Category: Asia

The interior of the continental Southeast Asia (Mekong) and the large islands, especially Borneo, which is covered with contiguous tropical rainforests, is increasingly being developed and populated. The population density is increasing in these areas.

The concentration of large metropolises is striking in South and East Asia. In the 2014 ranking of the world’s largest agglomerations, the top places were occupied by metropolitan regions in Asia. These include Tokyo, Jakarta, Delhi, Seoul, Mumbai, Manila and Shanghai. All of these cities – and many others across the region – have increased their population figures by double or more in the past decade or two, and sometimes even faster.

The main cause of this explosive growth was the great migration flow of our time, the rural-urban migration. This type of internal migration, since it is largely uncontrolled, leads to phenomena that can be seen in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, but also in other countries. Many people live in slums there. In Calcutta alone, with its approx. 4.5 million residents – around 14.1 million people live in the entire agglomeration – this affects around a third of the city’s population, according to estimates. The slums are no longer just on the outskirts of the cities, but increasingly also in the centers. For more information about the continent of Asia, please check computergees.com.

Attractions in Rostov-on-Don, Russia

Attractions in Rostov-on-Don, Russia

On the main square of the city – Theater Square – there is a stele with the goddess of victory Nika, which was erected in honor of the liberation of Rostov-on-Don from the fascist invaders, the building of the Drama Theater and a whole ensemble of fountains, where local residents like to relax and stroll. The embankment of the river Don is also a great place for walking. Numerous alleys and descents to the river were arranged along it; most of the restaurants and discos are located here. You can take a walk in the central city park named after Gorky, and along Pushkinskaya street, where a bust of the great Russian poet and writer is installed. Rostov-on-Don is home to the Botanical Garden of Rostov State University, one of the largest in Russia, its area is 160.5 hectares. The botanical garden was opened in 1928. Over 6,500 species of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants grow here. In the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden there is an interesting collection of tropical and subtropical plants from different parts of the Earth, in addition, in the garden there is a virgin steppe area, which serves as a standard of natural vegetation, and the State Natural Monument “Source” named after Seraphim of Sarov, which is considered an Orthodox shrine.

Another fascinating place in Rostov-on-Don, where adults and children like to spend time, is the Rostov Zoo. There are 390 species of animals, including 147 species of mammals, 131 species of birds, 31 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 75 species of fish and 3 species of invertebrates. The zoo has the most complete collection of great apes in Russia. The zoo has a variety of rides and cafes.

Be sure to visit the Rostov Regional Museum of Local Lore – one of the largest museums in southern Russia. Its collections include more than 200 thousand exhibits. In the hall “Treasures of the Don Kurgans” 2000 objects made of gold and silver from the 4th century BC are exhibited. – 8th century AD – these are weapons, horse harness, wine bowls, jewelry and much more. Also, the Rostov Regional Museum of Local Lore has collections of Russian silver, folk costumes, glassware, metal and porcelain, old photographs and documents, a memorial collection of such famous people as Sholokhov, Grekov, Saryan, Shaginyan and Nalbandyan.

According to Country Converters, Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts is located in a mansion on Pushkinskaya street. More than 6,000 exhibits are presented here in 8 exhibition halls. The permanent exposition of the museum tells about ancient Russian art, Russian art of the 18th-20th centuries and foreign art of Western European masters of the Italian, Dutch, Flemish, French and German schools and masters of the East. A branch of the Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts, the Children’s Art Gallery, operates in Rostov-on-Don. Its funds contain more than 2,500 works of painting, graphics and decorative and applied arts. The Children’s Picture Gallery supports and develops the creative possibilities of young and professional artists. The surroundings of Rostov-on-Don are no less interesting than the city itself.

Aksay is located 18 km northeast of Rostov-on-Don on the right bank of the Don River. In the 17-18 centuries, a Cossack village stood on the site of the modern city, which served as a guard post that controlled the approaches to the center of the Don Host Region – Cherkassk. Today in Aksai, next to the new city buildings, old streets adjoin, where typical Cossack kurens have been preserved. It is these streets that are interesting for tourists, here you can plunge into the past and get acquainted with the way of Cossack life. The main attraction of the city is the Aksai Military History Museum, telling about the history of the Don region. The museum’s funds include more than 35,000 items, including objects of paleontology, archeology, ethnography, art and weapons. Aksai Military History Museum consists of three complexes. On the outskirts of Aksai is the Mukhina Balka nature reserve. Its area is 43.5 hectares, many herbs, shrubs and trees, brought to the Don at the end of the 19th century from various countries of the world, have been preserved here, many of which are listed in the Red Book. In “Mukhina Balka” a recreation area was equipped – a favorite place for walking for residents of the city and its guests. Since 1998, the Military-Historical Complex named after N. D. Gulaev has been operating on the territory of the reserve (one of the complexes of the Aksai Military History Museum). Here, in the open air, you can see expositions of domestic military equipment and weapons of all wars of the 20th century in which Russia participated – from the Russo-Japanese war to the Chechen companies, as well as the underground command post of the North Caucasus Military District, created in the 1960s for leadership of military operations in the event of a third world war. The underground command post is a two-tiered bunker with an extensive system of corridors, many rooms and large halls.

Another complex of the Aksai Military History Museum is located in the village of Berdanosovka, located not far from Aksai – this is the Customs Outpost. In the years 1720-1740, there was a royal outpost, then a customs outpost, and in 1763 an earthen fortress with a customs service was built, which was part of the fortress of Dmitry Rostov. Today, the museum complex exhibits cold and firearms, household items of customs officers, maps and handwritten documents. The third complex of the Aksai Military History Museum – the Postal Station – is located in the historical center of the city. This complex recreates the appearance of a typical postal station of the 19th century. Such famous Russian figures as A.S. Griboyedov, M.Yu. Lermontov, A.S. Pushkin, Baron A. Rosen, N.N. Raevsky, L.N. Tolstoy and P.I. Chaikovsky. The museum complex consists of a postmaster’s house, a hotel building, carriage house, well and gazebos for relaxation. The exposition of the museum keeps a collection of horse-drawn vehicles and authentic things of the 19th century, which belonged to the inhabitants of the village of Aksaiskaya. Near the Postal Station in 1897, a temple was built in honor of the Mother of God Hodegetria, and in 1985, the Crossing Monument was opened, erected in memory of the evacuation of local residents in 1942 from the village of Aksayskaya occupied by the Nazis.

Attractions in Rostov-on-Don, Russia

Culture of Thailand

Culture of Thailand

The culture of Thailand has developed over the centuries, influenced by the peoples of Asia. You can often hear how Siam is also called the “land of smiles”, which is not surprising: just look around at the always smiling and hospitable Thais – passers-by, shop assistants, children… And this is also one of the features of culture – never show your negative emotions. So, let’s take a closer look at the benevolent kingdom!

Religion

According to City Population Review, Buddhism is the main religion in the kingdom, it is practiced by more than 90% of citizens. To a lesser extent, Muslims (only about 4%) and Christians (less than 1%) live in the solar kingdom, and the king is the patron of all religions.

For many centuries, it was Buddhism that influenced the cultural characteristics in Thailand. More than 30,000 Buddhist temples have been built in the country, most of which are located in rural areas.

10 interesting facts about Thailand and Thais

  1. The reckoning in the country does not begin from the Nativity of Christ, but from the day of the death of Buddha in 543 BC. Thus, “our” 2020 corresponds to the year 2563 according to the Buddhist calendar.
  2. Siam ranks first in terms of the number of monks per capita. More than 370 thousand monks live in the temples. Thus, there is 1 monk for every 170 people, this ratio is not found anywhere else in the world.
  3. Open expression of aggression in Thailand is considered bad manners. Here it is not customary to resolve disputes with shouts and rudeness. And how can you be aggressive in a country where everyone is smiling? By the way, in no case should you be rude to the police.
  4. Thailand has never been a colony, the Thais have always been free.
  5. All white foreigners in Thailand are called farangs. This word does not carry a negative connotation, so do not be offended by it.
  6. Until 1913, surnames were not used in Siam, the Thais had only first names. Even today in official institutions it is not customary to use surnames when referring to each other.
  7. The word “hunger” does not exist in Thai.
  8. Thais respect and love the royal family. Criticism towards monarchs is unacceptable.
  9. The locals are calm and balanced. A welcoming attitude towards Thais will help you feel most comfortable during your trip.
  10. A little thai is the name of traditional Thai clothing.

Features of behavior in Thailand: what a traveler needs to know

As we wrote above, Siam is a benevolent country with its own characteristics and culture. Before the trip, it is important to study the rules of conduct in Thailand so as not to run into misunderstanding and anger of the locals.

  1. In no case should one show disrespect for the state religion and for the Buddha.
  2. When planning a visit to temples, dress modestly, not defiantly. Your shoulders and knees must be covered.
  3. It is forbidden to export any images and images of the Buddha from the country.
  4. Before entering the temple, it is customary to take off your shoes, and you can’t enter Thai houses in shoes.
  5. The fair sex is strictly forbidden to touch Thai monks.
  6. It is forbidden to touch the head of a Thai. The locals believe that the human soul is contained in the head. If you accidentally touched – be sure to ask for forgiveness.
  7. Topless sunbathing is not accepted on the beaches.
  8. If the Thais treat you, it would be bad form to refuse. Even if you don’t feel like eating, at least try it.
  9. In Siam, it is not customary to point with fingers or toes. The waiter in the restaurant should also not be called by raising your finger. Raise your hand with your fingers in a fist.

If you remember these simple rules of what tourists should not do in Thailand, your vacation will be unforgettable!

Holidays in Thailand

Perhaps the Thais are friendly because there are many holidays in their country, which have no analogues anywhere in the world. What is the magical Chiang Mai Flower Festival, which annually begins on the first Friday of February. The main event of the holiday is an incredible parade during which hundreds of thousands of flowers are carried around the city.

In April, from 13 to 19, the Thai New Year is celebrated – Songkran. Are you planning a trip at this time? Be sure to take part in the celebration, it’s really fun and noisy. During the celebration, it is customary to pour water on each other, just like in childhood!

Another unusual holiday is the Monkey Banquet. The event takes place 140 kilometers from Bangkok, in the city of Lopburi. The god Rama, according to one of the legends, presented these lands to the monkey king Hanuman. It was the warlike monkeys who helped save Rama’s wife, Sita. The local townspeople still believe that the Lopbury monkeys are the descendants of those warriors, which is why they hold an annual holiday. A truly magnificent banquet is organized for primates – huge tables with red tablecloths are bursting with an abundance of bananas, pineapples and other fruits. The event takes place on the last Sunday of November.

A spectacular and beautiful holiday, a must-see for connoisseurs of beauty – Loi Krathong. It is held annually on the first full moon of November. At night, under the light of the moon, thousands of small boats made of banana leaves with lit candles are launched into the water. Some of them are like real works of art! On the same evening, air lanterns with wishes written on them are launched into the sky.

Culture of Thailand

India Population and Customs

India Population and Customs

POPULATION.

1991 – 865 million people, density – 263 people per 1 sq. km. For 10 years (1981-1991) the population grew by 24%. The average life expectancy for men is 58 years, for women – 59 years. For every thousand men, there are 929 women; this ratio has been observed since the beginning of this century.

ETHNIC COMPOSITION.

Hindus (80%), Muslims (11%), Christians (2%), Sikhs (2%), Jains, Buddhists, Parsis, etc.

CUSTOMS.

Before entering temples, mosques or gurdwaras (Sikh temples), you must take off your shoes.

In many cases, photography inside the temples is prohibited, so ask permission before using your camera. Tourists are usually treated kindly, sometimes they are allowed to attend religious rituals. When visiting sacred places, watch your clothes: dress modestly (do not wear short skirts, tops or shorts). Head coverings are required in Sikh temples, women are required to cover their heads and shoulders in mosques, and they are also required to wear long skirts. Traditionally, put some money in the donation box.

Namaste – folded palms in greeting – is a traditional form of Indian greeting, and if you use it, Indians will appreciate it. However, men, especially in cities, will not hesitate to shake your hand if you are a man. A handshake will even be appreciated as a gesture of exceptional friendliness. For most Indian women, free morals in communication between men and women, adopted in the West, are unacceptable, so physical contact with women should be avoided. Do not shake hands with a woman (unless she is the first to extend it) and do not put your hand on her shoulder.

In private houses, tourists are treated as honored guests, and your ignorance of Indian customs will be treated with understanding and condescension. If you want to try eating with your hands, then remember to use the fingers of your right hand only.

Try not to have the soles of your shoes facing anyone, as this may be seen as a sign of disrespect. Do not point with your index finger, use either outstretched hand or chin gestures.

When talking with Indians, try never to shout or lose your temper, otherwise they will not communicate with you.

ECONOMICS

As a country with a democratic political system and a developed administrative structure, with a fairly large skilled workforce and an extensive network of communications, India has made significant progress since independence.

However, in the early 1990s India’s national debt reached $70 billion, and the average annual inflation was 10%, which was due to political instability and in part to the negative consequences of the Gulf War.

According to All City Codes, 70% of the able-bodied population is employed in agriculture, 13% – in industry, 17% – in the service sector. Rural residents make up about 75% of the total population of the country. 12 cities have more than 1 million inhabitants. The largest city of Bombay (12 million inhabitants)

Despite the agrarian basis of the economy, industry has grown significantly in India, and now the country is among the top 15 industrialized countries in the world. The relatively low volume of exports is partly due to high domestic consumption. India has been particularly successful in grain production; once in the country there was a chronic shortage of it, and now it is exported. However, 37% of the population lives below the poverty line.

More than half (64%) of the villages are electrified, the literacy rate of the population has increased: the number of people with seven years of education and above is 52% (64% for men and 39% for women). By comparison, the literacy rate in 1951, shortly after independence, was only 18%.

POLITICAL SYSTEM

India (Republic of India, Indian Union) is a federation consisting of 25 states and 7 union territories. Each state and some union territories have their own legislature and government headed by a chief minister. The head of state is the president. The central (federal) government, headed by the prime minister, is accountable to a bicameral parliament consisting of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The House of the People has 543 directly elected members (530 seats reserved for states, 13 for union territories), plus two appointed members.

The Council of States has 232 members who are indirectly elected; it is renewed every two years and functions in much the same way as the British House of Lords. The president is elected for a term of 5 years by an electoral college composed of members of parliament and members of state legislatures. Since 1992, Shankar Dayal Sharma has been the President of India. Each state has its own legislature, which also performs a number of administrative functions in the areas of health, education and land transportation (with the exception of rail).

Usually elections are held every five years, but in exceptional cases early elections may be called. Since India’s independence in 1947, the country has held a dozen general elections. There are 6 national parties in the republic, 37 state parties, and a total of 301 parties are registered. The most influential national parties are: Bharatiya Janata, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Indian National Congress, Janata Party, Janata Dal.

THE LOCAL TIME

In India, time is five and a half hours ahead of GMT (two and a half hours ahead of Moscow).

India Population and Customs

Georgia Brief History

Georgia Brief History

According to Wedding in Fashion, Georgia is a state of Transcaucasia. The current Georgia roughly corresponds to the regions that the ancients called Colchis and Iberia. The Georgians formed their first nation state at the fall of the Macedonian empire and in the 4th century. their conversion to Christianity began. The social order based on the division into tribes was then replaced in the plain by a feudal regime with a dominant aristocracy and differentiated social classes. The Arab conquest (mid-7th century) left direct power to the local aristocracy and the weakening of the caliphate allowed the gradual formation of a national monarchy, which reached its apogee with King David II (1089-1125) and with Queen Tamara (1184-1213). The Mongol and Timurid invasions produced an era of decline. The rise of Ottoman power and the appearance of the Russian empire to the North led to Georgia since the 16th century. seeking the protection of the tsars and the formal annexation of the country to Russia (1801) allowed for considerable civil and industrial development. Starting in 1917, the revolutionary movement gained an ever stronger position in the country; in 1918-21 a democratic republic led by the Mensheviks was born in Georgia, but a communist uprising then led to the proclamation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia. Georgia entered the USSR in 1922 as part of the Transcaucasian Federation, and then from 1936 as a federated republic. Having become an independent Republic in 1991, Georgia experienced a prolonged phase of internal instability, determined both by political conflicts and by ethnic clashes which re-exploded with violence after the detachment from the USSR. With the collapse of the composite nationalist front that had led the country to independence, the opposition to President Z. Gamsakhurdia escalated into civil war. After the election to head of the country of EA Ševardnadze, the followers of Gamsakhurdia were overwhelmed also thanks to the Russian intervention, made possible by the approach to Moscow promoted by Ševardnadze, which also led to the entry of Georgia into the Community of Independent States (1993). The situation in South Ossetia and Abhazija remained conflicting, supported in their separatist aspirations from Russia and effectively made independent. Mainly Christian, Georgia was also affected by the growing conflict with the autonomous Republic of Adžarija, of Muslim religion. At the end of 1994 the relative improvement of the economic condition favored the re-establishment of central authority and the strengthening of presidential powers, sanctioned by the Constitution approved in 1995. Ševardnadze was elected president of the Republic (1995) and reconfirmed in the presidential elections of 2000, but in 2003 the fraud reported after the legislative elections by the opposition led by M. Saakašvili and the consequent street movements (Revolution of the Roses) forced him to resign; he was succeeded by Saakashvili himself, elected with over 95% of the votes in 2004 and reconfirmed in 2008. The integration program of the new president in the Western bloc and the growing Western influence have aroused the concerns of Russia. Tensions between Tbilisi and Moscow exploded dramatically in the summer of 2008, when the Georgia tried to re-establish its control over South Ossetia, in support of which Russia sent its troops. After the brief conflict, which ended with the mediation of the European Union, Russia formally recognized the independence of Abhazija and South Ossetia, while Georgia left the Commonwealth of Independent States.

The ‘five day war’ for control of South Ossetia

The ‘five day war’ between Georgia and Russia (7-12 August 2008) was provoked by Tbilisi’s attempt to militarily regain control of the breakaway region of South Ossetia. After the 1991-92 conflict, the Ossetian authorities had initiated a process of state and institutional building, culminating in the referendum on independence in November 2006. What made this process possible was above all the political and economic support provided by Moscow, whose peacekeeping troops they had been deployed on the territory in 1992, after the end of hostilities. As in the case of Abkhazia, Russia has granted its citizenship to almost the entire Ossetian population. Compared to the 2008 conflict, the Russian intervention was justified by the need to protect its citizens and troops from Georgian aggression. After five days of conflict, during which Abkhazian forces supported the Russian-Ossetian counterattack, on 12 August the parties signed an agreement for a ceasefire brokered by the European Union. Although the Russian troops withdrew from the occupied Georgian territories, they maintained the positions they had acquired in South Ossetia. After officially recognizing the Republic of Ossetia,Osce, active in the region since 1992.

Since September 2008, a European civilian monitoring mission has been present in Georgia, the European Union Monitoring Mission, with tasks of stabilization, normalization and confidence-building.

A report commissioned by the EU Council and published in September 2009 blamed Georgia for the conflict, while condemning Russia’s “disproportionate” reaction.

Georgia Country Brief History

North Korea: A Baseless Blackmail?

North Korea: A Baseless Blackmail?

North Korea confronts the world with the nuclear threat, boasting the ability to fire missiles at South Korea and Japan. He does not do it because he really wants a war or because he has a substantial political objective, but only to get a few million dollars in aid without losing face: he needs support for his weak economy and wants to open a dialogue with the United States. You might just ask, but evidently internal reasons prevent it. A massive front in Pyongyang is opposed to opening dialogue, which fears some kind of capitulation might appear. For this reason, the request for dialogue is disguised as a blackmail to the United States. These are expected to yield to the ‘power’ of North Korean extortion so that Pyongyang’s leadership can once again prove its strength. However, this is a wrong policy because it is based on premises dating back to the Cold War at a time when the Cold War is over.

According to The Makeup Explorer, North Korea was once strategically important as it had the Soviet Union and China behind it. Now the reality is quite different. China and South Korea, which fought against each other half a century ago to secure control of North Korea, have an excellent relationship and are both interested in a peaceful solution to the North Korean question. The foundation of the Cold War in East Asia, the confrontation between Beijing and Seoul, has ended since the two nations established diplomatic relations and even more so since South Korean President Kim Dae Jung promoted the so-called “détente” policy. Sunshine ‘towards North Korea.

There remains the problem of North Korea as an obligatory passage for commercial traffic by land across the Eurasian continent. With the opening of roads and railways, goods from Japan and Korea would be able to reach Europe more easily and vice versa. But even this seems an outdated question: if the United States was once worried that this land route would allow them to bypass the sea routes they control and that China or Russia, by providing for the safety of internal roads, would have an important map to play against them, after the war in Afghanistan and Iraq the situation has changed, as the United States has established a strong political and military presence in Central Asia. Thus the routes by land and the sea routes are equally under their control and no one has any cards to play in an anti-American function. North Korea’s refusal of any passage through its territory is certainly a nuisance, an economic obstacle for the entire region, but it no longer has a strategic value of global reach.

