century
Europe

France Music From 15th to 17th Century

The song and the air. – The musical hegemony passes to Flanders, where the Flemish composers, who are influenced, among others, by the influence of the Chapel of the King of France and that of Burgundy, compose almost all their profane songs on French words. The French Antoine de Févin of Orléans, Carpentras, Gascogne, Moulu […]

France Music During The Middle Ages
Europe

France Music During The Middle Ages

Secular music. – According to ethnicityology.com, the liveliest splendor of French music occurred in the Middle Ages together with the flourishing of sculpture and architecture in the century. XII and in the XIII. Already in the century. X music was in great honor in monasteries and churches: main centers, S. Martial of Limoges, Rouen, Saint-Denis, […]

France Music - From Lulli to Berlioz - Sacred and Chamber Music
Europe

France Music – From Lulli to Berlioz – Sacred and Chamber Music

The opera. – Giovan Battista Lulli, born in Florence in 1632, arrived in Paris at the age of 14 found himself in contact with French dance music and soon assimilated the style of violinists which he later perfected and made softer and more melodic. Lulli fused French and Italian stylistics with a very shrewd taste, […]

France Music - From Lulli to Berlioz - Rameau and Gluck
Europe

France Music – From Lulli to Berlioz – Rameau and Gluck

Rameau and Gluck. – Much less sensitive than Couperin, J. Ph. Rameau, admirable technician, skilfully blends the French and Italian manner in works built with great confidence and vigor of accent, using the lively rhythms and pungent harmonies of a D Scarlatti. According to ehistorylib.com, Rameau had in the musical world of the century. XVIII […]

France Music - Berlioz and the Modern School
Europe

France Music – Berlioz and the Modern School

From Berlioz, as from Wagner in Germany, the whole modern French musical movement derives. This great artist, still not sufficiently appreciated, broke the conventions of classicism by opening all the ways in which his successors set out. In 1829, with the Symphonie fantastique, he inaugurates new processes of development (especially the system of the conductor motif), […]

France Music
Europe

France Music

According to dentistrymyth.com, the teaching of O. Messiaen at the Paris Conservatory (harmony, since 1942; musical analysis, aesthetics and rhythm, since 1947) is of the highest importance for the development of French music in the second half of the century. Spiritual successor of R. Leibowitz – the first to introduce Webern’s dodecaphony in France -, […]

Greece Early History
Europe

Greece Early History

Early period (until around 800 BC): The scene of Greek history in the broader sense is the entire area of ​​the Mediterranean world settled by the Greeks, in the narrower sense the peninsula called “Hellas” by the Greeks, “Graecia” by the Romans, the associated Greek-populated islands and the islands of the Aegean Sea. Here migrated […]

Tour de France History
Europe

Tour de France History

The Tour de France is the world’s most famous multi-stage race for professional cyclists, which is held annually in France in July. But what is the “Grand Boucle”, as the Tour de France is affectionately known by the French, so special? And how can it be explained that thousands and thousands of fans stand on […]

Monemvasia, Greece
Europe

Hydra and Monemvasia, Greece

Hydra An island with style The small Greek island is located in the Aegean Sea and is off the Peloponnese peninsula. She belongs to the group of sarons. Like many of its neighboring islands, Hydra is particularly popular with day tourists. Daily ferry connections exist for example from Piraeus or Ermioni. Journeys to Hydra can […]

Valley of the Rocks
Europe

Valley of the Rocks

Dramatic idyll: The Valley of the Rocks For some hikers, the Valley of the Rocks in Exmoor National Park has almost dramatic features. Others are so fascinated by the idyllic landscape in the “Valley of the Rocks” that it takes their breath away. Most outdoor freaks among holidaymakers choose the twin cities of Lynmouth and […]

Estonia Geography
Europe

Estonia Geography

Estonia’s land border with Latvia runs 267 km, with Russia it runs 290 km. From 1920 to 1945, Estonia’s border with Russia, established by the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty, extended beyond the Narva River in the northeast and beyond the town of Pechory (Petseri) in the southeast. This territory, amounting to about 2,300 square kilometers, was incorporated into Russia by Stalin at […]

Traveling in Wales
Europe

Traveling in Wales

Rail: like the rest of the UK is that too welsh Railway network has been privatized. Most of the routes in Wales are operated by Arriva Wales. Exceptions are the routes London-Cardiff-Swansea (operated by First Great Western) and London-Chester-Holyhead (operated by Virgin Trains). The rail operator is the National Rail Inquiry Service. Reservations can also […]

Palermo, Italy
Europe

Sicily and Palermo, Italy

Sicily (Italy) Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and belongs to Italy. In addition, Sicily is also an autonomous region of the republic Italy and counts several smaller islands in its area. In the south-western part of the “toe of the boot” of Italy is the splendid vacation island Sicily. The Etna […]

La Rioja, Spain
Europe

Salou and La Rioja, Spain

Salou in Spain Salou is a coastal city in the Tarragona Province (Catalonia). thespanishCity is about 15 kilometers from the provincial capital Tarragona. 22,162 residents currently live here. Salou is a busy and popular city. Every year many tourists visit the place to spend their holidays here or to go on excursions. The main economic […]