To sum it up, North Korea cannot trigger a world war, because it has no real allies. It was included in the ‘axis of evil’ by the United States not because of its importance, but above all because it was necessary that not only Muslim countries appear on the list, with the risk of a clash of civilizations. Furthermore, North Korea does not have strategic resources, it does not have an economy to be reckoned with, it does not exert any influence either globally or regionally. In other words, a war in North Korea would cause no global repercussions, no changes in the price of oil or other strategic commodities would ensue; stock exchanges would not be affected. Life would go on roughly the same as always. However, it is true that Pyongyang has missiles and is developing nuclear capabilities, as well as being led by unreliable leadership. In other words, it represents a security threat, especially for Japan, which it could reach with its missiles, also compromising its economy. Added to this is a serious humanitarian issue, consisting of more than 20 million people held hostage, almost like human shields, by an unscrupulous political class. However, this is not a land that anyone wants to conquer or defend, as it did during the war of the early 1950s. On the contrary, it is an uncomfortable place that everyone would like to disappear in one way or another. North Korean leaders should take this into account when making their threats. They no longer have the influence they once did: they have been too greedy and shortsighted. If they had built a railway before the war in Afghanistan and the overland route had supplanted the sea routes, they would have at their disposal a much more powerful tool of pressure than atomic bombs, they would have in their hands an element of equal importance to the Suez Canal to use against Japan., South Korea and China. But they didn’t take the chance, and even now they don’t seem able to grasp the basic logic of the post-Cold War world, where you only have influence if you sit down politely and play the game. If you are out of it you don’t count. If you are part of the global economy you can make your own demands, as your contribution to the world economy affects everyone. But if not, your questions are just a nuisance.

A Baseless Blackmail

Cities in Saudi Arabia

Cities in Saudi Arabia

According to commit4fitness, Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy ruled by the sons and grandsons of the first king, Abdul Aziz. The head of state is the king. Criminal law is based on Sharia. The law prohibits discussion of the existing political system. The consumption of alcohol and drugs is strictly prohibited.

The main population of the country is concentrated in cities. The largest city in the country, the capital of the kingdom, its political, cultural and scientific center is Riyadh. Jeddah is the second largest city in the country, its “economic capital”, the most important port on the Red Sea. Mecca and Medina, being one of the largest cities in the country, are the symbols of Saudi Arabia and the holy cities of Islam. The ports on the Persian Gulf of Dammam, Jubail and Khafji, where the main oil refining capacities are concentrated, also play the most important role in the country’s economy.

RIYADH is one of the most luxurious and modern capitals in the Middle East. The truly colossal revenues received by the country from oil production made the capital rich and pretentious. There are a great many skyscrapers here, new projects are developed and approved every year. But the true decoration and heart of the capital are 2400 mosques. The city sacredly preserves the traditions of the religious life of the homeland of Islam.

JIDDA is the diplomatic capital of Saudi Arabia. It is a large modern city, a seaport, an industrial center. Magnificent buildings of embassies and consulates were built in the seaside part of the city, and a university was opened. Traditional quarters with narrow streets have been preserved in the old part of the city. Jeddah is also famous for its shopping centers that occupy entire blocks. Numerous beaches are open in the city and its environs, and diving on the nearby coral reefs is very popular.

Mecca is the spiritual center and holy city for all Muslims on the planet. It was in Mecca that the founder of Islam, the Prophet Muhammad, was born, it is here that the holy places of the Islamic world are located, it is here that millions of pilgrims from all over the world flock to the Hajj. Mecca is a closed city for representatives of other faiths, but getting here at least once in a lifetime is a sacred duty and duty of every Muslim. Almost all life in the city is connected with serving pilgrims – modern hotels have been built, many of which are located in close proximity to the Haram mosque.

MEDINA is the second holy city of Islam and the first to follow the precepts of the prophet. The center of the city and its main shrine is the huge complex of Masjid al-Nabi (Mosque of the Prophet), built on the site of a similar structure built by Muhammad himself. It is here that the sacred place for every Muslim is located – the grave of the prophet. Like Mecca, only Muslims are allowed to enter the territory of Medina, although the local “haram” (area closed to non-Muslims) is noticeably smaller, which allows everyone to see local shrines, even from afar.

ABHA – due to its unique geographical position, this city is the coolest in the country. Located at an altitude of 2200 meters and surrounded by a chain of mountains, because of this, hot air does not penetrate into the region and it often rains. Thus, the mild climate has made Abha the most important center of tourism in the country. The city has preserved the Shada Palace, built as the residence of King Abdulaziz. 45 km. The picturesque landscapes of Al-Sod begin southeast of the city, and the lands of the Asir National Park stretch to the south.

NAJRAN is one of the most interesting and visited cities in the country. The main attraction is Al-An Palace. It is also worth visiting the Najran Museum with an exhibition of archaeological finds, a fort and a fortress mosque.

FARASAN GROUP OF ISLANDS is a vast archipelago of 84 coral and sandy islands, is one of the natural breeding grounds for seabirds, gazelles, sea turtles, therefore it is almost entirely part of the national park of the same name.

RECREATION: Today, Saudi Arabia is a country with huge tourism potential. The unique nature of the deserts, combined with mountain ranges, the interweaving of ancient traditions and a powerfully developing economy, as well as the presence of numerous religious places of the Islamic world, make this country very attractive for travel. One of the most intensively developing tourist regions of the country is Half Moon Bay, which has the longest sandy beach in the kingdom. The Red Sea is a real paradise for diving enthusiasts. Here is one of the largest coral reef systems in the world. Camel racing, equestrian sports, yachting, etc. are popular among active sports.

ABHA Saudi Arabia

Goa, India

Goa, India

The magnificent state of Goa is located in the south of the magnificent country of India. The coastline stretches for 110 km. Goa is the most famous beach holiday destination in India. This state is quite different from the rest of India. It has its own special culture, and magnificent beaches and many attractions attract thousands of tourists from all over the world.
The entire coastline of Goa is divided into different beaches. The beaches where fun discos are held are Baga and Calangute. The remaining beaches, about six of them, are the most calm, and the beaches called Agonda and Palolem are considered wild.

Day and night, Goa is full of life. There are plenty of restaurants that offer great food, as well as plenty of nightlife options.
The state of Goa has a magnificent nature. What is not here, and beautiful waterfalls, and mangroves, amazing islands and the stunning beauty of the lake.

The cuisine of Goa is different from the cuisine of other parts of India. All over the world, such dishes as hakuti, vindalo, balchao are known, which can only be tasted in Goa.
This extraordinary state is considered the best place for a beach holiday in India.

Goa is one of the most beautiful places in India and one of the world’s best resorts in Asia on the Arabian Sea. This resort, located south of Bombay, is not without reason called the pearl of the Indian coast. The rebellious “children-flowers” – hippies of the 60s have chosen this wonderful place.

Goa can offer tourists more than 100 km of beaches on the Indian Ocean, a developed tourist infrastructure – bars, restaurants, night discos, casinos, diving centers and Ayurvedic spa centers, as well as a wide selection of hotels of various levels. In addition, Goa is the most Europeanized region of India. The former capital of the Eastern Overseas Territories of Portugal has adopted much from European culture, from culinary traditions to carnival processions. The people of Goa preserve colonial traditions in architecture, language and way of life.
The state of Goa is divided into Northern and Southern parts. South Goa is popular among the middle class from Europe, rich Indians also like to relax here, who also prefer a calm and comfortable vacation. The complete opposite is North Goa. Here, in numerous villages, mainly advanced youth from America and Europe settle, thanks to which this place has become famous throughout the world.

A very popular place in North Goa is Mapusa, located half an hour from the coast. On Saturdays and Sundays, markets and fairs are held here, on the days of Catholic holidays there are festivals and carnivals. In Baga there are many restaurants, small hotels, motorcycles for rent, tourist offices offering a huge number of excursions.
Kadolim Beach – Here you can find the most diverse accommodation near the beach, and meet many interesting people living in the ashram of Osho Rajneesh. Chapora is a typical village, there are few tourists, a fish market is arranged on the local pier.

The legendary place of Goa is Anjuna, here on a wasteland in front of the beach on Wednesdays a flea market is held, sometimes there are trance parties, but on ordinary Anjuna days it looks pretty ordinary. The most beautiful time here is sunset. At this time, in Shore Bar, lovers come to meditate at sunset.

The most peaceful place is Arambol beach – endless wild beaches, there are few tourists. The charm of the old streets of Panaji and Margao, small cafes serving delicious fish and seafood dishes, recognized by all gourmets of the world, where you will be offered the famous national drink Fenny according to old Portuguese recipes, made from cashew or coconut and where quiet live music sounds, will not leave you indifferent.
Well, if you are tired of basking on the golden sand or playing in numerous casinos, then you can go on a trip to the natural beauties of Goa – these are wild beaches, islands, beautiful lakes, mountain waterfalls and of course the jungle.

For lovers of sea trips, cruise companies can offer you an amazing yacht trip along the coast of Goa and river cruises through the crocodile jungle and mangroves.
If you choose Goa for your vacation, then this trip will undoubtedly become one of the brightest adventures in your life.

Goa, India

Vietnam Tourist Information

Vietnam Tourist Information

Going on the road, you should have a package with documents in your hands: a voucher, an insurance policy, an air ticket and a passport. It is necessary to arrive at the airport two hours before departure in order to have time to go through customs control.

Vietnam Location. According to thesciencetutor, the official name is the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, a state in Southeast Asia located on the Indochina peninsula. Area of ​​the country: 332 thousand square meters Most of the territory is occupied by mountains, up to 3143 m high. In the west it borders with Laos and Cambodia, in the north with China, from the east and south it is washed by the South China Sea.

Vietnam Capital. Hanoi.

Vietnam Language. Vietnamese language.

Vietnam Visa. For citizens of Ukraine it is necessary to issue an entry visa. A visa to Vietnam is issued directly at the border on the basis of a pre-arranged invitation.

Required documents: a photograph, a completed application form, a foreign passport, the validity of which expires no earlier than three months on the day the trip ends;

Vietnam Features of customs control.The import of foreign convertible currency is not limited, but amounts over 3000 USD must be declared, because. the export of currency from the country is allowed only within the amount declared upon entry. The export of the national currency is prohibited. You can import duty-free 400 cigarettes, 100 cigars or 500 g of tobacco, 1.5 liters of strong alcoholic beverages or 2 liters of alcoholic beverages with a strength of up to 22 °, two 100-gram cans of black or red caviar, 5 kg of tea, 3 kg of coffee, as well as other goods with a total value not exceeding VND 5,000,000. The import of household and computer equipment is subject to mandatory declaration: all undeclared equipment will be allowed to be exported only if customs duties are paid or there is a receipt for its purchase in the country. It is strictly forbidden to import drugs and narcotic medicines without a medical prescription for their use (punishment – up to the death penalty), explosives, firearms, materials that offend local culture (printed materials, CDs, audio and video recordings), as well as pornography. It is forbidden to export art and antiques, jewelry and handicrafts without proper documentation.

Vietnam Time. Difference with Kiev time: +5.

Vietnam climate. Tropical, hot and humid. The average January temperature in the north of the country is 23 ° C, in the south 35 ° C. Vietnam is located in the region of the subequatorial monsoon climate, but due to the large length of the country from north to south, the climatic conditions on its territory are somewhat different.

North of Vietnam: winter lasts from November to April, the average temperature is + 12… + 20C. In February and March, there is sometimes fog and drizzling rain. Summer starts in April and lasts until October. In summer, the temperature rises to + 30C, sometimes it rains in the evening or at night.
Center: transitional climate with long rains in November and December and dry and hot summer months.
South: the temperature during the year practically does not change and stays within + 25… + 30C. The season depends on the rains: the dry season lasts from November to May, the rainy season – from late May to October. Between July and November, typhoons are likely on the coast.
Mountainous areas: in the resorts of Dalat (1500 m), Buon MA, Phuot and Sapa, it is quite cool at night throughout the year, and in winter from October to March, the temperature drops to + 4C. Even in the hottest months of March and April, the temperature rarely exceeds +26C.

Vietnam Main resorts. The main resorts of Vietnam are located on the East coast and stretch from north to south, washed by the South China Sea. The most visited resorts:
Nha Trang (Nha Trang) – Located 450 km. from Saigon. Coconut palms provide protection from the sun, both for bathers and strollers along the almost 6 km of Nha Trang beach. The clear turquoise water offers many diving opportunities. In addition to the city beach, there are many secluded places on the islands of Nyachang Bay. After exciting excursions and boat trips, you can take healing baths from natural mud and water sources, feel the incredible smell of the eucalyptus grove. The rainy season is in October and November. Visiting time is all year round.

Phan Thiet – 200 km. from Ho Chi Minh. Phan Thiet has all the conditions for a relaxing family holiday and holidays with children – comfortable hotels, convenient beaches and shops selling original handicrafts. Phan Thiet is known for its huge sand dunes (shimmering gold in the light of the setting sun), pristine beaches, and beautiful scenery. Visiting time is all year round.

Danang is located 1010 km from Saigon (70 minutes by plane). One of the most popular seaside resorts in Vietnam. This is the fourth largest city in Vietnam, attracting tourists with clean beaches and luxurious hotels. Rainy season in November and December.

Da Lat – healing mountain air (the city is located at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level) and the absence of the exhausting heat of the valley immediately made this city a favorite vacation spot for tourists from different countries. Dalat has many natural and artificially created lakes separated by rows of coniferous trees, which are the main feature of this area.

o.Phu Quoc (Phu Quoс) – is located 65 km. off the Southwest coast of Vietnam and is the largest among its islands. The area is equal to Singapore – about 600 sq. km. The fabulous nature of Phu Quoc is striking in its splendor – the island has 99 mountains and hills covered with relict forests with lush vegetation, as well as many charming waterfalls and raging rivers, and, of course, amazing sandy beaches with crystal clear sea water.

Vietnam main religion. The main religion in Vietnam is Buddhism, other religions are not prohibited.

Vietnam Cuisine. Vietnamese cuisine is famous for its unusual and refined taste. It doesn’t look like Chinese or Korean or Japanese. Traditional favorites of Vietnamese cuisine among the locals are fish, chicken and pork dishes along with cooked vegetables and rice or noodles. The national cuisine is quite different in different regions of Vietnam: in the North, Central and South. Each of them has its own unique Vietnamese cuisine recipes and cooking traditions. In Vietnam, tourists can enjoy national cuisine both in gourmet restaurants and in democratic street cafes – food everywhere is quite cheap and of high quality.

Vietnam Souvenirs. From Vietnam, masks and water dolls are usually brought as souvenirs; it is best to buy them in Hanoi. Hoi An is famous for silk fabrics and silk products. And don’t forget: you have to bargain everywhere!

Vietnam Transport.Vietnam has a developed land transport system. The transport network of national and regional roads is just as good as the local roads connecting provinces, metropolitan areas and cities in the country. Foreigners are advised to rent cars with a local driver. Every province has bus stations with good service. Large cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh have daily bus services on main lines. In many big cities and provinces you can use taxi services. In a taxi, in most cases, you should agree on the price of the trip in advance, before getting into the car. The basis of public transport is made up of taxis and a variety of motorcycle and cycle rickshaws (“cyclo” or “cyclo”). The fare in them should be agreed in advance and bargaining in this case is simply necessary. Air transport in the country is developing quite intensively. 19 airports of the country and all external lines are served by Vietnam Airlines. Due to the small size of the country, flights in all directions are short, the level of service is quite high.

Vietnam currency.The monetary unit officially used in Vietnam is the dong (d or VND). This currency can neither be brought into the country nor taken out of the country. New dong (VND or D), nominally equal to 10 hao and 100 sous. In circulation there are banknotes in denominations of 500,000, 100,000, 50,000, 20,000, 10,000, 5,000, 1,000, 500, 200 and 100 dong, as well as coins in 5,000, 2,000, 1,000, 500 and 200 dong (coins are gradually withdrawn from circulation). All banknotes are issued in several versions, only banknotes issued after 2003 have a high degree of protection against counterfeiting. Banks are open from 07:30-08:00 to 15:30-16:30. Day off – Saturday and Sunday. Currency can be exchanged at large banks and specialized exchange offices (1 US dollar = 18,000 dong), as well as in the market, where the exchange rate is usually somewhat more profitable, but the risk of encountering scammers is higher. The US dollar has almost universal circulation, but only new banknotes are usually accepted for payment – it is almost impossible to pay with old banknotes. In the capital and other major cities, you can pay in euros, yen, yuan or baht. Traveler’s checks in US dollars or euros can be cashed at any major bank. Credit cards are becoming more common – they are accepted in large shops, hotels and restaurants in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi (the most widely used are “Master Card” and “Visa”, the commission is usually about 3%). ATMs (located in the buildings of banks, large shops and hotels) issue only dongs. In the capital and other major cities, you can pay in euros, yen, yuan or baht. Traveler’s checks in US dollars or euros can be cashed at any major bank. Credit cards are becoming more common – they are accepted in large shops, hotels and restaurants in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi (the most widely used are “Master Card” and “Visa”, the commission is usually about 3%). ATMs (located in the buildings of banks, large shops and hotels) issue only dongs. In the capital and other major cities, you can pay in euros, yen, yuan or baht. Traveler’s checks in US dollars or euros can be cashed at any major bank. Credit cards are becoming more common – they are accepted in large shops, hotels and restaurants in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi (the most widely used are “Master Card” and “Visa”, the commission is usually about 3%). ATMs (located in the buildings of banks, large shops and hotels) issue only dongs. The commission is usually around 3%. ATMs (located in the buildings of banks, large shops and hotels) issue only dongs. The commission is usually around 3%. ATMs (located in the buildings of banks, large shops and hotels) issue only dongs.

Vietnam Tipping. Tipping is optional, but it is recommended to tip tour guides, drivers at the end of the tour, in hotels in Vietnam and at train stations.

Vietnam Public holidays and non-working days. Banks and institutions are closed throughout the country on the dates below, but most shops remain open. The exception is the tet holiday, when even private restaurants are closed.
January 1 (New Year);
February 3 (Communist Party Establishment Day 1930);
Tet (Vietnamese Lunar New Year, celebrated for four days between mid-January and mid-February, there are no exact dates, as the dates shift every year);
April 30 (unification day);
May 1 (International Workers’ Day);
May 19 (Ho Chi Minh’s birthday, 1890);
September 2 (Independence Day, 1945);
September 3 (Ho Chi Minh Death Day).

Vietnam Shops, markets.Vietnam has an incredibly rich and varied selection of shopping and the lowest prices. The opportunity to spend money here is endless. In the local souvenir markets and bazaars, you will find handicrafts made of silk and wool, clothing, cosmetics, medicinal herbs and traditional oriental spices, gold and silver jewelry, wicker furniture and much, much more. In Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, there are many modern shopping centers with European goods. In private shops and shops you can buy good products made of natural silk and rare wood, mother-of-pearl and silver, stone, bone and metal. There are specialized boutiques with goods made from natural silk, art galleries, souvenir and gold shops. Shops are open almost every day, seven days a week from 7:30 to 17:30 – officially, and unofficially – until late in the evening.

Vietnam Recommendations. According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, mandatory vaccinations for a trip to Vietnam are not required. But it is recommended to follow a number of important rules:
1. Never drink raw water. Always buy water in plastic bottles – it is sold almost everywhere. Before buying, carefully inspect the bottle – check the safety of the plastic cork and the protective shell around it.
2. Do not eat unwashed vegetables and fruits. Wash them with boiled or disinfected water.
3. Do not drink drinks and freshly squeezed fruit juices with ice – ice can contain disease-causing bacteria.
4. Don’t buy food from street stalls, try to dine at restaurants and cafes that are obviously popular with locals and other tourists.
5. Avoid excessive sun exposure, bring sunscreen and UV-absorbing glasses.
6. If you are going to travel through the jungle in the Mekong Delta, then you should take prophylactic against malaria. Lariam is considered the safest remedy. Reception should be started one week before the trip, during the trip and within four weeks after returning, one tablet per week.

Vietnam Emergency phones. Police 113, Traffic police 114, Ambulance 115.
Embassy of Ukraine in Hanoi: Address: 25-D-25-E Lang Ha St., Hanoi, Viet Nam
Tel.: +10-84 (4) 943-27-64 Fax: +10-84 (4) 943-27-66 E-mail: [email protected] City
codes: 8 – dial tone – 10 – 84 – <city code> – <called subscriber number>

Vietnam Electrical network: In cities – 220 V. But in some regions – 110 V. It makes sense to take a universal adapter with you. Because sockets come in different shapes. There are almost no power outages.

How to call Kyiv from Vietnam. Dial country code, area code, and subscriber number: 0038+044+….

Vietnam Tourist Information

Visit Worth Seeing Cities in Philippines

Visit Worth Seeing Cities in Philippines

Here you will find study trips and round trips through the metropolises of the country Philippines

Manila

Discover Manila, the capital of the Philippines and the cultural, political and economic center of the country as part of a round trip. The city is home to numerous museums, theaters, buildings, parks, universities such as the National Museum of the Philippines, the Metropolitan Museum of Manila, the “Casa Manila”, the Coconut Palace, Intramuros with the Governor’s Palace and the Cathedral of Manila, the San- Agustín Church, the golden mosque – Masjid Al-Dahab, the Malacañang Palace, the Rizal Monument in Rizal Park and much more. You will definitely remember a Manila city trip for a long time!

Palawan

Palawan is a province of the Philippines. The capital is the city of Puerto Princesa, which is governed as a highly urbanized city independently of the province.
The islands of Palawan stretch between Mindoro in the northeast and Borneo in the southwest. The province of Palawan is named after its largest island, Palawan Island, which is 450 kilometers long and 50 kilometers wide. The most important destinations of the islands are the capital Puerto Princesa, El Nido in the north and Coron Island, where travelers can relax on the beach and enjoy the best opportunities for snorkeling and diving.

History

The early history of Palawan was made by a research team led by Dr. Robert B. Fox definitely. They found evidence in the Tabon Caves that people have lived in Palawan for more than 50,000 years. The researchers discovered human bone fragments, as well as tools and other artifacts. Although the origin of the cave dwellers is not yet clear, anthropologists believe that they came from Borneo. The Tabon Caves are known today as the cradle of Filipino civilization.

Experience natural wonders

Vacationers can enjoy the jungles, mountains, and white beaches of Palawan Island. The northern part of the island is characterized by incredibly clear water, clean beaches and an amazing biodiversity. Here are the most visited places like El Nido and Taytay, characterized by limestone cliffs and underwater adventures with many species of tropical fish and corals. Five species of endangered sea turtles and around 100 different species of birds also live around and on the island! So it is a truly amazing tropical destination to relax and enjoy the vacation days.

An underground river

Palawan’s underground river has been named a UNESCO World Heritage Site and also a “New 7 Wonders Nature”. It is one of the longest underground rivers in the world, running through underground caves for more than 8 km. A guided boat tour of the subterranean river Puerto Princesa is sure to take vacationers breath away.

Cebu Island

Cebu is a Philippine province in the Central Visayas region and consists of a main island and 167 surrounding islands and islets. The capital is Cebu City, the oldest city and first capital of the Philippines, which is politically independent from the provincial government. Cebu is one of the most developed provinces in the Philippines, with Cebu City as the main center for trade, education and industry. Over the past decade, it has grown into a global hub for shipping, furniture manufacturing, heavy industry, and tourism. Cebu is one of the wealthiest regions in the country. Tourism is booming and Cebu attracts nearly two million foreign travelers a year. The main attractions of the island are the white sandy beaches, especially on the northern tip of Cebu near Malapascua and on the southwest coast near Moalboal.

Picture book beaches

With its sugar-white beaches, azure blue water and pristine coral gardens, the island of Cebu in the Philippines is the perfect vacation spot. The island is long and narrow, stretching 196 kilometers from north to south and only 32 kilometers across its widest point. There are countless bays and beaches, but it is the small islands off the coast that will capture the hearts of tourists. With white beaches, clear azure blue water and amazing coral reefs right off the coast, they are a perfect vacation dream, but without the annoying mass tourism. The area is also perfect for divers, surrounded by a protected marine garden with colorful fish and neon corals. Vacationers can also enjoy the fresh seafood directly in the island’s many beach restaurants.

Exceptional diving experiences

For a truly extraordinary diving experience, however, visitors from Cebu should head to Oslob on the southern tip of Cebu. Whale sharks gather here in large numbers and swim through the remarkably clear waters near the coast. With mountains and abundant rainforest, Cebu is also home to an incredible number of spectacular waterfalls. Kawasan Falls is arguably the most significant, with a beautiful backdrop and a pool of water that is an extraordinary shade of blue. It’s also great for the adventurous: the area is a popular spot for waterfall jumping, rock climbing, and canyoning.

Visit Worth Seeing Cities in Philippines

Syria Politics, Economy, and Society

Syria Politics, Economy, and Society

Government and politics

Syria has been a republic since 1963. In 1971, President Hafiz Al-Assada decreed a provisional Constitution, then in 1973 the current Constitution that defines Syria as a Democratic, People’s and Socialist Republic was approved in a referendum, based, among others, on the principles of equality before the law, freedom religious and private property. Every seven years a president is elected, who must be Muslim. And every four, a People’s Assembly and a Council of Ministers. Under the Constitution, the president has powers to appoint and remove vice presidents, the prime minister, and ministers. He is also commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, general secretary of the Baath Arab Socialist Party, and president of the National Progressive Front.

The legislative bodies are the People’s Assembly and the Local Administration Councils. The three powers of the Syrian state are controlled by the Baath, which is assured of decisive participation in the powers of the state thanks to the country’s Constitution. It is allowed the participation of six other minor political parties that together with the majority Baath make up the so-called National Progressive Front (FNP), these parties are the only ones authorized to express the political ideas of Syrian citizens.

Likewise, it is the Baath Party that dominates the aforementioned Front, these parties make up the Parliament that is controlled directly by the President of the Republic, since the Executive power reserves most of the legislative powers and of review of the activities of the Legislative.

The Syrian Constitution invests the Baath Party with the leadership functions of the state government and the life of Syrian society. The President, who has great powers to run the government, is elected for 7 years to fulfill his functions, in addition to this he is also the Chairman of the Baath Party and the leader of the National Progressive Front.

The president of Syria also has the powers to appoint ministers, declare war, propose laws to the Legislative branch, and direct the armed forces. In the referendum for the election of the President in 2007, Bashar al-Assad was reelected with 97% of the votes. Syrians ratify Bashar Al Assad as president by 97%], Terra Actualidad, May 29, 2007.

Economic development

Syria’s economy is based on oil extraction, therefore, it is subject to fluctuations in the international price of oil ; in addition, it tends to turn to Iran as a supplier, due to the fact that domestic production is in deficit. The main refineries are in Homsand Baniyas. It also has reserves of natural gas, rock salt and phosphates. The agriculture (wheat and cotton) generates 27% of GDP and livestock, mainly goat and sheep is aimed at the export of wool. The textile, food, metallurgical and cement industries account for 22% of GDP. The rights to pass foreign oil through its pipelines generate large revenues.

In May of 2009 it is reported in the area of services that commercial real estate prices are on the rise in Damascus and infrastructure reports that Syria Islamic Bank lends € 100M to expand the Deir Ali power plant.

Transport

Syria has several international airports, among which those in Damascus, Aleppo and Latakia stand out. It also has an extensive bus network that connects the entire country, both towns and cities. Moreover, the main cities are connected by the railway network.

Social development

Religion

According to andyeducation, the Islamic religion is predominant: Muslims mainly obey Sunni orthodoxy (74%), although there are also Druze, Alawites, Shiites and Ismailis. Christianity (10%) in its different confessions (Orthodox, Maronites, Catholics of the Armenian rite, Syriacs, etc.) is confined to the peripheral provinces and some urban neighborhoods.

Culture

The artistic and cultural achievements of ancient Syria are numerous. Archaeologists have found that Syrian culture rivaled that of Mesopotamia and Egypt, especially around Ebla. Additionally, many Syrian artists have contributed to Roman Hellenistic thought and culture. Cicero was a student of Antiochus of Ashkelon in Athens. Also the books of Posidonius greatly influenced Livy and Plutarch.

Syrians have also contributed to Arabic literature and music and have a great tradition of oral and written poetry. Syrian intellectuals emigrated to Egypt played a fundamental role in the Al-Nahda, or cultural and literary renaissance of the Arabs in the 14th century. The most famous Syrian authors are Adonis, Haidar Haidar, Ghada al-Samman, Nizar Kabbani, Zakariyya Tamer and Saadallah Wannous.

Art

Given the influence of the different peoples established in Syrian territory more or less with a certain stability, the art in this nation presents different currents, sometimes opposing, which give it great originality. Two trends appear since the Neolithic, the first of an autochthonous character with wood sculpture and high relief. The second is more associated with neighboring civilizations, such as hieratic zoomorphic sculpture.

They are World Heritage of Unesco:

  • 1979 – Old City of Damascus
  • 1980 – Siege of Palmyra
  • 1980- Old town of Bosra
  • 1986 – Old City of Aleppo

One of the most important writers and playwrights in Syria is Saadallah Wannous (1941 – 1997), who was born in a town near Lbahr Hsain in Tartous. He was educated in the Latakia schools. He studied journalism in Cairo (Egypt) and served as editor of the cultural pages of the newspapers Alsafir in Lebanon and Althawra in Syria. He also worked as director of the public authority for theater and music in Syria. In the sixties he traveled to Paris to study art of the theater. He died Of maypole 15 of 1997 after a long battle with cancer that lasted five years.

Syria Politics, Economy, and Society

Afghanistan Recent History

Afghanistan Recent History

According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER, is a state of Southwest Asia (652,864 km²). Capital: Kābul. Administrative division: provinces (34). Population: 31,575,018 (2018 estimate). Language: Dari and Pashto (official), Uzbek. Religion: Muslims (Sunni 85%, Shia 14%), others 1%. Monetary unit: new afghani (100 puls). Borders: Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (N), China (NE), Pakistan (E and S), Iran (W). Member of: OCI, UN, OCS observer, SAARC, WTO.

The presence of foreign troops soon increased the opposition to the regime, resulting in guerrilla activities led by Islamic groups inspired by the experience of the Iranian revolution: exploiting the knowledge of the inaccessible mountain territories, the mujaideen constantly kept the Red Army and Afghan regular army perched in urban lowland centers. Only after the resignation of Karmal, replaced in September 1987 by General Najibullah, the process of national pacification seemed to be starting, favored by the new course of Soviet foreign policy: between 1986 and 1987, at the same time as hints of disengagement from the USSR, the government proposed initiatives for dialogue, culminating in the following year in negotiations and agreements between the parties, signed at international level. At the beginning of 1989 the withdrawal of the Red Army was completed, but the Soviet disengagement was not accompanied by credible international initiatives capable of favoring a political solution to the conflict. To worsen the picture was added the peculiarity of a strongly divided armed resistance in which at least fifteen groups were operating, divided among themselves also on the religious level (eight factions referred to the Shiite Muslim rite and seven to the Sunni one) and in which they were a moderate soul and a fundamentalist coexist: the first was expressed in the figure of Sibghatullah Mjaddidi, leader of the moderates, while the second was represented by Rasul Sayaf. On April 15, 1992, Najibullah was forced to resign and after a failed attempt to expatriate he had to take refuge in a UN office; the mujaideen thus created, in the same year, a transitional government that had to face internal struggles and problems connected with the return of over five million refugees. Hezb i Islami led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. In Kābul, however, power was assumed by a Supreme Council of 10 members which elected a provisional head of state in the person of the moderate Burhannudin Rabbani, and a prime minister in that of Abdul Sabul Fareed of the fundamentalist party Hezb i Islami..

But the head of this faction, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, was the most intolerant of such a solution and Kābul again became a theater of war between factions. In this complex situation, the Taliban appeared on the national political scene (1994), a new movement of Pashto ethnicity and radical Islamic inspiration, born in the Koranic schools on the border with Pakistan. Students of Koranic theology, the Taliban, probably influenced by Pakistan, took to the field waving the flag of the Koranic law (shari’ah) as an instrument of pacification, but in fact they became a third pole of the civil war capable of putting the other warring factions in serious difficulty. Initially training of student-guerrillas with a strong fundamentalist character, later, under the guidance of Moḥammad Omar, a former mujaideen disappointed by the factional struggles at the top of the country, in addition to students, the movement began to enlist former soldiers of the Afghan army and mujaideen who had deserted after the victory over Moscow. Thanks to a series of military successes, which forced Hekmatyar himself to make a new agreement with Rabbani, the Taliban managed to conquer the capital Kābul immediately condemning the former president Najibullah and some collaborators to death, imposing a strict application of the Koranic law. in particular towards women. The new provisional council, which was made up of six mullāhs, was immediately recognized by the government of Pakistan, while the deposed president Rabbani, together with the army commander and the prime minister Hekmatyar, after leaving Kābul, fled towards the north of the country. However, this did not put an end to the Afghan civil war, fueled not only by religious divisions, but above all by the opposition of the non-Pashto ethnic groups, majority in the north of the country: Uzbeks, Azeris and Tajiks. In May 1997, the Taliban launched a wide offensive on several fronts and entered victoriously in Mazār-e Sharīf (the capital in the north of the country) from where they were then driven back by the pro-Iranian Shiites of the Hezb the Wahat and the Uzbek militias. This defeat, the hardest in three years of inexorable advance, could not stop the march of the Taliban who, after having proclaimed the Islamic Emirate in 1997, again conquered the main stronghold of the opposition, Mazār-e Sharīf (1998).

Afghanistan Recent History

Lorentz National Park (World Heritage)

Lorentz National Park (World Heritage)

The Lorentz National Park on the island of New Guinea is the largest nature reserve in Southeast Asia with an area of ​​25,000 km². Its landscape is enormous: it ranges from around 5000 m high, snow-capped peaks to tropical coastal land. The national park is the habitat of an extremely rich, partly still unexplored fauna and flora.

Lorentz National Park: Facts

Official title: Lorentz National Park
Natural monument: named after the Dutch researcher Dr. HA Lorentz, who led an expedition to Mount Trikora in 1909; Total area of ​​the world heritage site 23,500 km², the largest protected area in Southeast Asia, national park since 1997, which also includes the areas around Mount Trikora and Mount Rumphius, heights up to 4884 m (Puncak Jaya), habitat of 8 indigenous peoples, including the Dani and Komoro
Continent: Asia
Country: Indonesia, Irian Jaya
Location: Southwest of Irian Jaya, east of Amamapara
Appointment: 1999
Meaning: a high degree of biodiversity at the intersection of two continental plates
Flora and fauna: swampy lowlands and high mountains with 69 km² of glacier areas such as on the Puncak Jaya and Idenburg as well as Meren and Ngga Pulu; Vegetation zones from the tide-dependent mangrove swamp to lowlands with plant families such as Leguminoseae and Myrtaceae and mountain forests with populations of beech and conifers to the alpine highlands with grasses such as Agrostis reinwardtii; 164 species of mammals such as short- and long-billed hedgehogs, same-color kusus, striped pouches, Doria tree kangaroo, silk broad-footed pouch mouse; among the 650 bird species spectacle and lobed bird of paradise and bristle head; 324 species of reptiles

Glacier hoods over the tropical belt

Located in the western half of New Guinea annexed by Indonesia, according to computergees, this protected area covers an area of ​​more than two million hectares. The first European to report on the snow-covered heights near the equator in 1623 was Jan Cartenz. This Dutch merchant had just sailed around the southwest coast of New Guinea on his way to Australia and was impressed by the snow-capped mountains that he spotted further inland. But it was a few centuries before a white man’s foot first stepped on the tropical forest floor in this part of what is now Irian Jaya. It was a compatriot von Cartenz, the explorer Dr. HA Lorentz, who at the beginning of the 20th century was preparing to climb the summit of Mount Mandala (Wilhelmina).

What makes the national park an ecological jewel today is the sheer extent of the protected tropical rainforest. In this part of the world, the largest area of ​​such a rainforest in Southeast Asia and the Pacific is preserved as a piece of untouched nature for posterity, which is now rather a rarity, since the greed for noble woods and the need for arable land mostly to cut down primary forest stands and unchecked slash and burn. Not only the landscape profile with an eye-catching, towering mountain range, but also the different habitats – glacier-covered heights of the Cartenz and Puncak Jaya, the highest peaks in Southeast Asia, alpine meadows, mountain forests, moist lowland rainforest, Fresh water swamps and mangrove fringes on the coast – make up this national park. In addition, extensive tidal flats and seagrass meadows were included in the national park, which are important food sources for green turtles and hawksbill turtles.

There are 34 types of vegetation in the national park, which represent almost all of the essential habitats in Irian Jaya. Among experts who deal with mammals, this national park is considered to be particularly important in terms of the biodiversity of the mammals in Melanesia. And it’s only been two years since Tim Flannery discovered a new species of tree kangaroo within the boundaries of the sanctuary.

The national park is also of particular importance for the preservation of bird species that only occur there, such as the Lapp paradise bird. Despite all concern for the preservation of nature, it is important to point out that nine different ethnic groups live in this nature reserve, who also have the right to the protection of their cultures. Among them are the Asmat, known worldwide for their masterly carving skills and two groups of whom – Emari Ducur and Unir Siran – have their home within the park boundaries. In particular, their partially nomadic way of life has so far contributed to the fact that excessive use of the natural environment has not materialized.

As the national park represents an excellent mixture of the geology, topography and the main habitats of this part of Irian Jaya, it offers a good basis for the study of an almost untouched ecosystem of New Guinea in the future. This includes the properties of surface and subterranean waters to be examined, aspects of the food chain, the influence of fire on nature, but also the migration and habitat of individual animal species. Such an exploration of the national park should certainly contribute to a better understanding of the ecology of the region and ultimately also be of particular importance for the development of a comprehensive management plan for the environment to be preserved inside and outside of the previous protected areas in Irian Jaya.

Lorentz National Park (World Heritage)

India Money and Culture

India Money and Culture

MONEY

Currency

1 Indian rupee = 100 paises. Currency abbreviation: Rs, INR (ISO code). Banknotes are available in denominations of 2000, 500, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5 rupees; Coins in denominations of 10, 5, 2 and 1 Rs as well as 50, 25, 20, 10 and 5 Paise.
Note: 1 and 2 rupee notes and 5 paises coins are no longer produced, but many of them are still in circulation.

Attention: The old 500 and 1000 rupee bills were declared invalid in November 2016. New 500 rupee notes and 2000 rupee notes have now been issued. New 1000, 100 and 50 rupee notes are slated to be put into circulation in the near future.

Credit cards

American Express, Diners Club, MasterCard and Visa are accepted. Details from the issuer of the credit card in question.
ATMs

ec / Maestro card / Sparcard
cards with the Cirrus or Maestro symbol are accepted throughout Europe and worldwide. ATMs are easy to find in large cities and tourist areas, and withdrawals with an EC card can result in high fees. Further information from banks and credit institutes.

Attention: Travelers who pay with their bank card abroad and want to withdraw money should find out about the possibilities of using their card from their bank before starting their journey.

Note: At the moment, only a small amount of cash can be withdrawn from ATMs (mostly only up to 2500 rupees, occasionally up to 10,000 rupees).

Bank opening times

  • General Mon-Fri 10 a.m.-2 p.m. / 3 p.m., Sat 10 a.m.-12 p.m. (deviations are possible).

Foreign exchange regulations

For the import of the national currency from a value of 25,000 Rs a declaration is required. The export of the local currency is allowed up to Rs 25,000.

For the import of foreign currencies with a value of more than US $ 5,000 in cash and / or US $ 10,000 in travelers’ checks, a declaration is required (declaration is also recommended for lower amounts). Export up to the declared amount, minus the exchange amounts. When exchanging money, a receipt must be countersigned or a corresponding certificate issued. These documents must be presented upon departure in order to enable the exchange.

Currency Exchange

The exchange may only be made at banks or official exchange offices. When exchanging money, you should be careful not to get damaged banknotes, as u. U. the acceptance is refused. Cash in US dollars, euros or British pounds sterling is the easiest to change. In all major cities and international airports there are exchange offices and / or machines where money can be changed around the clock. Exchange receipts are to be kept.

India Money

CULTURE

Religion

80.5% Hindus, 13.4% Muslims (8% Sunnis, 3% Shiites), 2.3% Christians, 1.9% Sikh, 0.9% Buddhists and other beliefs.

Social rules of conduct

Etiquette: According to commit4fitness, in India, on formal occasions, people greet each other with clasped hands and the head bent over and say Namaste. It is improper for Indian women to shake hands in greeting. As a sign of respect, you touch the feet of older people in greeting. When entering holy places one is asked to take off one’s shoes. Most Indians also take off their shoes before entering their homes. In most areas, eating is done by hand, using only the right hand. Strict behavior that has been in effect for a long time still regulates religious and social events in many places. Many Hindus are vegetarians and many, especially women, do not drink alcohol. Sikhs and Parsis do not smoke. It is important to observe these customs. Small gifts in recognition of hospitality are appropriate. Women should dress discreetly, short or very tight dresses should be avoided, they only arouse unwelcome attention. There are trained English-speaking tour guides in all tourist areas, some also speak German, French, Italian, Spanish, Russian or Japanese. The fees are fixed, the regional tourist office will be happy to provide information. Official guides have a Ministry of Tourism ID. Unofficial tourist guides are not allowed to enter certain protected sights.

Photography: There are restrictions to protect some landmarks and national parks. The Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi, issues permits for the use of flash and tripod in certain buildings. A fee is charged in nature reserves. Bridges and military facilities are usually not allowed to be photographed, and cameras are officially not welcome at train stations either. Photography in tribal areas is not permitted. More information from the tourist offices.

Smoking: In India, smoking is prohibited in public such as on public transport, in hospitals, in cinemas, restaurants, bars, hotels, in parks, shopping centers, etc.

Tipping: It is customary to tip porters, waiters, housekeeping staff, and tour guides. In hotels and better restaurants, tips are usually included in the bill. A small, additional tip is still expected there. In restaurants where the tip is not already included in the bill, 5-10% is common. It is not customary to tip taxi drivers.

World Bank Business

World Bank Business

The business

The main purpose of the World Bank is to promote sustainable economic growth in order to reduce poverty in the recipient countries. This is done by offering loans and guarantees, as well as providing support in the form of analysis and advice. The bank is the world’s largest financier of development aid.

Projects supported by the World Bank can focus on, for example, education, health care, road construction, environmental protection or reforms of the financial sector and public administration.

The Bank works closely with the governments of the recipient countries, but also with non-governmental organizations and with other international bodies such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the various UN specialized agencies and regional development banks.

The World Bank’s support for a country is based on an analysis of the causes of poverty in a recipient country. Based on the analysis, the World Bank then, in dialogue with the country’s government, develops a tailor-made assistance program that is described in so-called Country Assistance Strategies (CAS). The help can consist of financial support, advice or technical assistance.

Investments are made on the basis of achieving growth by building competence among representatives of the state and government, creating a functioning rule of law, developing stable financial systems and fighting corruption.