Italian Theater
Europe

Italian Theater

Italian theater. The Italian theater encompasses the forms of play that were often still in Latin in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, as well as the Italian-language theater of the former states and today’s Italy. It can claimto have had a decisive influence on the development of the performing arts in Europesince the […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the United Kingdom
Europe

United Kingdom Business

According to abbreviationfinder, UK is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of United Kingdom. The UK and Northern Ireland have undergone significant restructuring in the last fifty years. In the 1970s and 1980s, traditional industrial regions experienced an economic downturn, partly because large parts of the machinery and textile industries were closed down or […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Ukraine
Europe

Ukraine Business

According to abbreviationfinder, UP is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Ukraine. Ukraine was very important to the economy of the Soviet Union and the country has a significant industrial heritage from that time. In addition to industrial production, the extraction of mineral resources and agriculture is important for the country’s economy. The […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Turkey
Asia Europe

Turkey Business

According to abbreviationfinder, TR is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Turkey. Measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Turkey is the world’s 19th largest economy (2019). Turkey participates in the G20. GDP per capita in 2019 was US $ 28,264, which was higher than in neighboring northwest, Bulgaria, but lower than neighboring west, […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Switzerland
Europe

Switzerland Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SZ is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Switzerland. Business and Economics Switzerland is a poor commodity country whose business sector is characterized by a highly specialized manufacturing industry and a significant service sector, especially in banking and finance. The tourism industry is also important. The economy is stable and […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Sweden
Europe

Sweden Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SE is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Sweden. The largest sector in Sweden is service industries, which employ 80 percent of the working population (2016). From the mid-1800s, the industry in Sweden gradually took over agriculture as the dominant industry, and the industry continued to grow until the mid-1970s, […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Spain
Europe

Spain Business

According to abbreviationfinder, ES is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Spain. Spain’s economy is ranked as the fifth largest in Europe, by Germany, France, the UK and Italy. The country’s most important export products are motor vehicles, metals and metal products, footwear and textiles, as well as food and beverages. Imports are […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Slovenia
Europe

Slovenia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SI is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Slovenia. Business and Economics During the beginning of the 1990s, Slovenia’s economy showed stable growth. After 2009, however, it was adversely affected by a rapidly increasing budget deficit. Furthermore, the international financial crisis has had drastic consequences for the national banks, which […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Slovakia
Europe

Slovakia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SK is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Slovakia. Slovakia has an open economy that is largely driven by the export of cars and electronic equipment. Slovakia as part of Czechoslovakia Until 1948, much of the Slovakian part of Czechoslovakia was characterized by agriculture, although there were also a number […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Serbia
Europe

Serbia Business

According to countryaah, Serbia’s economy is still characterized by the war situation in the 1990s and the NATO bombing in 1999, which helped to weaken the country’s economy. From 2000, a comprehensive market reform program was implemented in Serbia. The government has pursued a strict fiscal policy that has helped stabilize the economy. Successful banking […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of San Marino
Europe

San Marino Business

According to countryaah, despite cuts in Other Countries in Europe and neoliberal steps to dismantle the welfare state, San Marino has maintained its high standard of living and effective health care, considered one of the best in the world. The government seeks to maintain the high standard of living through a program of economic development, […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Russia
Asia Europe

Russia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, RU is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Russia. Business Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation is considered a market economy, and in 2016 the country was the sixth largest economy in the world. However, economy and business are still characterized by Soviet economic policy. Business […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Romania
Europe

Romania Business

According to abbreviationfinder, RO is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Romania. Business and Economics Despite good energy resources, a developed industrial sector and fertile soils, Romania is one of Europe’s poorest countries. During the first half of the 1990s, the country experienced good growth; In 2000–08, the economy grew by an average […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Portugal
Europe

Portugal Business

According to abbreviationfinder, PT is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Portugal. Following Portugal’s accession to the EU in 1986, the country has seen almost continuous economic growth. Portugal has also gained a more complex and more service-oriented economy after joining the EU. Since the mid-1990s, the authorities have intensified the process of […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Poland
Europe

Poland Business

According to abbreviationfinder, PL is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Poland. Economics and business Although only 2 percent of GDP comes from the earthquake, Poland is in many ways still an agricultural country. However, since the transition to the market economy in the early 1990s, other sectors of the business sector have […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Norway
Europe

Norway Business

According to abbreviationfinder, NO is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Norway. Economics and business Norway is a highly developed industrial country. Since the beginning of the 1970s, the country has experienced greater economic growth than most industrialized countries, while unemployment has been kept at a comparatively low level. Economic developments have meant […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Republic of North Macedonia
Europe

Northern Macedonia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SP is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Macedonia. Business Agriculture is still of great importance to the economy of Northern Macedonia, but the sector that has increased most during the 1990s is the service and service sector. According to countryaah, Northern Macedonia’s economy is heavily dependent on the outside […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Netherlands
Europe