According to six strategic goals developed by Robert Zoellick, World Bank Governor 2007-2012, the work will focus on helping the poorest countries (mainly in Africa), preventing conflicts and supporting reconstruction in failing states, supporting middle-income countries as a majority of the world’s poor live there., safeguard public and public goods (not least the environment), expand cooperation with the Arab world, which is found to be poorly integrated into the world economy, and provide expertise and expertise.

Lending

The World Bank lends money to long-term development projects aimed at fighting poverty and creating growth. The bank is involved in approximately 1,700 projects in developing countries.

Middle-income countries can apply for loans from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which is part of the World Bank. Middle-income countries include countries with a national income per capita between about $ 1,000 and $ 12,000 a year. The recipient country pays interest on the loan, which is repaid within 15 years. The first five years are usually free of charge. Projects must have a good chance of becoming profitable.

The International Development Fund (IDA), which is also part of the World Bank, provides long-term loans to the poorest countries. The loans are given on very favorable terms, which means that they are virtually exempt from interest and have a long repayment period, between 20 and 40 years, of which the first 10 years are amortization-free. However, the projects financed by IDA must also be considered commercially profitable. Thus, IDA’s lending deviates from pure development assistance activities.

Some countries, especially small island states, which have higher incomes may also borrow from IDA as their credit rating is too low for IBRD loans. Other countries have such a low income that they qualify for IDA loans, but still a high enough credit rating to be able to borrow from the IBRD as well. The latter include India, Pakistan and Indonesia. A total of 78 countries qualified for IDA credits in 2009.

To obtain a loan through IDA, a country must develop a credible strategy for combating poverty, a so-called PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper; see also IMF: Progress). At the same time, IDA offers a special loan credit PRSC (Poverty Reduction Support Credit) which is given in parallel with the IMF’s so-called PRGF loan (see IMF: Progress) and which, like the latter, will support various structural and social reforms.

In 2008, the World Bank lent a total of $ 24.7 billion to 298 projects. The IBRD accounted for 13.5 billion, of which a third went to Latin America and the Caribbean and almost as much to countries in Europe and Central Asia. Of the $ 11.2 billion that IDA portioned out, just under a third was grants and the rest loans. Half of IDA’s money went to sub-Saharan Africa and a quarter to southern Asia.

External cooperation

According to commit4fitness, the World Bank works closely with the IMF, not least with regard to the HIPC initiative (see Progress). A 2007 report stated that there is room to strengthen cooperation, not least to better manage crisis situations, coordinate technical assistance and clarify the roles of the two institutions in the work of developing financial sectors. The Bank also works closely with a number of other UN agencies that also work to combat poverty in the world.

In addition to lending from the IBRD and IDA budgets, the World Bank also manages trust funds for assistance to particularly high-priority development needs. These funds are financed outside the World Bank’s own resources, mostly through contributions from about ten countries. The funds include multi-billion initiatives such as HIPC and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFTAM), as well as a wide range of smaller and more specialized projects.

The World Bank contributes to about 170 regional and global partnerships, often with similar purposes. In 2000, the Bank initiated an international collaboration between educational institutes in developing countries, the Global Development Learning Network. Co-financing of specific projects also occurs.

Technical assistance and research

An increasingly important part of the World Bank’s activities is technical assistance. This is given, among other things, in the form of the economic country analyzes that form the basis for designing aid programs for the recipient countries. Often, certain parts of the loans from IBRD and IDA are set aside for counseling, training and other forms of knowledge transfer. Technical assistance is also provided in the form of training in financial management and project analysis for officials from the member states’ public administrations.

The World Bank’s research forms the basis for how its work is designed and how the Bank prioritises the areas to be supported. The bank conducts a number of different research projects in different subject areas and regions. In addition to country analyzes, regional analyzes are produced each year that address various themes, such as regional trade, income distribution and work to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

In addition, the bank issues several reports. One example is the annual World Development Report, which analyzes obstacles to development in the world and provides recommendations for how to bridge them. Another annual report is Poverty Reduction and the World Bank, which examines the effects of the World Bank’s efforts to reduce poverty.

World Bank Business

The 10 longest rivers in the world

The 10 longest rivers in the world

Around 2/3 of the earth’s surface is covered with water. But it is not only the seas and lakes that play an important role. Rivers also occupy a large area of ​​the earth. Find out here which are the longest rivers in the world and what distinguishes them.

10th place: the Amur

The Amur, derived from the Evenk word “Tamur”, which means “Great River”, flows through China and Russia and, with a length of 2,824 kilometers, takes tenth place in the ranking of the largest rivers. The entire length of this river is navigable and travelers can admire the inspiring nature around the coastal mountains of Sichote-Alin. Wild animals such as the Siberian tiger or brown bear can be admired there.

9th place: The Jenissei

This river, which is more than 3,487 kilometers long, flows through Siberia with its entire length and, with its tributary, the great Jenissei, even forms a total length of around 4,092 kilometers.

Place 8: The Ob

Number 8 in the ranking for the longest rivers in the world also flows through Siberia, if only here through Western Siberia. The Ob, which has a length of 3,650 kilometers, has its origin in the Mansi and Khanty languages ​​and is derived from the term “Ac”, which is synonymous with the term “large water”. The peculiarity of this river is that it is covered with ice in its middle lower reaches about 220 days a year.

7th place: The Mississippi

Not only known from many films and songs, the Mississippi has a total length of 3,778 kilometers, making it one of the top ten longest rivers in the world. The river that flows through the United States originates in Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota.

6th place: The Congo

The Congo is not only a name for a city-state in Africa but also the name of one of the longest rivers in the world. With a length of 4,347 kilometers, the Congo is probably the sixth largest river in the world and at the same time the second largest river in Africa.

5th place: The Mekong

The 4,350 km long Mekong River, which means “turbulent river”, crosses six countries in its length in Southeast Asia. The origin of the Mekong is unclear, it is believed to originate in hard-to-reach areas of the Tibetan highlands.

4th place: The Yellow River

The Yellow River, also known as Wade-Giles, is a stream in China and has a total length of 4,845 kilometers. Only the Yangtze River makes it slip into number two in China’s longest rivers.

3rd place: The Yangtze River

With a length of 6,380 kilometers, the Yangtze River is the longest river in the People’s Republic of China and at the same time the longest river in Asia.

The Yangtze River

2nd place: The Amazon

Its total length of 6,448 kilometers makes the Amazon the second largest river in the world. With a water flow of 206,000 m³ / s, the Amazon is one of the richest rivers in the world and extends its water into seven smaller tributaries.

1st place: The Nile

Egypt is not only known for its high-quality tradition and majestic buildings such as the pyramids and the Sphinx. Here, in otherwise barren Egypt, is the longest river in the world. With a length of 6,852 kilometers, the Nile leads the ranking of the top ten longest rivers and is the only river on earth to cross one of the two subtropical dry belts, the Sahara.

 

The 10 most dangerous bridges in the world

The 10 most dangerous bridges in the world

Suspension bridges, motorway bridges, pedestrian bridges – there are many types of bridges, but which bridges are the most dangerous and where can they be found?

10th place – the “Indoboard Bridge” (Indonesia)

This bridge has to be listed among the top ten most dangerous bridges in the world, because as its name suggests, it is more like an indoboard than a trustworthy way of crossing a raging river. A lot of balance is required here every day because this bridge in Indonesia serves as a way to school for many children every day.

Place 9 – The Ghasa Suspension Bridge (Nepal)

This suspension bridge leads over the Jomsom Sadak gorge and connects a small village with the outside world. It is several hundred meters long and is at a dizzying height. Not only do people cross this bridge every day, but shepherds also drive their cattle over it. As a local, you may have gotten used to these circumstances sooner or later, but tourists need a lot of courage to start their way over this narrow bridge.

8th – Qu’eswachaka suspension bridge (Peru)

The Qu’eswachaka Bridge is a rope bridge that is made every year by hand and is made of braided grass and spans the Río Apurímac, so that residents in the area have a connection to the outside world. It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since December 2013 and, due to its unsafe construction, also one of the 10 most dangerous bridges in the world.

7th – Sarawak Bridge (Malaysia)

This bridge, made of bamboo and thin struts, must never be entered by more than two people at the same time, otherwise it would collapse under the weight. On the left and right there is a kind of railing, also made of bamboo, but when you step on the swaying bridge it becomes immediately clear that this would hardly hold up in case of doubt. Fall between the bamboo sticks, inevitably land in the river below and get to know the local animals.

6th place – Kotmale Oya Bridge (Sri Lanka)

Leading through the impenetrable jungle, this bridge also serves to cross a river. The Kotmale is the fourth largest in his country and leads about 70 kilometers through Sri Lanka. If you fall through the holey boards that make up the bridge, you will be swept away by the torrents of the current. So it is a real adventure to cross this river.

5th place – bridge over the Alps (Austria)

There are also some worrying bridges in Europe that only the bravest people can walk on. This building in Austria may only be entered with a helmet, has tensioned ropes on the left and right, which serve as railings and stable wooden boards form the step surface, but these are much too narrow to offer enough space. The awe-inspiring sight of the mountain peaks below and between you will make you rethink this excursion.

4th – Canopy Walkway (Ghana)

This unusual bridge is located in the Kakum National Park in Ghana and consists only of a wooden beam and a network, which should ensure stability on both sides. Nevertheless, the Canopy Walkway does not inspire confidence, especially since you are on this bridge far above the tree tops of the park and can no longer see the other people among you. When you finally reach the end of the bridge, which is located on a tree trunk around which a kind of platform has been built, you will probably think of a climbing park.

3rd place – suspension bridge over the Baliem river (New Guinea)

Unbelievable but true here is the fact that this bridge runs both horizontally and vertically and therefore represents a real challenge for everyone. The wooden boards, some of which are far apart, can sometimes only be crossed by large steps. So be careful: here you have two options for getting to know the river below you.

Place 2 – Hussaini Bridge (Pakistan)

The boards are crooked, the ropes are loose and look like they are about to tear. Either way, you are dependent on the ropes on the left and right to hold on, otherwise it is not possible to cross this many hundred meter long bridge that runs just above the water.

1st place – tightrope walking over the Mekong (China)

This construction is not so much a bridge, but rather a construction made up of many tight ropes. One rope serves as a footboard, the other hangs over your head to cling to. Do not worry, tourists rarely get lost here, rather it serves many children as a way to school in the morning. This fact makes it the most dangerous bridge number 1.

tightrope walking over the Mekong

History of Cambodia

History of Cambodia

802 | King Jayavarman II founds Cambodia

14.-15. Century | Cambodia loses most of its territory to Vietnam and Siam

1864 | Establishment of the French protectorate

1953 | King Sihanouk gains independence from France

1954 | Resignation of King Sihanouk in favor of his father

1960 | Election of Prince Sihanouk as head of state

1970 | Coup by Chief of Staff Lon Nol and dismissal of Prince Sihanouk

1975-1978 | Reign of Terror by the Khmer Rouge under Pol Pot

1979 | Occupation of Cambodia by Vietnam

1989 | Withdrawal of the Vietnamese troops

1991 | Signing of the Paris Peace Accords

1992-93 | UN Interim Administration in Cambodia (UNTAC)

1993 | First formal democratic elections

1997 | Hun Sens coup against First Prime Minister Prince Ranariddh

1998 | Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) under Hun Sen wins elections

2002 | First local elections; CPP wins with a large majority and can continue to govern at national level after the parliamentary elections one year later

2007 | Khmer Rouge Tribunal starts work

2008 | Another election victory for Hun Sen; military border conflict with Thailand

2011 | Cambodian and Thai soldiers sometimes engage in heavy border battles

2011 | The proceedings against Nuon Chea, Khieu Samphan and Ieng Sary begin at the Khmer Rouge tribunal, which is increasingly being criticized for its political influence

2012 | The Appeals Chamber of the Khmer Rouge Tribunal sentenced Kaing Guek Eav, head of the S-21 torture prison, to life imprisonment

2013 | Prime Minister Hun Sen suffered heavy losses in the parliamentary elections at the end of July

2014 | Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan are sentenced in the first instance to life imprisonment by the Khmer Rouge Tribunal for the crimes between April 1975 and December 1977

2016 | The Appeals Chamber at the Khmer Rouge Tribunal upholds the judgments against Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan

2017 | With the dissolution of the CNRP, the government de facto ends the multi-party system

2018 | The ruling CPP wins all 125 seats in the National Assembly in parliamentary elections

Little is known about prehistoric Cambodia. It is certain that the first settlements in the Tonle Sap and the lower Mekong region arose in the Neolithic Age. Traces of human habitation dating back to the 69th millennium BC have been discovered in the Laang Spean cave (Battambang province). Although the Khmer arrived in what is now Cambodia around 2000 BC, they are considered to be one of the oldest ethnic groups in the entire region.

From the 1st to the 6th centuries, most of today’s territory belonged to the Southeast Asian Kingdom of Funan, which later became part of the strengthened Chenla Empire, which in turn existed until the early 9th century. With the proclamation of Jayavarman II as God-King (Devaraja) in 802, the time began that is known today as the kingdom of Angkor. Except for a short period in which the capital was relocated further east to Koh Ker, the region around today’s Siem Reap was always the seat of government, albeit in different places (Mahendraparvata, Hariharalaya, Yasodharapura,Angkor Thom). The empire reached its peak of power in the 12th century under the legendary King Jayavarman VII: It ruled Southeast Asia from Malacca to the Isthmus of Kra as well as Laos and parts of Vietnam. During this time the cultural bloom also falls, the Hindu temple complex Angkor Wat, which was built at that time, is still standing today, as are the most important Buddhist sacred buildings Bayon, Ta Prohm and Preah Khan. Around 1200 Angkor had about a million residents, making it the largest city in the world at the time.

In the meantime, many researchers have agreed that climatic changes were the decisive factor behind the demise of high culture. That changed the balance of power in mainland Southeast Asia, especially the neighbors in the west gradually breaking away from the dominance of the Khmer. After the armies of the Thai kingdom of Ayutthaya marched through Angkor in 1431, the history of the country was shaped for a century and a half by dynastic rivalries and armed conflicts with its powerful neighbor. One also speaks of the “dark age” of Cambodia, in which a number of weak kings ruled and the capital changed several times. In the 16th and early 17th centuries, Longvek (today’s Kampong Chhnang Province) before the royal court came to Oudong (1611 to 1866) and then to Phnom Penh under increased foreign policy pressure.

According to Computergees.com, to prevent a complete takeover of the empire by Thailand and Vietnam, Cambodia turned to France, which had taken southern Vietnam in 1859. In 1863 the country became a protectorate of France under King Norodom, and in 1887 it joined Vietnam and later Laos in the Indochinese Union. The first Indochina War, which was fought in the neighboring states of Vietnam and Laos in the aftermath of World War II, drained the strength of the French colonial power. On November 9, 1953, Cambodia was finally given independence.

History of Cambodia

Cambodia has seen only brief periods of political stability since independence. The recent history of the country is marked by war, civil war and the mass murder of the Khmer Rouge, which was accompanied by numerous regime changes. The development led

  • of a formally democratic regime under Sihanouk (1953-1970) interspersed with strong authoritarian elements,
  • about the autocratic, US-backed rule of Lon Nol (1970-1975),
  • into the totalitarian regime of the Khmer Rouge under Pol Pot (1975-1979), under which around two million people lost their lives,
  • and the internationally isolated authoritarian clientele regime of Vietnam under first Heng Samrin and then Hun Sen (1979-1992) with the parallel government in exile Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK) with the participation of the Khmer Rouge and the FUNCINPEC Sihanouks, which also have the UN headquarters Of Cambodia,
  • and finally under the mandate of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) (1992-1993)
  • to a formally democratic, but actually autocratically governed regime under Hun Sen (since 1993).
India’s pearls

India’s pearls

Join a tour during which you will see India’s top attractions! We travel along the so-called “Golden Triangle” and visit New Delhi, Jaipur and Agra and experience the world heritage sites that are usually on most Indian travelers’ wish list. During the trip you will, among other things, visit the lively city of millions of Delhi, the Mughal rulers’ grand palace and the Taj Mahal. The trip also includes the holy city of Varanasi on the Hindu holy river Ganges where we get acquainted with the ceremonies performed by the millions of pilgrims who come here every year. We also visit Sarnath where the Buddha gave his first sermon on why the place is one of the most important places of pilgrimage for Buddhists.

India's pearls 2

Day 1: Flight to Delhi
Meals are included on board the long-haul flight.

Day 2: Delhi
After a short rest, we take a tour of Old Delhi where it is buzzing with activity and people’s life. We see the old town’s famous city gates and several other historically interesting places, but also the characteristic narrow alleys and bazaars. We can enjoy a bike rickshaw ride in the colorful and spicy bazaar neighborhoods of Chandhi Chowk and soak up the exotic atmosphere. During our tour we pass the Red Fort which until 1857 was the residence of the Mughal rulers and from which India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in 1947 addressed the nation to mark the Indian nation’s newfound independence. We also see India’s largest mosque Jama Masjid (“Friday Mosque”), which was built in the mid-17th century by Mogul Shah Jahan (the Mughal ruler who also had the Taj Mahal built). In addition, we pass the Triumphal Arch India Gate and the Presidential Palace . After lunch we visit the tomb of the Mughal ruler Humayun and the Sikh temple Gurudwara Bangla Sahib . Overnight in Delhi.

Day 3: Delhi – Varanasi
After breakfast transfer to the airport and flight to Varanasi. Millions of Hindu pilgrims arrive here every year to bathe in the holy river and thereby be cleansed from their sins. Next to the river there are many crematoria and the ashes after the cremations are sprinkled over the river. We check in at our hotel and relax the rest of the afternoon. In the evening we visit the spectacular spectacle Aarti on the banks of the river Ganges, a Hindu ritual during which candles are lit which are allowed to flow away along the Ganges as a sacrifice to the river’s goddess of protection Ganga. We also get a bike taxi ride in the city’s alleys . Overnight in Varanasi.

Day 4: Varanasi
Early in the morning we experience the sunrise during a boat trip along the Gangesand witness the traditional purification ritual performed by orthodox Hindus at the many stairs leading down to the river. After lunch we head to Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadaya, Rishipannan and Isipatana), which is a deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught Dharma, and Buddhist Sangha was created by enlightening the condanna. Sarnath is located 13 km northeast of Varanasi. Then free time to explore the old city of Varanasi on your own. Overnight in Varanasi.

Day 5: Varanasi – Khajuraho
Transfer to the airport before departure to Khajuharo . After arrival we make a short stop at our hotel to freshen up. In the evening an event with cultural dance . Overnight in Khajuraho

Day 6: Khajuraho – Orchha
After breakfast we take a tour among Khajuraho’s incomparable Hindu and Jain temples that are over a thousand years old. The area where the temples are located is classified as a cultural heritage by Unesco and is known for its explicitly erotic sculptures. It’s called the Chandela Temple Complex and here are, among other things, famous erotic temples, some of the best examples of this kind of temple architecture in northern India. The fact that Khajuraho is a bit remote meant that they were not destroyed by the Muslim conquerors, and after that the fine chisels are in very well preserved and are said to show life in heaven. The temples were built during the Candeladin dynasty, and most were created during a rapid period of creative and religious energy. Between the middle of the 900s and 1000s. After ruling for 500 years, Candela fell against the Muslims and therefore Khajurao was abandoned as a religious center. The temples remain as a reminder of a religion that believed in the joy of life and close contact with Nirvana. Of the 85 temples, 22 remain, many of which are very well preserved. After lunch we go by bus to Orchha (travel time about 45 minutes) and our hotel. Overnight in Orchha.

Day 7: Orchha – Agra
After breakfast we visit the quiet town of Orchha on the river Betwa and here are many temples and palaces. The impressive 17th century temples are still in use, e.g. Ram Raja with its ascending spiers, and Lakshmi Narayan temple , which is known for its well-preserved walls. We visit the palace , built by Emperor Jahangir in the 17th century, and the pavilions Raj mahal and Raj Parveen Mahal. After lunch we take a bus to Jhansi where we board the air-conditioned Shatabdi Express to travel to Agra. After arrival transfer to the hotel. Agra was once the capital of the Mughal Empire (1526 – 1858) and is one of the biggest tourist attractions in India Overnight in Agra

Day 8: Agra (Taj Mahal)
After breakfast we head to the Taj Mahal where we spend the whole morning. The Taj Mahal is probably India’s most famous landmark and is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List with the motivation: “A universally admired world heritage masterpiece”. The palace-like mausoleum was completed in 1631 and erected by the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal who died in childbirth. Then we get to see how to make marble stones that the Taj Mahal is decorated with. After lunch we visit Agra Fort, the beautiful fortification built in red sandstone. Behind the defensive walls you will find some of the finest and best-preserved palace buildings from the Mughal period. Overnight in Agra.

Day 9: Agra – Fatehpur – Jaipur
After breakfast we head to Fatehpur Sikri (“City of Victory”) built in the second half of the 16th century after the great mogul Akbar the Great fortified and expanded his kingdom. Fatehpuri Sikri served as the capital of the great mogul for a period of ten years before the city was finally abandoned. What remained, however, were the magnificent buildings with their magnificent architecture for posterity to view. The “Victory City” with its beautiful palace area and large mosque is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. We continue to the lively capital of the state of Rajasthan, Jaipur, also called ” The Pink City “. Overnight in Jaipur.

Day 10: Jaipur
In the morning we visit the famous Amber Fortress located just outside Jaipur. The fortress built in red sandstone and marble is a fantastic sight with its mighty protective walls that are reflected in Lake Moala below. We take a tour of the old defense complex and see its beautiful interior with high-quality murals, ivory inlays and mosaics. The tick dates from the 10th century and is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. We then visit a weaving mill and see how to dye fabric and make textile prints. We view the fabulous Hawa Mahal (“Palace of the Winds”) in red and pink sandstone and continue toCity Palace which is the residence of the current Maharajah. If the flag is raised, he’s home! Parts of the palace have been converted into a museum with collections of art, carpets and weapons, among other things. Nearby is the strange Jantar Mantar Observatory where you will find, among other things, a 27 meter high sundial. We also do an electric bike rickshaw tour and a trip to the market in the Pink City. Overnight in Jaipur.

Day 11: Jaipur – Delhi
We start the day with an hour of yoga . After breakfast we start the return journey to Delhi but make a stop in Sanganer, where we see how to make paper from elephant dung . We have lunch in the village and meet the locals. Overnight in New Delhi. During the evening we gather before the farewell dinner with Indian delicacies. Overnight in Delhi.

Day 12: Return from Delhi
In the morning transfer to the airport before returning home via Helsinki to the destination. Meals are included on board the long-haul flight.

India's pearls

Laos and Thailand

Laos and Thailand

Wonderful lazy days await you after a trip in Thailand to the famous Golden Triangle and an exciting journey along the mighty Mekong River. Our trip to Thailand and Laos includes highlights in two of Asia’s most fascinating countries. We discover exciting parts of Thailand far from the tourist crowds along the coasts. Sparsely populated Laos offers a glimpse of what the whole of Asia once was. Here it is as if time has stood still. We travel through untouched countryside and explore old colonial cities. Our trip to Laos goes north with a quiet trip on the Mekong River to take us from Thailand into Laos and Luang Prabang. During the trip we can in peace and quiet soak up the quiet life along the river, before we reach Luang Prabang; one of Asia’s most idyllic cities filled with monks and gold-clad temples. The city as a whole has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1995. We then round off the trip with a few nights on the beach south of Bangkok. Here we enjoy the sun and the heat and relax with a refreshing bath. We spend the last days in peace and digest all the impressions of the trip before the trip home.

Laos and Thailand 2

Day 1: Travel to Thailand
Flight to Bangkok. Meals are included on board the long-haul flight.

Day 2: Bangkok
We land in Bangkok and after the arrival formalities we head into the bustling big city to start with a city tour where we do a boat trip on the city’s canals. We gather in the evening for a welcome dinner. Overnight in Bangkok. (Dinner)

Day 3: Bangkok
Today we make an excursion to the Summer Palace and Ayutthaya which was once the capital of Siam, what we today call Thailand. Ayutthaya stands in stark contrast to Bangkok’s metropolitan jungle. Ayutthaya Historic Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Here we walk through the beautiful, peaceful landscape, surrounded by ruins, monasteries and temples, in what was once the country’s prosperous capital between 1350 and 1767. In the afternoon we see Bangkok’s highlight Grand Palace and pay a visit to the flower market. Overnight in Bangkok. (Lunch)

Day 4: Bangkok – Chiang Mai
We fly to Chiang Mai in the morning. Here is an elephant school where we get to know these huge and for Thailand so important animals. Anyone who wants to can in connection with the visit here also do an elephant ride in the lush jungle that dominates the area (optional). Today we have lunch at an orchid garden. Overnight in Chiang Mai. (Lunch)

Day 5: Chiang Mai – Chiang Rai
Today it’s off to Chiang Rai. On the way we stop in a craft village. Chiang Rai has about 73,000 inhabitants and was founded by King Mengrai as early as 1262. It was then part of the kingdom of Lanna. Overnight in Chiang Rai. (Lunch)

Day 6: The Golden Triangle
Chiang Rai is known or infamous, depending on how you see it, as the gateway to the famous Golden Triangle where the borders of Thailand, Laos and Burma meet. The area has since 1950 been one of the world’s largest producers of opium poppy, which is used, among other things, to produce heroin. We head into the Triangle after a stop in Mae Sai, Thailand’s northernmost city, where we have the chance to stop and shop a bit at the local market. During the day we also visit the small town of Chiang Saen where we see the beautiful Buddhist temple Wat Phra That Chedi Luang. After lunch we visit the Hall of Opium, where we see an exhibition that deals with the history of opium in the area and its consequences, both for the farmers and for the addicts. Overnight in the golden triangle. (Lunch)

Day 7: Chiang Khong – Pakbeng
In the morning we leave the hotel for Chiang Khong, where we cross the border into Laos. We then board the Luangsay Cruise and begin our journey to Luang Prabang. During the day we get to follow life along the river at a comfortable pace and from time to time we will make shorter beach trips for lunch and for a visit to a minority village before we reach Pakbeng, where we enjoy our dinner on the terrace, overlooking the Mekong. Overnight at Luangsai Lodge. (Lunch and dinner)

Day 8: Pakbeng – Luang Prabang
The early risers can visit Pakbeng’s morning market, where people from the nearby villages come to sell and exchange goods. Today we continue our cruise in silence. After lunch we see the famous caves at Pak Ou, filled with Buddha images that pilgrims have donated over the years. We also stop at a village belonging to the minority people Hmong and in connection with this we get to learn the noble art of rice whiskey distillation. Late in the afternoon we arrive at Luang Prabang, the ancient capital of Laos, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. (Lunch and dinner)

Day 9: Luang Prabang
After breakfast, we explore the city and its rich remains of historic temples and colonial buildings. The old royal palace has now been converted into a museum, with many interesting objects and works of art. At the not so high but still spectacular waterfall Kuangsi, we eat our picnic lunch. Here we can cool off in the fresh water and relax in the nice surroundings. In the evening we climb Phousy Hill and from the top of the mountain we can enjoy a beautiful view of the old city and the Mekong River at sunset. Overnight in Luang Prabang. (Lunch and dinner)

Day 10: Luang Prabang – Cha Am
Today we head to Luang Prabang Airport and fly to Bangkok, a journey that takes about two hours. After arrival, we travel on by bus to the King of Thailand’s own holiday destination, Hua Hin. Overnight in Cha Am.

Day 11: Cha Am 
The day is free for your own walks. Overnight in Cha Am.

Day 12: Cha Am
Day free for your own walks. Overnight in Cha Am.

Day 13: Cha Am – Bangkok The
morning is free for your own walks. Our journey through Thailand and Laos ends with a transfer back to Bangkok where we gather for a joint farewell dinner. Overnight in Bangkok. (Farewell dinner)

Day 14: Return from Bangkok
Transfer to the airport and flight to the boarding place. Meals are included on board the long-haul flight.

Laos and Thailand

Great Vietnam trip

Great Vietnam trip

This eventful journey begins in the capital Hanoi with its bustle of people, wide boulevards, charming alleys and swarms of alleys in the Old Town. In contrast to city life, you get to know life in a small village, before we make a wonderful boat trip in the fantastically beautiful Halong Bay with its sugar-top islands. Then we fly to central Vietnam with a visit to the ancient imperial city of Hue and the charming coastal city of Hoi An. In the southern parts of the country, we experience the metropolis of Saigon with excursions to both the guerrilla tunnels in Cu Chi and the Mekong Delta. We travel by bus, plane and boat and get to experience the cultural and geographical diversity that Vietnam constitutes. The trip can be supplemented with a few days of sunbathing and swimming in Mui Ne.

Great Vietnam trip 2

Day 1: Travel to Vietnam (Hanoi)
Flight to Vietnam’s capital Hanoi. Meals are included on board the long-haul flight.

Day 2: Arrival in Hanoi
Upon arrival at Noi Bai International Airport, we are welcomed by our local guide who will arrange for a hotel check-in. Then there is free time to relax after the long flight. Overnight in Hanoi.

Day 3: Excursion to the village An Vi
The day is devoted to an excursion to the village of An Vi-Hung Yen, an hour’s journey south of Hanoi. Here we get the opportunity to learn about the expanded family structure, ancestral worship of Vietnam and more. Then take a bike ride in the beautiful landscape, stop at orchards and go over herb fields. Then we come to a market with fruit, vegetables, cattle, clothes, etc. Here we also have lunch at the home of an ordinary Vietnamese family. Overnight in Hanoi. (Breakfast and Lunch)

Day 4: Hanoi
After breakfast, there will be a city tour of Hanoi, including Dinh’s historic complex. We arrive at Ba Dinh Square, where Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam’s independence on September 2, 1945. Here we first visit Ho Chi Minh’s mausoleum. We also see the nearby Buddhist One-Pillar Pagoda, one of the main symbols of Hanoi. Then we come to the “Hotel Hilton”, the prison where American pilots were held captive during the Vietnam War. In the afternoon we visit Hoan Kiem Lake. Then we take a cyclo (pedicab) journey through Hanoi’s older quarter dating from the 13th century. During the day we also see a water puppet show. Overnight in Hanoi. (Breakfast and Lunch)

Day 5: Hanoi – Halong Bay
After breakfast we go to Halong Bay, this wonderful bay, which is truly one of Vietnam’s most impressive scenic sights. A five-hour cruise gives us a fantastic view of the picturesque landscape mixed with the sky and about 3,000 limestone islands that rise in a fantastic way from the emerald-colored water. Overnight stay on the boat. (Breakfast, lunch and dinner)

Day 6: Halong Bay – Hue
In the morning we continue our cruise in Halong Bay. We return to Hanoi to catch the flight to Hue. Overnight in Hue. (Breakfast)

Day 7: Hue – Hoi An
Today we travel by river boat along the Perfume River and visit the Thien mu pagoda and Minh Mang’s palace-like tomb monuments. After lunch we visit the Hues Citadel and the Forbidden City. Then we transfer to Hoi An. Overnight in Hoi An. (Breakfast and Lunch)

Day 8: Hoi An
The day is free for your own walks. The coastal city of Hoi An has a long history and was once one of Vietnam’s most important trading cities, where mainly merchants from China, but also more long-distance traders from, for example, Japan and Europe, sought to conduct international trade. Many foreigners, especially Chinese, came to settle in the city. This has left its mark on the local architecture, which usually goes in the South Chinese style or combines domestic and foreign elements. Hoi An with its rich cultural heritage and car-free city center is one of the most pleasant and peaceful cities in Vietnam. The city is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Hoi An has a gaska relaxed atmosphere and there are many small boutiques and cozy restaurants. During the day you can also choose to visit one of the city’s nearby beaches. You can also take a boat trip on the river or rent a bicycle to explore the surroundings. Overnight in Hoi An. (Breakfast)

Day 9: Hoi An – Da Nang – Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
We go to Da Nang to visit the fascinating Cham Museum and the Marble Mountains. After lunch we fly to Ho Chi Minh City. Overnight in Ho Chi Minh City. (Breakfast and Lunch)

Day 10: Cu Chi & Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
After breakfast we go on a day trip to the Cu Chi tunnels 60 kilometers northwest of Saigon. During the Vietnam War, the tunnel system was the Vietcong guerrilla’s most important base in South Vietnam and reached virtually all villages in the Cu Chi area. On site, we are shown, among other things, how the various traps of the guerrillas worked. Those who want can go down into one of the tunnels adapted for tourists (and safe). Back in Saigon, we go on a city tour and see some of the city’s architectural sights such as the War Memorial Museum, the Reunification Square (The Old Presidential Palace in Saigon), Notre Dame Cathedral and the Main Post Office. Overnight in Ho Chi Minh City. (Breakfast and lunch)

Day 11: Mekong Delta
We go to Ben Tre Province 85 km from Saigon to take a boat trip in the Mekong Delta. The area is known for its coconut farms and we visit, among other things, a coconut candy manufacturer on one of the islands in the river delta. Ben Tre was hit hard during the Vietnam War but is now a popular excursion destination. Overnight in Ho Chi Minh City. (Breakfast and lunch.)

Day 12: Ho Chi Minh City – Mui Ne
After breakfast we take a bus to the seaside resort of Mui Ne which is about four hours drive northeast of Ho Chi Minh City. Mui Ne is known for its fine sandy beaches and huge dunes. There is also a golf course and a large number of restaurants to choose from. Not far from the seaside resort is the port city of Phan Thiet for those who want to see more of the life in Vietnam. Overnight in Mui Ne. (Breakfast)

Day 13 – 14: Mui Ne
The day for beach life and own walks. Overnight in Mui Ne. (Breakfast)

Day 15: Return from Ho Chi Minh City
In the afternoon transfer to the airport just outside Ho Chi Minh City and flight to Sweden. Meals are included on board the long-haul flight. (Breakfast)

Day 16: Arrival at the boarding place
Meals are included on board the long-haul flight.

Great Vietnam trip

Içmeler Travel Guide

Içmeler Travel Guide

Içmeler is ideal for a peaceful beach holiday. Enjoy a full-service holiday near the city of Marmaris. Içmeler is part of the Marmaris region. The pros of the area are the safe sun and good sandy beaches. Içmeler is a peaceful holiday destination, but if you miss the hustle and bustle of a bigger city, Marmaris has a short taxi ride away.

IcMELER

Beach holiday on the Mediterranean

Içmeler is located in the southwestern part of Turkey, in the Marmaris region. Içmeler has the best beaches in the area with plenty of space for everyone. The city is sheltered between two mountains and the nature is lush. Içmeler is suitable for both families with children and adult holidaymakers.

There are several full-service hotels in Içmeler, allowing for a completely relaxed holiday. However, if you miss shopping or nightlife, you can find them only 7 km away, in the city of Marmaris .

One of the most famous attractions in the area is the Marmaris Fortress, built in the 1520s. Marmaris also has a mosque, harbor and bazaar area. Nearby excursion destinations include the cliffs of Pamukkale and the city of Ephesus.

From the top, the mountains offer a magnificent view over Içmeler.

Mild climate almost all year round

Içmeler is a sunny holiday destination almost all year round. For the weather, however, the surest time is April-October. During this time, there are few rainy days and temperatures fluctuate between 20 and 34 degrees on average during the day.

Mild climate almost all year round

In July-August, temperatures can rise well above 30 degrees. Early summer and September-October are more pleasant times to travel to the Marmaris region in terms of temperatures.

Affordable price level

Içmeler is a favorite destination especially for beach holidaymakers. For children, there are good Beaches and Water Parks in the area. For more adult tastes, water sports can be enjoyed in the form of river safaris or diving.
Boat trips, water skiing and paragliding for the bravest water athletes are also organized on Içmeler Beach. Hiking is also possible in the forest areas of the city.

There are souvenirs to take home from the bazaars of Marmaris. Here, for example, you should buy cheap spices, carpets or jewelery. Bargaining is strongly part of Turkish trade.

The currency of Turkey is the Turkish Lira. Most restaurants and shops accept the most common debit and credit cards as payment methods. However, it is also worth reserving cash, which is a safer method of payment in bazaars, for example.

In particular, the price level of food and drink in Turkey is cheaper than in Finland. However, you should check the current exchange rate before you leave.

Respect Turkish culture

The Turks in the area are very friendly and accustomed to tourists. There is no hurry in the same way as the Finns and it may also show a bit in the adherence to schedules.

Although the area has long been favored by tourists, it is worth taking into account the main features of the local culture and the main religion of the country, Islam, for example in terms of clothing. The majority of tourists wear shorts and tops as clothing, but it can affect the attitude of locals.

FLIGHTS, ACCOMMODATION AND MOVEMENT IN IÇMELER

FLIGHTS, ACCOMMODATION AND MOVEMENT IN IÇMELER

A varied selection of cheeses and olives are included in the Turkish breakfast table.

Flights from Finland to Içmeler

Finland has good flight connections to Turkey. The nearest airport to Içmeler is Dalaman Airport, less than 100 km away. Flights from Helsinki to Dalaman Airport cost about 300 euros.

The Marmaris region is also a popular package holiday destination. Package tours and sudden departures are plentiful in summer.

Içmeler accommodation options

Içmeler is a popular destination with many accommodation options. There are more modest hotels as well as all-inclusive and boutique hotels. The city also has child-friendly accommodation options. Hotel night rates range from around € 40-150. At its cheapest, you can get a hotel night for 30 euros.

Getting around Içmeler

Walking is an easy way to explore Içmeler’s beaches and surroundings. The long beach leads all the way to the city of Marmaris.

If necessary, you can rent a car from Içmeler. The traffic culture is different from the Finnish one and may require getting used to it. However, a rental car can be used to explore slightly more distant sights, such as the cliffs of Pamukkale or the city of Ephesus. At its cheapest, the car can be rented for about 50 euros per day.

From Içmeler you can take a boat ride to the neighboring town of Marmaris for a few euros. Ships also leave the port of Marmaris for neighboring countries. For example, you can get to Rhodes, Greece for about 50 euros.

SIGHTS OF THE CITY

SIGHTS OF THE CITY

The lovely beaches and turquoise waters of the Marmaris region compare to many more expensive destinations.

Depart Marmaris Castle

Marmaris Castle was built over 5,000 years ago. It serves as the most famous landmark in the region. Today, the castle houses a museum. The entrance fee to the castle is only a few euros.

Picturesque cliffs of Pamukkale

The cliffs of Pamukkale are one of the most popular day trip destinations in the area. The whitewashed cliffs of the flowing water are a photographic swimming spot. Mineral water is said to work wonders on the skin.

The distance to the cliffs of Pamukkale is about 200 kilometers. Along the way you can see the rugged mountain landscape as well as tobacco and cotton fields.

The ancient city of Ephesus

Ephesus is one of the best preserved ancient sites in Turkey. The property is well restored and a favorite destination for many interested in history.

Ephesus is about 250 km away and there are day trips.

THE BEST OF IÇMELER

THE BEST OF IÇMELER

Içmeler is well worth a trip to Marmaris.

The best attractions in Içmeler

  1. Fortress of Marmaris
  2. The cliffs of Pamukkale
  3. The ancient site of Ephesus
  4. Marmaris beach
  5. Atlantis Water Park

The best activities in Içmeler

  1. Beach planing
  2. Bathing
  3. Water sports
  4. Boating
  5. Shopping
Yemen Business

Yemen Business

According to abbreviationfinder, YE is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Yemen.

When the two Yemeni states merged into one formation in 1990, they not only had two different economic systems; they were also economically two different sizes. The Republic of Yemen (also called Northern Yemen) had a Western-oriented economic system, while the People’s Republic of Yemen (South Yemen) had a state-controlled system. Northern Yemen’s population was just over three times greater than South Yemen’s, with the larger GNP – as well as a higher average income. After the merger, a mixed economy was established with a partially privatized and partly state-controlled business sector. The economic development of the new state formation was hampered by several dramatic conditions, both internally and externally: The development plans were strongly influenced by the Gulf crisis and the war in 1990-91. implied UN sanctions against Iraq, which Yemen joined. As Iraq was one of the country’s most important trading partners and aid providers, Yemen lost significant revenue. The return of nearly 1 million Yemeni guest workers from Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states also resulted in major losses in the form of currency these normally sent home. The events led to an economic crisis, with the loss of around 50% of the state’s expected revenues and rising unemployment, estimated at 25-30%. In 1994, the economic development was severely affected by civil war, which not least led to major devastation in former South Yemen, including the port city of Aden. According to countryaah, the government estimated the destruction to a value of approx. $ 4 billion. The terrorist attacks against the United States in the fall of 2001 also affected Yemen’s economy to some extent. through declining tourist visits and revenue. Relations with Saudi Arabia were normalized in 2000–01.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Yemen

A triggering cause of the merger between the two Yemeni states was the discovery of viable oil deposits in both countries in the mid-1980s, and the desire to coordinate operations for the best use. North Yemen already produced approx. 180,000 barrels per day. The significant oil deposits, despite the fact that Yemen is mostly an agricultural country, and the majority of the population is still employed in a comprehensive agriculture, with the narcotic plant khat occupying a dominant position. Industry and transport have experienced a significant upswing as a result of the oil business. Aden, which is defined as the country’s economic capital, has been given the status of economic free zone in the hope of attracting foreign investors.

Agriculture and fishing

The majority of Yemen is unsuitable for agriculture, with only 6% of land being cultivated, but approx. 30% is suitable for grazing land. Agriculture is still the most important industry in terms of employment, with just over half of the working population. In large parts of the country agriculture is extensively and with low yield. The best agricultural areas, which are the most fertile areas of the Arabian Peninsula, are found in the more precipitous areas of the west/northwest, as well as in some river valleys and irrigated areas. In the highlands, agriculture is often run in terraced form to better utilize irrigation. The low rainfall and the frequent periods of drought mean that Yemen has a significant water problem. Large topographic variations, from tropical areas to arid plains, allow for wide production. Main selling products are coffee, cotton, fruit, hides and skins. In addition, wheat, sorghum, maize, tobacco, dates, fruits, vegetables, etc. Coffee production has long been in decline, partly due to fluctuations in the world market, and partly because it is more profitable to produce the narcotic product khat. Khat, which is of no nutritional value, is chewed, and is a widespread habit in Yemen and some other countries in the region, to which Yemen exports khat. The cultivation of khat is considered a negative factor for the country’s development, as the product, which alone accounts for up to 25% of GDP and is the country’s second largest employer, occupies large areas and significant quantities of water – which could otherwise have been used for the production of other crops. However, cultivation of khat is the most important source of income in the countryside. In particular, goats and sheep are kept as well as camels.

Alongside petroleum extraction, fisheries are considered to be the area where Yemen has the greatest growth potential; The fishing fields especially in the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea are considered very rich, but the deposits are also good in the Red Sea. The industry is currently underdeveloped and most of the catches are taken in coastal areas and by fishermen with small boats and simple fishing gear.