Netherlands Business

According to abbreviationfinder, NL is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Netherlands. The Netherlands has a versatile business sector with an emphasis on industry, trade and transport. The country’s location makes it a natural gateway to much of Western Europe, and the economy is therefore largely characterized by trade. The Netherlands has a […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Montenegro
Europe

Montenegro Business

According to abbreviationfinder, MW is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Montenegro. The industrial base in Montenegro has traditionally been based on sheep and goat breeding. Tourist traffic has traditionally been of great importance on the coast, but the industry was sharply reduced in the 1990s due to the political situation. At independence […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Monaco
Europe

Monaco Business

Business According to countryaah, Monaco’s economy is not comparable to any other country in Europe. In a country without income and wealth tax (French and American citizens living in Monaco have to pay taxes in their home countries) and with a large proportion of income from abroad it is difficult to make a fair estimate […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Moldova
Europe

Moldova Business

According to abbreviationfinder, MD is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Moldova. Agriculture and industry are the most important trade routes in Moldova. Moldova does not have its own energy sources and has no significant mineral resources. Much of the industry depends on agricultural raw materials. Agriculture Although strong industrialization was carried out […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Malta
Europe

Malta Business

Business and Economics According to Countryaah, Malta’s most important industries are tourism and industry. The manufacturing industry consists mainly of shipyards and lighter industries, which manufacture, for example, textile, leather, plastic and metal products. The food industry is also significant. Industrial goods account for almost all exports, which, however, generally cover only slightly more than […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Luxembourg
Europe

Luxembourg Business

According to abbreviationfinder, LU is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a high-income country with solid economic growth, low inflation and unemployment and has one of the highest living standards in Western Europe. The country’s GDP per capita has been among the world’s highest for a number of years. In […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Lithuania
Europe

Lithuania Business

According to abbreviationfinder, LT is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Lithuania. Before World War II, Lithuania was a typical agricultural country that exported flax, dairy products and timber. The industry was largely limited to textiles and foodstuffs, as the country, like Latvia, lacks industrial raw materials. Especially in the 1960s, the development […]

Europe

Liechtenstein Business

Business and Economics According to countryaah, Liechtenstein has for a short time developed from a traditional agricultural society to an advanced industrial society. The standard of living has come in line with that in Switzerland. Agriculture, which accounts for just under 1 percent of employment, is traditionally dominated by livestock management with a focus on […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Latvia
Europe

Latvia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, LV is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Latvia. Latvia’s economy is part of the EU’s economic community, and the country also has strong ties with Russia and the other former Soviet states. Exports make up more than half of gross domestic product. Forestry and agriculture, alongside the production of […]

Europe

Kosovo Business

According to countryaah, Kosovo’s gross domestic product (GDP) increased by 55.2 percent in the period 2007–2017. Yet GDP per capita is only US $ 10 900 (2017). Of European countries, only Moldova has lower per capita GDP. Unemployment in Kosovo is 30.5 per cent, and is particularly high in the 18 to 25 age group, […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Italy
Europe

Italy Business

According to abbreviationfinder, IT is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Italy. Italy is one of the world’s largest economies. The country’s industrial expansion came as a post- World War II reconstruction, aided by financial support from the United States, and transformed Italy from an agricultural society into a modern industrial state. In […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Ireland
Europe

Ireland Business

According to abbreviationfinder, IE is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Ireland. Ireland’s economy is largely focused on exports of goods and services, as the domestic market is relatively small. Gross domestic product (GDP) in 2017 was USD 353.3 billion. GDP per capita was $ 73,200 that year, which is among the highest […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Iceland
Europe

Iceland Business

According to abbreviationfinder, IS is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Iceland. Economics and business For many years, fishing and fishery products have been the basis of Iceland’s economy; until 2000, the fisheries industry accounted for about 75 percent of the country’s export revenue. Nowadays fishing’s share of exports has dropped to 40 […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Hungary
Europe

Hungary Business

According to abbreviationfinder, HU is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Hungary. Economics and business Hungary’s economy is one of the largest in Eastern Europe. The country has an export-oriented business sector that has attracted a lot of foreign investment capital during most of the 1990s. The manufacturing industry has been modernized and […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Greece
Europe

Greece Business

According to abbreviationfinder, GR is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Greece. Greece became a member of the Monetary and Economic Union in 2001. Prior to membership, Greece had had several years of low economic growth, but during the period 2002-2005, growth rose to around four percent. This is due mainly to investments […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Germany
Europe

Germany Business

According to abbreviationfinder, GM is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Germany. Germany’s gross domestic product – GDP amounted to approx. EUR 3133 billion in 2016, placing the country in fourth place in the world (after the US, China and Japan). Germany was the world’s export nation in the 2000s. In 2009, China […]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of France
Europe

France Business

According to abbreviationfinder, FR is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of France. Business and Economics French business was long characterized by a fairly slow industrialization and economic development compared to the other Western European countries. Until the Second World War, agriculture was the largest industry. Since then, France has quickly become a country […]