Mining, energy

Yemen has few proven mineral deposits besides petroleum, which were found in viable quantities in the Marib/al-Jawf region (formerly northern Yemen) in 1984, and in the neighboring Shabwe region (formerly southern Yemen) the following year. Production began in northern Yemen in 1985, in southern Yemen in 1987, after which a joint company to manage the extraction in the adjacent fields was established in 1989. In 1990, total recovery was approx. 180,000 barrels per day, of which 170,000 barrels were produced in northern Yemen. In 1987, a 440 km long pipeline from Marib to the export terminal at Ras Isa on the Red Sea coast, with a capacity of 225,000 barrels per day, was opened; the 200 km long Bir Ali pipeline from the Shabwe field opened in 1991, with a capacity of 100,000 barrels per day. Later, several new discoveries were made, and as of 2004 it was assumed that the country had reserves of approx. 4 billion barrels. Day production in the early 2000s was approx. 450 000 barrels. The Norwegian oil company DNO became an operator in the Sayun-Masila basin in 1998. Significant gas reserves have also been identified, partly related to the oil deposits and partly isolated; as of 2003, gas deposits were estimated at approx. 16.9 trillion cubic feet. Plans were in place for both gas export and local utilization for electricity production.

Large quantities of salt and gypsum are extracted. limestone, marble, granite and basalt; Yemen also has deposits of iron ore, coal, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, gold, silver, uranium, sulfur and molybdenum.

Electric energy is produced almost exclusively in thermal power plants, which in 2015 had an installed capacity of 1.5 GW. Production was around 5 TWh, of which 99 percent was based on fossil energy use.

Industry

Yemen has had a little developed industry, which is, however, somewhat developed parallel to the establishment of the country’s oil business. In 2000, the sector (excluding petroleum) accounted for 4.9% of GNI; a decline compared to the past, mainly due to the increased importance of the oil sector. The most important are the production of food, including fish canned goods, chemicals and petroleum products, building materials (cement, iron and steel), textiles and leather goods. The first oil refinery was completed in Aden in 1954, with a capacity of up to 170,000 barrels per day; The Marib refinery in the north has a capacity of 10,000 barrels per day. A new refinery at Ras Issa near Hudeida was started in 2005. Central to Yemen’s industrial sector development strategy is a free trade area in Aden.

Foreign Trade

Yemen traditionally has a large deficit in the trade balance with foreign countries, and even with significant oil revenues, the country has been dependent on other sources of income, substantial foreign aid and money transfers from Yemenis working abroad. At the beginning of the 2000s, oil exports accounted for over 70% of total export value as well as government revenues. Otherwise, coffee, animals, hides and skins are exported on a smaller scale. The main import goods are food products (especially cereals and cereal products), fuels, iron and steel, machinery, means of transport and equipment and various consumables. Key trading partners are Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (import) and China, Korea and Thailand (export).

Transport and Communications

The transport network in Yemen is underdeveloped, but after the merger of the two states in 1990, work on upgrading has intensified, with priority being linked to the former separate states, as well as improving the road connection to Oman. There were per 2000 approx. 70,000 km of roads, of which around 12% were paved. The main port is Aden at the Gulf of Aden and al-Hudaydah, which is the main port of the Red Sea. Aden has long been one of the most important gardens in the region, and one wants to modernize and redevelop it to a more central position. Otherwise, there are a number of smaller ports, and their development is downgraded in light of the commitment to Aden. International airports in San’a, Aden, al-Hudaydah, al-Mukalla, and Ta’izz; Yemen has 12 domestic domestic airports and a number of airstrips.

Vietnam Business

Vietnam Business

According to Countryaah, Vietnam is one of Southeast Asia’s fastest growing economies. In 2017, the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) amounted to USD 223.78 billion. In 2017, the World Bank’s list of countries’ GDP ranked Vietnam in 40th place. Of the nine other ASEAN countries, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines then had a higher GDP. However, on the World Bank’s list of GDP per capita for 2017, Vietnam was in 140th place. Of the nine other ASEAN countries, only Cambodia and Myanmar had a lower per capita GDP than Vietnam.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, VM is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Vietnam.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Vietnam

Trends from 1954 to 2005

In 1954, North Vietnam introduced a centralized Soviet-style planning economy. After the reunification in 1976, this was also partly introduced in the south. In 1986 began a series of market economy reforms under the name Doi Moi, ‘renewal’. Although reforms in many areas have been small and met with some considerable resistance in the bureaucracy, the economic results have been formidable. For example, in just a few years, the country went from being a major importer of rice to becoming the world’s third largest rice exporter. Annual growth in the economy has been strong. Since the starting point was very low, the country has been very poor until the 2000s.

The area around Ho Chi Minh City is the country’s most important economic center, followed by the Hanoi – Hai Phong area. Also Da Nang is experiencing rapid economic growth. In the mountainous areas in the north, in the central highlands and in the coastal areas along the southwest bank of the Gulf of Tonking, poverty is widespread. Eight percent of the population lives below the poverty line.

More than half of the labor force was employed in the primary industries in the period from 1954 to 2005, and Vietnam was still far from an agricultural community. However, the industrial sector grew significantly compared to other poor countries. The service sector was still relatively weak. In the international context, Vietnam could traditionally be categorized as an equal society with relatively even distribution of income. However, signs of increased income inequality have become clearer after 2005.

Agriculture and fishing

Primary industries contribute 15.3 percent of GDP and employ 25.7 percent of the working population (2017).

Agriculture

The main agricultural products are rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper, cashew nuts, soybeans, peanuts, bananas, corn, sweet potatoes, cassava, jute, cotton and sugar cane. Rice is grown on 82 percent of the arable land. 52 percent of rice production takes place in the Mekong Delta in the south and 18 percent in the Song Hong Delta (Red River) in the north. Vietnam is the world’s fifth largest producer of rice after China, India, Indonesia and Bangladesh and the world’s third largest exporter after India and Thailand. The country is the world’s second largest producer and exporter of coffee after Brazil.

Water buffaloes are widely used as migratory animals. Otherwise, pigs, poultry, cattle and some goats are kept. The increase in pork and poultry production has been particularly strong during the reform years.

Forestry

39.7 percent of Vietnam is covered by forests, but only two percent of these are densely populated. Deforestation has been great due to harvesting, fuel harvesting and land clearing for agricultural purposes, including coffee plantations and sweat farming. Authorities have declared deforestation the biggest challenge since the reunification, and a forest planting campaign has been launched. Timber is exported, including to China.

Fishing

Fish is, after rice, the most important food for the population. Like agriculture, it also provides important export revenue, and catches have increased significantly during the reform years. Both coastal and river fishing, as well as the breeding of both fresh and saltwater fish. The fishing fleet consists mostly of smaller boats that can only fish in coastal waters. As a result, coastal waters have been affected by overfishing.

Historical background

Several areas in the highlands were developed during the reform period for the cultivation of various sales growth. In the 1950s, after the French colonial power left a large class of landless peasantry, the North Vietnamese authorities organized agriculture into cooperatives and state farms. After Saigon’s fall in 1975, the same thing happened in the south. In the 1980s, the country depended on importing food, and it was close to the famine disaster in 1986.

After reforms were introduced in 1988 that eventually gave farmers free land to own land, private households have become the normal form of organization in agriculture. Cooperatives still exist in several places, most in the north, while state farms exist only in mountain areas in border areas. Although many families still suffer from malnutrition, the country as a whole is self-sufficient in food. Agricultural products also contribute important export revenues. Only 20 percent of the total area is cultivable. Access to land is therefore scarce. In relation to the population, Vietnam has one of the least available agricultural areas in the world. The average size per unit is also among the smallest in the world. The country is further plagued by floods; especially in the north where Song Hong (Red River) frequently floods its dikes.

A large-scale reconstruction of rubber plantations destroyed during the Vietnam War has been carried out with, among others, Malaysian and Taiwanese assistance.

Mining and energy

Vietnam has some significant deposits of oil, natural gas, iron ore, bauxite, coal and apatite. Particular attention is paid to the development of oil and gas extraction. Crude oil is the country’s most important export product. In East Asia, only China has larger oil reserves than Vietnam, with reserves amounting to 630 million tonnes. The most important oil producing fields are Bach Ho (White Tiger), Rang Dong (Dawn), Hang Ngoc, Dai Hung (Big Bear), and Su Tu Den (Ruby). Coal mined mainly in the province of Quang Ninh in the north-east, about 1/3 of the production is exported.

The country has problems producing sufficient electrical energy. In 2014, production was 141 TWh, distributed between 59 TWh from hydropower plants, 47 TWh from gas power plants and 35 TWh from coal power plants. Expanded production capacity was 32 GW. The country still has large untapped hydropower resources, but the hydropower plants are affected by a somewhat uneven rainfall.

Industry

The industry contributes 33.3 percent of GDP and employs 40.3 percent of the working population (2017). The main industrial products are food, textiles, clothing, footwear, furniture and other wood products, electrical appliances, machinery, cement, steel, fertilizers, glass, oil and mobile phones.

Historical background

Vietnam has been among the world’s poorest countries in terms of GDP per capita, having a relatively well-developed industry. Several foreign companies have established motorcycle assembly plants for the domestic market. Assembly plants for cars and trucks are also growing rapidly, but the domestic market for these types of vehicles is currently limited. The production of textiles, clothing and footwear for export has increased rapidly during the reform period, but has gradually faced fierce competition in the world market from Chinese products. The production of furniture and other wood products and of electrical appliances for export has also increased significantly since 1986.

With the help of foreign capital, several new modern steel mills and petroleum refineries have been built. In 2004, the state-owned enterprises, the foreign-owned enterprises and the private Vietnamese-owned enterprises each accounted for one-third of the industry’s production value. All of the foreign-owned enterprises in Vietnam are established after 1988. The three largest foreign investor countries are Singapore, South Korea and Japan. Since the authorities introduced new rules in 2000 that made it easier to register locally owned private companies, the growth of this type of business has been significant. Main industrial centers are Ho Chi Minh City, followed by Hanoi and Hai Phong. A number of smaller cities have specialized in niche industries such as silk, porcelain and furniture.

Foreign Trade

Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007.

Vietnam’s exports amount to USD 214.1 billion (2017), while imports amount to USD 202.6 billion. With this, the country has a foreign trade surplus of USD 11.1 billion.

The four main export markets are:

  • United States(20.1 percent)
  • China (14.5 percent)
  • Japan (8.0 percent)
  • South Korea (6.8 percent)

The main export products are crude oil, rice, coffee, rubber, clothing, footwear, electrical products, machinery, seafood, furniture and other wood products.

The four main import markets are:

  • China (25.8 percent)
  • South Korea (20.5 percent)
  • Japan (7.8 percent)
  • Thailand (4.9 percent)

The main import products are machinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and footwear industry, electronics, plastics and motor vehicles.

Transport and Communications

The road network is at 195 468 kilometers, of which 148 338 kilometers with a fixed tire. Development assistance has helped to upgrade the main road network, including the connection between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Motorcycles are the most common means of transport in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.

The railway network is at 2600 kilometers (2014), but is struggling with poor track structure, lack of modern signaling facilities and old locomotives and wagons. Between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, there is a 1725-kilometer railway line known as the “reunion express”. Hanoi also has rail links with Hai Phong and China (across Dong Dang and Lao Cai).

River traffic along the Mekong and Song Hong (Red River) with bee rivers is still important for transport. The main ports are Hai Phong, Da Nang and Ho Chi Minh City. Southeast of Ho Chi Minh City, there are terminals for both container and cruise ships.

The main international airports are Tan Son Nhat at Ho Chi Minh City, followed by Noi Bai at Hanoi. Tan Son Nhat was the world’s busiest airport for a short period during the Vietnam War. In total, there are 46 airports in Vietnam.

Uzbekistan Business

Uzbekistan Business

Business

According to countryaah, Uzbekistan’s business community, like many of the other CIS states, still has clear traces of Soviet planning in the Soviet period. Independence has meant greater opportunities for local decision-making power over the resources available. However, relations with previous suppliers and customers have weakened, while at the same time the business sector has remained poorly integrated.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, UZ is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Uzbekistan.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Uzbekistan

Throughout its independence, Uzbekistan has been heavily dependent on the world market price of its important export goods: gold, cotton and natural gas. At the beginning of the 2000s, high prices for these led to an economic upturn, and the country was able to make some much-needed infrastructure investments. In the 2010s, however, world market prices have fallen and the country has again experienced an increased trade deficit.

Despite the acute economic situation, the country has continued to apply centralized production planning. A privatization program was started in 1992, but has limited itself to housing, commerce and other parts of the service sector as well as limited parts of the light industry. In addition, Uzbekistan remained in the ruble zone for a long time and did not resign until November 1993.

The economic structure has also retained much of its appearance from the Soviet period when the country largely served as a raw material supplier with a limited domestic processing industry.

Otherwise, existing legislation guarantees protection of private property, allows foreign direct investment and regulates the forms of support for new and small businesses. However, large parts of the civil law regulation that is important for a market economy are still missing. Private right of use (but not ownership) is granted for agricultural land and urban real estate.

Agriculture

The primary sector plays a very important role for Uzbekistan’s economy. Agriculture, which at the beginning of the 1990s was organized into approximately 1,000 state and 1,150 collective farms, has slowly begun to transform towards more decentralized and smaller farming units. However, since the acquisition and marketing organization has not changed and since the pricing of the more important crops is still on administrative grounds, the positive effects have been waiting.

Only 10 percent of Uzbekistan’s territory is suitable for arable farming. The majority, or 4.2 million ha, are irrigated through a 170,000 km long system of canals that conducts water mainly from the Amu-Darja and Zeravshan rivers as well as from the upper course of Syr-Darja. The dominant crop is cotton, which at the end of the Soviet period occupied 60 percent of the cultivated area. Since then, about half a million have been transferred to other crops, mainly cereals and vegetables. With a cotton harvest of 4 million tonnes per year, Uzbekistan is one of the world’s five leading producers. In total, cotton accounts for about 40 percent of all agricultural production.

Other crops that are grown to a significant extent are rice, wheat, vegetables, potatoes, fruits and grapes. Cereal production covers only 1/4 of the domestic need. Silk cultivation is also conducted on a commercial scale.

In addition to agriculture, livestock management, mainly with cattle, sheep and poultry, plays a significant role in the country’s food supply. Preparation and sale of hides, skins, wool and fur are also available.

Minerals and energy

Uzbekistan has large recoverable raw material resources. This is particularly true of fossil fuels, where Uzbekistan developed during the Soviet era into one of the Union’s leading producers of natural gas. The extraction takes place mainly in central Uzbekistan and in the Fergana Valley. A large part is exported, mainly through the pipeline drawn between Buchara and the Ural Mountains of the Russian Federation. The gas is not only an important export commodity, but is also of central importance for the energy and raw material supply of the domestic industry. The extraction of oil and coal covers most of the domestic need. Findings at Namangan and Fergana in the eastern part of the country have been exploited with the help of Russian and Chinese investments. Extractable deposits of coal are found in the Fergana Valley, while lignite is mined in Angren near Tashkent.

Other commodity assets include silver, copper, lead, zinc, Antimony and tungsten, all of which are already mined or considered worthwhile for the future. However, the mining industry’s most important activity is the extraction of gold.

Industry

At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan had diversified industrial production. The most important elements were the engineering, textile and food industries. In addition, there were elements of the metallurgical and chemical industry as well as the building materials industry. With the exception of parts of the textile industry and the manufacture of means of transport (especially aircraft) and certain electrical and electronic products, the intention was primarily to supply the local or, secondly, the regional market with goods.

The industry came to recognize a significant loss of production in connection with independence. Deliveries of inputs and semi-finished goods were disturbed, but above all, for financial reasons, it became impossible to maintain large parts of the unprofitable production. It was mainly the heavy engineering and chemical industries and the construction sector that were affected, while the construction equipment industry, thanks to the privatization of the housing stock, went relatively unanswered by the difficulties. More recently, foreign direct investment and domestic new entrepreneurship have been encouraged, and investment has been made in the production of consumer goods such as textiles, household appliances, soap and detergents and food.

Foreign trade

With independence, foreign trade has been reoriented from having essentially supplied the Russian Federation with raw materials (cotton and gas) to a greater extent to trade with neighboring countries and the rest of the world. China, Switzerland and South Korea have emerged as new trading partners alongside the Russian Federation and the other Central Asian republics. However, exports are mainly made up of natural gas and cotton, but increasing elements of other raw materials (mainly gold), leather and leather products and textiles can be noted. Imports are primarily machinery and food products, including cereals. Other important commodity groups are oil and petroleum products, means of transport and consumer goods.

United Arab Emirates Business

United Arab Emirates Business

According to Countryaah, the biggest trading partners are  India, Iran, and Qatar.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the United Arab Emirates

  • According to abbreviationfinder, AE is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of United Arab Emirates.

Economy

Inflation rate 2.00%
Unemployment rate 1.6%
Gross domestic product (GDP) 696,000,000,000 USD
GDP growth rate 0.80%
GDP per capita $ 68,600
GDP by sector
Agriculture 0.90%
Industry 49.80%
Service 49.20%
State budget
Revenue 54.64 billion
Expenditure 34.91 billion
Proportion of the population below the national poverty line 19.5%
Distribution of household income
Top 10% k. A.
Lower 10% k. A.
Industrial production growth rate 0.60%
Investment volume 30.4% of GDP
National debt 19.70% of GDP
Foreign exchange reserves $ 89,790,000,000
Tourism 2005
Number of visitors 7,126,000
Revenue $ 13,969,000,000

Over the last twenty years the UAE has had a particular demographic evolution: in fact, the 179,000 residents recorded in 1968 had risen to 1,622,393 at the 1985 census survey. Registry estimates in 1990 attributed to the town a population of 1.85 million residents. This extraordinarily rapid population growth is due to massive immigration of workers, attracted by the country’s wealth: it is estimated that about 90% of the workforce operating in the UAE is made up of foreigners.

Economic conditions. – With a per capita income of nearly $ 20,000 per year (1990, according to estimates made by the World Bank), the UAE ranks at the top of the list of the richest countries in the world, although in the second half of the 1980s the economy of the country has suffered some slowdowns. This was due to the fall in oil prices on international markets, which caused a contraction in oil production, which went from 98,712,000 t in 1977 to 75,430,000 t in 1988. The government, following lower revenues from oil sales (which alone finance 90% of the federal budget), has decided to downsize many ambitious development projects and abolish the gratuitousness of some social services.

During 1990 there were sharp increases in the prices of petroleum products (the prices of 35 dollars per barrel were again exceeded, albeit for short periods of time), which restored significant profit margins in producing countries. However, the crisis situation following the invasion of Kuwait by the armed forces of Iraq compromised the full enjoyment of these surpluses for the regions of the Arabian Peninsula.

The two emirates with the highest rate of industrial development are those of Abū Ẓabī and Dubai. The first, in the early 1980s, built a vast industrial complex in Ruweis – which has a deep-water port – where a fertilizer factory and an oil refinery are active. The second emirate, that of Dubai, has set up a new industrial area in Ǧabal ῾Alī, a recently built urban center located 30 km from the capital of the emirate; there are located a steel mill, an aluminum and an oil refinery, a gas liquefaction plant and also sea water desalination plants.

The Northern emirates (Ra’s al-H̱ayma, al-Fuǧayra, Umm al-Kaywayn and ῾Aǧmān) are the least successful economically. The emirate of ῾Aǧmān, the smallest, has no other resources than a small dry dock; Ra’s al-H̱ayma owns three cement factories, but still bases its economy on the agricultural sector (it produces vegetables and exports them to the other emirates), while the emirate of al-Fuǧayra adds those from fishing to agricultural income. The recent construction of a large hotel of the Hilton chain favors tourism from the other emirates. Lastly, Umm al-Kaywayn has significant reserves of natural gas.

As far as agriculture is concerned, it should be noted that this is strongly conditioned by the lack of water, the salinity of the land and the rural exodus; however, in recent years, also in an attempt to diversify production, the country has set up experimental agricultural stations and has tried to maximize the potential of some emirates, using underground water reserves and resorting to cultivation techniques of vanguard.

 

Turkmenistan Business

Turkmenistan Business

According to abbreviationfinder, TM is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Turkmenistan.

Business

The Turkmenistan business community still carries clear traces of the central planning of the Soviet period. The privatization program, which started in 1992, has only included small businesses in commerce, crafts and other services. The extraction of gas and oil, which accounts for 80 percent of Turkmenistan’s export revenue and the expanding textile and food industry, is owned by the state. Private ownership of agricultural and industrial land is not allowed, nor is sales. Cotton and grain are bought at state-set prices that are below market prices and half of the population living in the countryside lives only partially in a monetary economy. Food rationing has occurred several times in northern and western Turkmenistan during the 1990s. The currency is not convertible.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Turkmenistan

The establishment of private companies is limited by a complicated regulatory framework. Personal contacts often determine which decisions the permit authorities make. Foreign investments are only allowed in certain sectors, including: the extraction of oil and gas where Turkmenistan is in need of both capital and technology. According to Transparency International, Turkmenistan is one of the most corrupt states in the world.

Increased privatization of business, outside the oil and gas sector, was promised by the regime that took over after the dictator Nijazov’s death in late 2006, but reform efforts have so far been slow.

Agriculture

The importance of the primary sector to the economy as a whole has declined rapidly. However, the sector still accounts for a third of employment. Agricultural production, which was previously mainly organized in state and collective agriculture, has begun to be transformed in the direction of small farming units. Arable and pasture land is still state-owned, but contracts that allow private use rights are common.

Only 3 percent of Turkmenistan’s territory is suitable for arable farming. Half of this area is irrigated, mainly with water from Amu-Darja, which is led via the Karakum Canal. The dominant crop is cotton. Other crops that are grown to a significant extent are cereals, vegetables, fruits and grapes. In addition to agriculture, livestock management (mainly cattle, sheep and poultry) plays a significant role in the country’s food supply. The country is also known for its breeding of caracal sheep and thoroughbred horses.

Minerals and energy

According to countryaah, Turkmenistan has large deposits of recoverable raw material resources. Sulfur and salt are found in quarantined quantities, as are minerals with use primarily in the construction industry. However, it is energy resources that make up the country’s great resource; Turkmenistan has very large assets of oil and above all natural gas. Oil production has significant potential. Extraction takes place both on land and in the Caspian Sea. However, hopes for the future are primarily linked to natural gas assets. Extraction takes place in the middle parts of the country, in the west in and near the Caspian Sea and in the Lolotan field in the eastern parts of the country. Gas reserves are considered to be among the largest in the world. The sector is therefore predicted a bright future, and the country’s economy with it. Transport capacity has been limited for a long time. To remedy this, a gas pipeline was inaugurated to China in 2009, a gas pipeline to Iran and an oil pipeline to Azerbaijan and Georgia in 2010. From the latter countries, the oil is then transported to the Turkish port city of Ceyhan. Turkmenistan itself has a shortage of oil refineries.

In view of the country’s large supply of fossil fuels, it is natural that the energy supply is built up around this resource. Electricity and heat for both industrial and domestic use are provided by oil and gas power plants.

Industry

Industrial production consists mainly of the textile and petrochemical industries. Together with the natural gas, oil also forms the basis of the country’s chemical-technical industry.

In addition to petrochemical production, the textile industry, which accounted for about 1/3 of the total production value and the majority of industrial employment, is the country’s leading industry. The basis for the operation is the cotton grown domestically, which is, however, only to a small extent refined on the spot. Traditionally, carpet production is also important, and it still plays a significant role in the small business sector. Other things include food industry and a limited workshop industrial production.

Foreign trade

Few of the former Soviet republics depended more on their foreign trade than Turkmenistan. This relationship still applies. Dominant export goods are gas, oil products, electricity and cotton and cotton products; natural gas and oil account for 85 percent of the total export value. Most of these exports go to China and Turkey. Imports are mainly machinery, chemicals and food.

Turkey Business

Turkey Business

According to abbreviationfinder, TR is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Turkey.

Measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Turkey is the world’s 19th largest economy (2019). Turkey participates in the G20. GDP per capita in 2019 was US $ 28,264, which was higher than in neighboring northwest, Bulgaria, but lower than neighboring west, Greece. In 2019, unemployment was 11.9 percent. 21.9 percent of the population lives below the poverty line (2015). The country has a mixed economy with both state and private enterprises. The state still plays an important role in the industrial sector, banking and communication.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Turkey

Primary industries

Primary industries contribute 6.9 percent of GDP and employ 18.3 percent of the working population (2019).

Agriculture

Turkey has almost all cultural plants that belong to the temperate and subtropical zone, and the country is self-sufficient with most common foods. Grain cultivation dominates most places. Wheat and barley are grown throughout the country, corn in the Black Sea area and around the Marmara Sea. Tobacco is cultivated especially along the north and west coasts. The production of cotton, sugar beets and tea is also considerable. Turkey has a large production and export of typical Mediterranean plants such as citrus fruits, figs, hazelnuts, apples, pears,grapes, raisins and olives.

The livestock is large and breeding of sheep, goats and poultry is widespread. As sales products, milk and meat count less than wool, hides and skins. Long-haired mohair roll from angorage goat is an important export item.

Forestry

15.4 of the country’s area is covered by forest (2016). Forestry has a relatively limited economic significance. Much of the mountain forest has so far been untapped due to lack of transport opportunities.

Fishing

In 2017, deep sea fishing amounted to 320 280 tonnes, while freshwater fishing was 31 400 tonnes. Deep sea fishing is based on taking advantage of the fish migrations from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. The fish farming industry doubled in the period from 2005 to 2017, when production was 273,400 tonnes. 40 percent of this production was trout. Turkey is one of the largest fish farming nations in the Mediterranean.

Industry

The industry contributes 32.9 percent of GDP and employs 27.0 percent of the working population (2019).

The most widespread industry is the textile industry, which is also the most important export industry. In addition, the production of electronic products is a significant industrial and export sector. Turkey is the world’s 15th largest manufacturer of motor vehicles. There is also significant production of iron and steel, industrial chemicals and refined petroleum. Turkey has several shipyards, which build ships, ferries and fishing vessels for the domestic market and for export. Other important industrial sectors are the cement, glass and ceramic and paper industries. The most important industrial areas are located in the west, around Istanbul, Bursa and Izmir.

Mining

A number of minerals are extracted. Turkey is the world’s largest producer of borax, the world’s fourth largest producer of chromite and the world’s eleventh largest producer of coal. The extraction of coal is substantial in the Ereğli-Zonguldak area of the Black Sea, of lignite southeast of Bursa and of iron ore in Cappadocia. Turkey has high levels of sulfur. Copper, petroleum, bauxite and more are also extracted. Crude oil is extracted from the Garzan-Germik field near Diyarbakir in the Euphrates Valley.

Energy

The consumption of primary energy in 2016 was 5.7 exa joule (EJ). 77 percent of consumption is based on imports. Per capita consumption was 73.3 gigajoules (GJ), which is slightly below the average consumption in the world (77.5 GJ).

The country has a few energy reserves of its own, in the form of crude oil, natural gas and coal, but annual production is close to consumption. In 2018, the remaining oil reserves were estimated at 341.6 million barrels. Annual production is around 2.5 million tonnes (105 PJ). The gas reserves are estimated at 6.2 billion cubic meters, with an output in 2016 of 367 million cubic meters (13 PJ).

In 2017, the production of electrical energy was 283 terawatt hours (TWh), which is an increase of over 40 per cent over the last ten years. Net electricity consumption per capita is around 2 700 kilowatt hours (kWh).

Of the produced power, 36.8 percent comes from gas power plants and 32.5 percent from coal power plants. Hydropower is 20.2 percent and together with wind power (6.3 per cent), solar power (1 percent) and geothermal power (1.8 percent), the total share of electricity based on renewable energy is 30.1 percent. Turkey has no nuclear power plants in operation, but work on the first nuclear reactor at the new Akkuyu power plant is underway and is expected to be completed in 2023. Three more reactors will be built at this power plant, which is expected to be fully operational by 2025.

Tourism

Turkey has invested heavily in the development of the tourism sector and, over the last decades, has seen a steady increase in visitors from abroad. In 2018, 39.5 million tourists visited Turkey, compared to 32.4 million in 2017. The coastal areas of the Black Sea, the Aegean and the Mediterranean have good opportunities for boat and bath tourism. It is also a significant health tourism to the country’s many hot springs. Turkey is rich in cultural monuments from prehistoric times (see Asia Minor) from Greek and Roman antiquity, from early Christian and Byzantine times as well as from the Islamic period (Ottoman Empire). In total, 18 places in the country are listed UNESCO World Heritage List, see external link.

Transport and Communications

Turkey has been an important link between Europe and the Levant from the earliest times. Under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who was president from 1922 to 1938, major investments were made in the development of the railways. The development included a new network that radiated from the new capital Ankara to the three coasts and the easternmost provinces. The country’s total rail network amounts to 12,710 kilometers (2018). The main port cities are Istanbul and Izmir, Samsun, Mersin, Iskenderun and Trabzon. The major international airports are located at Istanbul (İstanbul Havalimanı), Ankara (Esenboğa) and Izmir/ Trabzon (Adnan Menderes).

Foreign Trade

In 2017, Turkey’s total exports amounted to USD 166.2 billion, while imports amounted to USD 225.1 billion. With this, the country had a deficit on the foreign trade balance of US $ 58.9 billion.

The five largest export markets were in 2017: Germany (9.6 percent), the United Kingdom (6.1 percent), Iraq (5.8 percent), the United States (5.5 percent) and Italy (5.4 percent).

Important export goods are textiles, food, electronics, metal products, transport equipment and tobacco.

According to Countryaah, the five most important markets for imports were in 2017: China (10.0 percent), Germany (9.1 percent), Russia (8.4 percent), the United States (5.1 percent) and Italy (4.8 percent).

Important goods are machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, fuel and fertilizers.

Thailand Business

Thailand Business

According to abbreviationfinder, TH is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Thailand.

Business

Thailand has long been a low-wage country that attracted labor-intensive operations from South Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan. At the end of the 1980s, Thailand was the country in Southeast Asia that, with its good location and political and economic stability, had the greatest attraction for foreign investment. In the mid-1990s, the business sector was restructured against high-tech industries and wages rose.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Thailand

Thailand is now a middle-income country and has the second-largest economy in Indonesia in Southeast Asia. Growth was strong during almost the entire 1990s and GDP per capita increased on average 3.8 percent per year. The driving force in the development was the export of both industrial goods and food. Industry, including mining and construction, accounts for 20 percent of employment. About 42 percent are employed in agriculture, forestry and fishing.

Calculations of the Human Development Index (HDI) for 2017 showed that Thailand was then ranked 83 among 189 countries. Poverty was sharply reduced during the 1990s, but at the same time, income disparities increased between different groups, between cities and rural areas, and between the central part of the country and the distant provinces. The modern business world is highly concentrated in the Bangkok region.

The global economic crisis led to significantly dampened demand for export goods, and Thailand’s GDP fell by 2.3 per cent in 2009. Already at the end of that year, however, exports again increased sharply by electric machines, electronics and cars. In 2010, GDP growth was 8.7 percent, despite political turmoil within the country. During the period 2005-10, unemployment varied between 1 and 1.5 percent.

However, Thailand’s manufacturing industry is facing increasing competition in the world market, mainly from low-wage countries Vietnam and China. Opportunities to develop the business sector towards knowledge-intensive production are currently limited by infrastructure deficiencies and by the relatively low level of education of the workforce.

In the autumn of 2009, the Thai government presented a comprehensive three-year stimulus program to counter the effects of the economic crisis. The emphasis here is on improved infrastructure, modernized education and rural development. A number of large projects have been started as funding has been found for them.

Rapid economic growth has led to serious environmental problems for several decades. In the population and among many politicians, there is now a considerable environmental awareness and since 2002 there is a special ministry for natural resources and environment.

For information on GDP and other business statistics about Thailand.

Agriculture

According to estimates in 2017, agriculture, forestry and fisheries contributed 8 percent of GDP and about 42 per cent of employment. Thailand is self-sufficient in food and, together with Vietnam, is the only country in Asia that is a net exporter of food.

Until 1990, the increase in agricultural production was due to an increase in acreage through the cultivation of forest areas. Then all fertile land was cultivated and what was subsequently put into use is less suitable land in the mountainous regions in the north. The soil shortage has become serious, especially in northeastern Thailand, and soil degradation through erosion is a growing problem. On the river plain in central Thailand, large areas of fertile agricultural land have been taken out of use and there are now urban buildings and traffic facilities. At the same time, rising prices for agricultural products have meant that agriculture has intensified, especially near the Bangkok region. The vast majority of agriculture is still small-scale, and in more remote parts of the country, yields are low, especially in rice. Artificial fertilizers are used to a lesser extent than in most Other Countries in Asia.

Rice has traditionally been the dominant crop. In 1970, rice grew on 68 percent of the cultivated area, in 2000 on 50 percent. In recent decades, and especially after 2000, agriculture has been broadened with the cultivation of rubber trees, fruits and cut flowers for export and intensive poultry farming. It has become commonplace with cultivation on contracts with large food industry companies.

Since 1981, Thailand has been by far the world’s largest exporter of rice, especially of special kinds and of high quality. Nowadays, exports of natural rubber are equally generating income for the country. It has been the world’s leading producer of natural rubber since 1991, which is harvested almost exclusively by small farmers and mainly in the south. Other important export goods are preserved and fresh fruit, mainly pineapple, as well as preserved chicken meat and sugar. Thailand is also the world’s second largest producer of cassava root fruit, exported to Western Europe for use as livestock feed. Also pet food is a Thai export product.

During the 00s, the production of most agricultural products increased only by 1-2 percent per year, mainly as a result of extreme weather with multi-year drought and even severe flooding. At the end of the 1990s, the state increased subsidies to small farmers for fertilizers and other input goods in order to achieve a higher return. A difficult problem is that many farmers have uncertain right to dispose of the land they cultivate, which means that they cannot invest in improvements.

Forestry

In 1965, 65 percent of the country was covered with forest, mainly tropical rain forest. Over the following 25 years, the forest area was reduced at a rapid rate as a result of logging timber for export and partly for the emerging domestic forest industry. Harvesting was rarely followed by replanting. In addition, the rural population increased rapidly and more and more agricultural land was needed. Forests were cleared and even hilly areas unsuitable for farming were cultivated, which eventually led to serious erosion and other soil degradation. In 1989, logging was banned and two years later the forest policy guidelines were set: 15 percent of the country’s land would be set aside for productive forestry while 25 percent would be preserved as original rainforest in the form of national parks and other reserves.

Nearly 90 percent of the forest area is owned by the state and much of it has traditionally been utilized by the locals who have sourced food, building materials and fuel there. The new forest policy meant that the villagers would no longer have access to the forest reserves.

However, forest area continued to decline, albeit at a slower rate. During the period 2005-10, the area of natural regrowth shrank, but most of that decrease was offset by new areas planted with forest, mainly with teak and eucalyptus, which are fast growing and produce the best economic result. Illegal forest felling still occurs on the outskirts of the reserve. The wood is smuggled to Burma and then sold to the Thai forest industry. The area of the original rainforest was hardly changed, but current statistics are lacking.

Larger forest areas now remain mainly in northwestern Thailand and along the border with Burma.

In 2010, the FAO estimated that 37 percent of Thailand’s area was wooded. Just over 1/3 of this is original rainforest and just over 1/5 planted forest, most within the framework of sustainable forestry. The remainder, ie. just over half, are areas of secondary forest with natural regrowth. Several million residents still live in areas with degenerate natural forest, even within the national parks. Governments’ plans to relocate them to provide total protection for forest reserves have met with fierce resistance. The contradiction between the local population’s need for traditional habitat and the state’s ambition to conserve natural resources has so far only been solved on a small scale, in the form of forest forestry. The residents of a village are then given the responsibility for nearby forest and are allowed to use and manage it.

For a long time, Thailand has been importing timber into the forest industry.

Fishing

Fish is the most important source of animal protein in the diet of most Thais. In 2008, fishing accounted for 1.2 percent of the country’s GDP and employed about 2 million people. As a fishing nation, the country was previously among the foremost in the world, but fishing has increased more in some other countries and in 2008 Thailand was ranked 11th in the world. In 2007, about 60 percent of total production came from sea fishing, 6 percent from freshwater fishing and the remainder from fish farming.

Most fishermen practice small-scale, coastal fishing using traditional methods, still at or near self-sustaining levels. The commercially oriented sea fishing takes place with trawlers farther out to sea and usually related to industries that process the fish. Thailand has fishing agreements with most coastal states in Southeast Asia and also with countries in eastern Africa. This means that Thai fishing fleets’ catches in their waters are landed and processed in Thailand.

Over the past decade, catches have decreased in the waters around Thailand. They have also changed their composition and contain more and more small fish, which indicates overfishing. Shrinking catches of small shrimp and larger sea shrimp also indicate overexploitation. The only catches that have increased are tuna. The state has imposed restrictions on fishing areas, fishing periods and fishing methods and requires annually updated fishing licenses. The number of professional fishermen has decreased sharply in recent years.

Fish farming has a long tradition in Thailand. Catches from there increased in 1990-2008 annually by 8-9 percent. Along the coasts and in pools in the agricultural areas, shrimp is grown which is exported to more than 90 percent, mainly to Japan, the US and EU countries.

Thailand was the third largest seafood exporter in the world in 2009, after China and Norway. In particular, exports of frozen and canned fish have increased in recent decades. But the fishing industry has overcapacity and Thailand is therefore also the world’s largest importer of fresh and frozen tuna, which is its most important raw material. Thailand’s fisheries policy is now focused on sea fishing in distant waters, sustainable shrimp farming along the coasts and quality control to continue exporting seafood despite fierce competition.

Mineral

Only a few minerals are found to be of significant value. Tin was previously an important raw material, but that recovery has ceased. The most significant mines in the 1990s were the zinc mine at Mae Sot near the border in the northwest and the gold mine in Chatree in northern Thailand. In both cases, the extraction has fluctuated between different years and it is not enough to place the country among the world’s twenty largest producers of zinc and gold. Iron and copper ore has also been mined, periodically and on a small scale. More extensive is the mining of industrial minerals such as limestone, feldspar and plaster.

Bangkok has become Asia’s most important center for grinding and shaping precious stones, and Thailand has an extensive export of processed gemstones. In the country, sapphires are extracted and gemstones are imported from the neighboring countries, both legally and illegally. Examples of these are rubies from Burma.

Energy

Thailand’s economic development has led to an ever-increasing need for energy raw materials and electricity, and domestic assets do not cover demand at all. At the beginning of the 1990s, 90 percent of all fuel was imported, and oil dependence was very high. It has subsequently declined, while the use of domestic natural gas has increased. Domestic oil recovery more than tripled during the first decade of the 21st century, but it is still small, internationally. Around 2010, it covered only one-seventh of the country’s oil needs. Most of the oil used is imported from countries in the Middle East. Oil is now mainly used as vehicle fuel, and the country’s energy policy includes developing other types of energy.

In the Gulf of Thailand, the extraction of natural gas has increased continuously since the beginning of the 1990s, and especially during the latter part of the 1990s, when a new field was opened in cooperation with Malaysia. However, one third of the natural gas used is imported through two pipelines from Burma’s gas field offshore. In the power plants, natural gas has replaced oil as a raw material. It also uses lignite that is mined in northwestern Thailand. The water energy is expanded to a small extent. Instead, Thailand imports electricity from hydropower plants in Laos. Of the electricity generated in 2010, just over 73 percent came from natural gas, close to 20 percent from coal, 6.5 percent from water and just over 0.5 percent from diesel oil.

There has been a nuclear program since the 1990s, but it has not been actualized until now, as resistance to nuclear production is great both in the population and among politicians. There is also resistance locally and among environmental groups to expand the coal mining. Measures to develop renewable energy have so far only yielded slow results.

Industry

The manufacturing industry has become increasingly important in Thailand’s economy. In 2017, industry accounted for 36 percent of GDP and 13.8 percent of employment. Industrial production increased by 6 percent annually in 2000-08. Almost 90 percent of the export income comes from the manufacturing industry.

The textile industry was the industry that first grew and it has been important since the 1960s. It was the industry that generated the most export income in 1986-94, nearly 16 percent in 1988. Above all, Japanese-Thai joint ventures were noticed. In 2006, however, the export share was only 3.5 percent. Competition had intensified from low-wage countries such as Vietnam and China. The US and the EU had set up barriers to trade and factories and machinery had aged. About 90 percent of the raw cotton is imported, which also limits the development of the industry.

Manufacture of electrical and electronic products grew from the early 1970s, and the composition of electronic components for export developed from the late 1970s, almost exclusively with foreign capital. After 1986, the industry expanded greatly as large companies in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore outsourced their manufacturing and made major investments in the Bangkok region. In 2002, the industry accounted for just over 25 percent of the country’s export earnings. However, during the 1990s, the export share shrank, partly as a result of increased competition from the low-wage countries.

Manufacturing of components for vehicles became increasingly extensive during the 1990s, and in the early 1990s, Japanese car manufacturers expanded operations in Thailand by building car assembly plants. Research and development has also emerged in this industry, which at the end of the 1990s was the third largest in terms of exports of industrial goods.

The largest industry in terms of employment is the food industry. It is spread across the country, unlike most other industries that are highly concentrated in the Bangkok region. New industrial areas are also emerging south-east of this, in connection with the new major port Laem Chabang with oil refineries and thermal power plants, among others.

In the cement, iron and steel and chemical industries, there are very large groups of companies, but most typically for Thai industry are small companies, often family companies with low capitalization. Many are subcontractors who produce on contracts to larger companies. In the latter part of the 1990s, there were the brightest prospects for the automotive industry, while the electronics and textile industries showed low productivity and were limited by a lack of skilled labor and infrastructure. In order to promote growth, governments introduced favorable loan terms for SMEs.

Foreign trade

Between 1986 and 1995, Thailand’s export income increased by 18.5 percent per year. This was followed by a seven-year period of slower growth, mainly due to increased competition from other countries in Southeast Asia, but also as a result of the Southeast Asian financial crisis in the late 1990s. Then came a strong recovery, and between 2003 and 2007, export revenue increased by 17.5 percent annually.

According to Countryaah, the composition of foreign trade has changed dramatically. Raw materials from agriculture and fisheries are processed before export and an increasing amount of industrial raw materials and semi-finished products are imported, processed and exported as increasingly advanced industrial products. In 1980, goods from the manufacturing industry accounted for 20 percent of the export value, in 2007 for just over 88 percent. The most important export goods in the late 00s were electrical appliances, circuit boards and computers, cars, rubber and food.

Rapidly rising oil prices have meant that oil now accounts for close to a fifth of import costs. Other important import goods are iron and steel, chemicals, electronic basic components, advanced machinery and timber. The current account balance shows a large surplus in most years. Until about 2000 was the United States. The EU countries and Japan are important markets for Thai industrial goods. Subsequently, countries in Southeast Asia and China have become increasingly important, and since 2006 Asia and Australia receive more than half of Thailand’s exports. The most important exporting countries in 2009 were the US, China and Japan (10-11 percent each) and Hong Kong, Australia and Malaysia. In 2009, 18.7 percent of imports came from Japan and 12.7 percent from China. Other important importing countries were Malaysia, the United States and the United Arab Emirates.

Tourism

Thailand was the country in Southeast Asia that developed tourism on a large scale at the earliest, and since 1982, tourism has been Thailand’s most important source of foreign currency. Long-distance tourist flows increased each year, except for short periods of stagnation following international terrorist attacks in 2000 and 2001, after the 2004 tsunami and in connection with influenza epidemics. In 2007, Thailand was visited by more than 14 million tourists. Nearly half of them were return visitors, a comparatively high proportion. Then followed two years of significant decline, but in 2016 the number was up to just over 32 million. The large preponderance of Europeans and Americans among tourists has declined in recent years, while the share from China and countries in Southeast Asia has increased. Of the tourists in 2010, 13 percent came from Malaysia and about half as many from each of China, Japan and the United Kingdom. For Swedish tourists, Thailand is a popular long-distance destination, but Sweden first came in 16th place.

Despite the monstrous traffic, the capital Bangkok has an unmistakable charm. Visits to the many monasteries (wat), the old royal palace and markets and business streets are memorable experiences, as well as boat trips on the larger canals. The royal ceremony boats and Kamthieng House, moved here from northern Thailand as a museum of folk art and folk customs, are also worth a visit. Likewise, the National Museum with large collections of eg. sculptures worth a visit.

Thailand’s ancient capital Ayutthaya is located 85 km north of Bangkok on an island surrounded by rivers and has many stately ruins of monastery and palace. At about the same distance to the west lies Nakhon Pathom with Pathom Chedi, Southeast Asia’s oldest and largest pagoda; still further west is the bridge over the River Kwai, notorious for the many Allied prisoners of war who perished here during the Second World War. The city center of northwestern Chiang Mai also has interesting buildings, and the city is also a good starting point for trips to picturesque villages in the surrounding area. Northern Thailand offers opportunities for hiking in the areas inhabited by the mountain people, with their interesting housing conditions and crafts. Many people visit the Khao Yai National Park in the northeast to see wild elephants, monkeys and rhino birds. Some of the country’s national parks include some of the islands off the Kranäset, which still contain untouched nature. The island of Phuket on the west coast of the nose is known especially for its many excellent beaches. Large-scale bathing and entertainment tourism, adapted for mass tourism, is located in Pattaya, southeast of Bangkok. Thailand can offer comfortable and safe rail travel; a popular route is Bangkok – Kuala Lumpur – Singapore, which takes two days. Textiles (mainly the Thai side) and jewelery tones (such as sapphires and zircons) are advantageous to trade in Thailand. Not least through the media, Thailand has gained a reputation as a destination for sex tourism, a stamp that, despite efforts, has proved difficult to completely wash away.

Tajikistan Business

Tajikistan Business

According to abbreviationfinder, TJ is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Tajikistan.  The economy of the Tajikistan is still predominantly agricultural, despite the small extent of arable land (7% of the land area, mostly mountainous and inaccessible). In 1991 agriculture provided about 44% of the gross domestic product and employed 45% of the labor force. The most important agricultural resource is cotton (256,000 t of fiber in 1990, but 109,000 in 1992), followed in order of importance by wheat (200,000 t in 1992), horticultural products and fruit. In 1990 the industrial sector contributed 43.5% to GDP and ensured 20.4% of employment. But between 1990 and 1993 the volume of industrial production underwent a drastic reduction (40%) due to the upheavals caused by the civil war which, according to government estimates – certainly underestimated – they would have caused 20,000 deaths and 600,000 refugees. Tajikistan has modest fossil energy resources (in 1990: coal, 500,000 t; oil, 200,000 t; natural gas, 300 million m3), but it can count on hydroelectric energy produced by exploiting the potential of its mountain watercourses, in quantities capable of satisfying about 75% of internal demand, before the civil war. Overall, internal energy resources do not allow self-sufficiency, and Tajikistan, which in the past relied on imports of hydrocarbons from the USSR, has found itself in great difficulty in recent years, as it can no longer count on the continuity of supplies. Other mineral products include gold (705 kg in 1992; 305 in 1993), aluminum, lead, mercury and tin ores. The manufacturing industry is mainly devoted to the production of foodstuffs, textiles and carpets.

Tajikistan is considered to be the poorest of the former Soviet republics in Central Asia. The disintegration of the Soviet Union with the demise of former markets and trade routes as well as civil war has further deteriorated the country’s economy. From 1985–95 GDP per capita fell by over 10% annually, but since the turn of the millennium, growth has accelerated.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Tajikistan

Although only 6% of the country’s land is arable land, Tajikistan’s economy is mainly agricultural. In 2008, agriculture (including forestry) contributed 23.8% of GDP and employed 67.2% of the working population. Industry (including mining) contributed so. with 30% of GDP and 7.5% of employment. About. 800,000 Tajiks are believed to have permanent or seasonal work in former Soviet republics.

According to countryaah, Tajikistan’s most important natural resource is rivers and waterfalls. New hydropower plants have enabled the export of electricity. One of the world’s largest dam plants, Nurek, is located near Dushanbe. Hydropower has created the basis for the establishment of the country’s considerable aluminum industry. Hydropower represents most of the country’s electricity generation. Construction of two of the country’s largest hydropower plants, aimed at exporting to Russia and Iran, was initiated in 2006, along with a 700 km long transmission line to Pakistan.

The implementation of economic reforms has been slow The corruption is widespread. The privatization of major state enterprises has just begun. However, thousands of small businesses, especially in commerce and services, have been established with private owners. In order to attract foreign investment capital, restrictions on operations for foreign banks were lifted in 2005.

Agriculture

The privatization of state and collective use occurred gradually after independence. Cotton is the most important crop, and a considerable part of the cultivation is still carried out on collective use. Cotton production makes the country highly dependent on artificial irrigation, especially from the Amu-Darja and Syr-Darja rivers. Extensive consumption of artificial fertilizers and insecticides has caused major environmental pollution and caused health damage to the population. In addition to cotton, wheat, tobacco, potatoes and vegetables, citrus fruits, figs and sugar cane are grown. Livestock breeding is based on karakulsau, goat and cattle. Tajikistan is self-sufficient with animal products.

Mining, energy and industry

Tajikistan has rich mineral deposits. There are deposits of uranium, coal, antimony, silver, aluminum, iron, lead, tungsten, bismuth, mercury, tin and petroleum. The mountainous landscape prevents the efficient utilization of mineral deposits. 95 percent of the electrical energy produced comes from hydropower. Otherwise, Tajikistan is dependent on importing petroleum.

Traditionally, the industry has been dominated by a few large, state-owned enterprises and many small businesses. It is produced i.e. aluminum, power equipment, cables, metal products, fertilizers. The light industry is dominated by the textile industry, with large production of cotton, silk, knitwear and clothing. Otherwise, footwear, food, carpets and perfume oils are produced.

Foreign Trade

Aluminum is the main export commodity, in addition to electricity and cotton. Tajikistan is dependent on oil and gas imports. Other machinery and equipment for aluminum production, foodstuffs and consumables are also imported. Before independence, most of the country’s trade with the other Soviet Union took place. Later, Tajikistan has focused on other countries, and its main trading partners in 2008 were China, Russia, Turkey and Norway.

Transport and Communications

The mountainous landscape makes it difficult to develop a good communication network. The road network is relatively well developed, but some areas are impassable during periods of the year. Tajikistan is linked to the Uzbek and Turkmen railway network both from Khodsjent in the Fergana basin and from Dushanbe. Dushanbe has an international airport. Otherwise, domestic airports are relatively well developed, but several of them are exposed.

Taiwan Business

Taiwan Business

According to abbreviationfinder, TW is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Taiwan.

Taiwan has the world’s 16th highest gross domestic product (GDP). GDP increased by three percent in 2018. GDP per capita amounts to USD 25,530 (2019). In East Asia and Southeast Asia, only Singapore, Brunei, Japan and South Korea have a higher GDP per capita. Unemployment is 3.8 per cent (2017).

Historical background

Economic development

According to countryaah, Taiwan was created in 1949 after the communist victory in the civil war on the mainland (China). Since 1950, Taiwan has experienced an almost explosive economic development, and has changed from a laid-back agricultural community to an industrialized country with significant commodity exports. Industrial production has been the most important driver of the economy.

Economic developments are closely linked to close political and economic relations with the United States before 1972, close economic relations with Japan and growing economic and cultural relations with China after 1987.

From 1950, Taiwan (along with South Korea, among others) was perceived by the United States as the front line area against Communist China. Under considerable American influence, intensive, state-controlled development strategies were implemented, with remarkable growth as a result. Taiwan, along with South Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore, were referred to as the newly industrialized economies or the “four tigers”.

Unlike South Korea, Taiwan never developed large commercial and industrial conglomerates. The main part of the business structure has instead consisted of small and medium-sized family businesses, including large state monopoly companies, including energy supply, petroleum industry and telecommunications. The strong state control of the economy was first reduced in the 1990s through the beginning liberalization of import trade, banking and financial services and other service industries.

Thanks to a solid economy and large foreign exchange reserves, Taiwan was relatively well-rested through the great Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998. To counter diplomatic isolation, Taiwan has used parts of its foreign exchange reserves to provide politically motivated assistance to particular Caribbean and Central American countries with which it has diplomatic relations. (In 2019, Taiwan had diplomatic relations with 14 countries of the UN member states and the Vatican).

Despite the foreign policy isolation, Taiwan’s foreign trade has increased significantly. With only 21 million inhabitants, Taiwan consolidated its position as one of the world’s foremost trading nations in the 1990s. In 1995, foreign trade was $ 215 billion, and both imports and exports passed $ 100 billion for the first time. In 2005, foreign trade totaled $ 350 billion. Only at the turn of the millennium was Taiwan overtaken by China as a trading nation.

Relationship with China

Chiang Ching-kuo, son of China’s President Chiang Kai-shek, became prime minister in 1972. Upon his father’s death in 1975, he took over as leader of Kuomintang and was elected president in 1978. Until his death in 1988, he gradually changed the strictly authoritarian form of government, and the one-party system was broken in 1986. At the election that year, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) gained a quarter of the vote and established itself as the leading opposition party. DPP’s slogan has been “one China, one Taiwan”, ie an independent Taiwan and no to reunite with China. The DPP, which led a minority government from 2000 to 2008, has traditionally been concerned that economic cooperation with China would make the country too dependent on the Chinese market and thus vulnerable to political pressure. Nevertheless, there was a strong increase in trade with China between 2000 and 2008. In 2000, exports to China accounted for only 2.9 percent of Taiwan’s total exports, while in 2006 it reached 23.2 percent.

At the 2008 parliamentary elections, Kuomintang gained power and switched to a more conciliatory and cooperative course in Beijing. As a result, investors got freer rein. Taiwanese companies were increasingly focusing on products for the growing Chinese middle class.

Primary industries

The primary contributions contribute 1.8 percent of the country’s GDP and employ 4.9 percent of the working population (2017).

Agriculture

Intensive cultivation of rice and sugar cane, partly on large plantations, was organized under the Japanese rule to supply the Japanese domestic market. During the period 1949–1953, the Kuomintang government, with support and pressure from the United States, implemented land reform, which contributed to the fact that small family farms are now the most common form of operation.

Agriculture is completely dependent on fertilizers due to the monoculture of old times on a soil which is poor in nature. About a quarter of the land area is cultivated, of which about half is used for wet rice production, often in rotation with other crops. Rice cultivation is heavily subsidized, but production is still declining. Rice is the main ingredient in the diet and is grown in most places. In slightly higher areas, barley, wheat soybeans and sorghum are grown. Sugarcane is grown on Taichungsletta and Pingtungsletta.

Since the 1980s, horticulture has developed rapidly. A variety of fruits are grown, with pineapple and mango as the most common, and a large variety of vegetables.

Pig is a leader in animal husbandry, followed by cattle and sheep. Of poultry, most hens are kept, followed by ducks and geese. Since the mid-1960s, animal husbandry has gradually been transferred to large industrial farms, and meat is produced for export.

Forestry

The forest covers about half of the land area and covers mostly mountain terrain. It is therefore partially inaccessible for commercial exploitation. Important tree species are bamboo, teak and various pine species. The authorities have focused mainly on the conservation of the forest since the 1980s, and the harvesting is therefore minimal.

Fishing

Since the 1960s, Taiwan has built up a large ocean-going fishing fleet, which includes 21,974 fishing vessels (2017). The previously important coastal fishery now has little economic significance, partly as a result of industrial pollution of the coastal waters. The total catch of seafood amounts to 748,000 tonnes (2017). Important fishing ports are Chilung, Kaohsiung, Suao and Makung. On the island of Taiwan, there are a total of 90,000 smaller fish farms.

Mining, energy

Mineral resources are generally small. The deposits of coal, oil and natural gas are small and of little economic value. Otherwise, sea ​​salt is recovered along the west coast, as well as some sulfur, marble, limestone and dolomite.

Hydropower resources are estimated at around 5 GW, of which 4.68 GW has been developed (figures from 2016). With the small domestic energy sources, the energy supply is entirely dependent on imported raw material. Taiwan has two nuclear power plants in operation, which contribute about 15 percent of the country’s power generation. Construction of a new nuclear power plant began in 1999, but was temporarily halted in 2000 due to environmental considerations. More than three-quarters of energy production takes place in the south, making the energy supply to the north vulnerable to natural disasters.

Industry

The industry contributes 36 percent of the country’s GDP and employs 35.9 percent of the working population.

Modern industrial development began in the 1950s when the authorities, with considerable American help and advice, initiated an import substitution policy. The purpose was to build up a separate industry for the production of lighter consumer goods for the domestic market by means of strong restrictions on imports. Through clearly defined objectives, the authorities controlled access to credits, raw materials, equipment and manpower.

In the 1960s, the policy was changed to export-oriented, and Taiwan began to take an active part in the world economy. Foreign investment (from the US, Japan and overseas Chinese) was attracted by cheap, disciplined and well-educated labor. Export-oriented zones were created in several places. In particular, the textile industry and the production of electrical household appliances were expanded. At the same time, the strong protection of the domestic market was maintained.

From the mid-1970s to the 1980s, the industrial structure was gradually adjusted to a greater focus on the heavy industry. Major development projects were initiated and included iron and steel mills, petroleum refining, petrochemical industry and production of machinery and equipment, besides strong expansion of the energy supply and transport.

Throughout the 1990s, the production of high-tech information products evolved to become a new economic mainstay. Many companies have evolved from merely being producers for foreign clients to developing their own world-leading products themselves. The labor-intensive part of production was moved to China and other countries, while most of the high-tech operations were retained.

Taiwan is now one of the world’s largest manufacturers of hardware (software), software (software), display terminals, motherboards and more. Other important industrial products are chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, motor vehicles and motor vehicle parts, as well as pharmaceutical products. The high-tech industry is particularly concentrated on a high-tech industrial park, which was opened at Hsinchu in 1980, and later expanded several times. New high-tech industrial parks were later opened at Tainan and Taichung.

Tourism

In the period from 2008 to 2018, the number of tourists increased from 3.85 to 11.07 million. This represented an increase of just over 200 percent. In 2015, 5.7 million tourists came from China, including Hong Kong and Macao, 1.6 million from Japan and 700,000 from South Korea.

Transport and Communications

The total road network is 43,206 kilometers, of which 42,793 kilometers with a fixed tire. Highways on the west coast of the island connect Taipei in the north with Kaohsiung in the south. It is also a freeway that connects the west coast with the east coast. The railway network covering 1692 kilometers (2018) provides a continuous connection around the island. There is a high-speed railway between Nangang, Taipei and Kaohsiung.

The island of Taiwan has three international airports: Taoyuan near Taipei, as well as Kaohsiung and Taichung airports. Kaohsiung has the country’s largest port. Other major ports are Chilung and Taichung.

Taiwan’s strategic location in East Asia and the country’s technical and financial resources have resulted in several international freight companies having their regional headquarters in Taiwan. The world’s eighth largest container shipping company is Taiwanese, and a number of international aircraft manufacturers have been established in Taiwan.

Foreign Trade

In 2017, Taiwan’s exports amounted to USD 349.8 billion, while imports amounted to USD 259.0 billion. With this, the country had a foreign trade surplus of 90.8 billion US dollars.

The most important export products are petrochemical products, motor vehicles and motor vehicle parts, ships, communication equipment, electronics and computer equipment. The five main markets for Taiwan’s exports are: China (28.8 percent), Hong Kong (12.4 percent), the United States (11.8 percent), Japan (6.9 percent) and Singapore (5.2 percent).

The main import products are oil, gas, coal, steel, motor vehicles, chemicals, machinery, equipment products, ingredients for the plastics and clothing industry and textiles. The main markets for Taiwan’s imports are: China (19.3 percent), Japan (16.2 percent), ASEAN countries (12.0 percent), the United States (11.7 percent) and EU countries (10.0 percent)).

Taiwan’s strong economic growth is largely due to the country’s competitiveness and growth in the export market. Wholesale trade completely overshadows trade in services (shipping, transport and tourism) abroad. On the other hand, the lack of natural resources and a relatively small domestic market make Taiwan dependent on foreign trade. Large foreign trade surpluses since the 1970s have led Taiwan to be among the ten countries in the world with the largest foreign exchange reserves (2019). Since the beginning of the 1990s, Taiwan has gradually opened its economy by reducing tariffs and facilitating access to a wider range of foreign imports.

Taiwanese capital makes twice as much foreign direct investment (mostly to China, followed by Southeast Asia and the United States) as the country receives. The largest investors in Taiwan are Japan and the United States. Taiwan receives no financial aid from abroad. The country itself only contributes with insignificant development assistance, mainly to the few countries that still have diplomatic relations with Taiwan.

Syria Business

Syria Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SY is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Syria.

Business

In 2011, the internal protests in the country developed into real civil war (see also Syrian civil war). As a result, the country’s economy and infrastructure have been wasted.

Economy

Inflation rate 28.10%
Unemployment rate 50%
Gross domestic product (GDP) $ 50,280,000,000
GDP growth rate -36.50%
GDP per capita $ 2,900
GDP by sector
Agriculture 20.00%
Industry 19.50%
Service 60.80%
State budget
Revenue 7.635 billion
Expenditure 9.38 billion
Proportion of the population below the national poverty line 11.9%
Distribution of household income
Top 10% k. A.
Lower 10% k. A.
Industrial production growth rate -2.40%
Investment volume 17.8% of GDP
National debt 94.80% of GDP
Foreign exchange reserves $ 407,300,000
Tourism 2011
Number of visitors 5,070,000
Revenue $ 1,816,000,000

 

Before the civil war, Syria had a mixed economy where agriculture, retail and some light industry are privately owned, while the state controlled most of the other business. In 2011, the country had a per capita GDP of USD 3,050. Agriculture (including forestry and fishing) accounted for 18 percent of GDP and employed 17 percent of the labor force; the corresponding figures for the industry (including the mining and energy industries) were 27 and 16 percent, respectively. About 50 percent of the country’s income comes from oil and gas production.

Even before the civil war, the country’s economic development was hampered by a number of factors; the confrontation policy against Israel and the military involvement in Lebanon led to military spending devouring more than half of government spending during periods. In addition, there were internal unrest and corruption and inefficiency in government and state-owned companies.

Agriculture

Topography and climatic conditions have been crucial for agriculture. An important cultivation area is the narrow land strip along the Mediterranean coast between Lebanon and Turkey, where mainly olives, fruits, tobacco and cotton are grown. The valley of the Nahr al-Asi valley is another important agricultural district. A new cultivation area in the northeast, al-Jazira, has been created through the construction of the Tabaqa Dam in the Euphrates. This has enabled large-scale irrigation, mainly for cotton cultivation. The ongoing expansion of irrigation as well as investments in modern technology are expected to both increase and stabilize production. Pastures cover just over 40 percent of the land area, and livestock farming is of great economic importance.

Several years of drought have posed major problems for the agricultural sector, and many farmers have been forced to move into the cities. The drought has also led to a shortage of food in some areas, especially in the northeastern part of the country.

Natural resources and energy

Syria’s most important raw materials are oil and gas, but the deposits are considered small. Production of heavy, sulfur-containing oil began in 1968. Production has been at a low level, but new discoveries of light oil with low sulfur content at Dayr az-Zawr have increased both production and export. In the 1980s, natural gas was also found and during the 00s, exports of natural gas increased.

Syria has invested a lot to increase electricity generation. Despite this, the country suffers from chronic energy shortages and is often affected by interruptions in electricity generation. In addition to oil and natural gas, hydropower also contributes to electricity generation. The Tabaqa Dam (completed in 1978) in the Euphrates is the country’s largest electric power plant. However, problems with the water flow in the Euphrates have meant that the power plant has failed to deliver the expected amount of electricity.

Industry

Following rapid industrialization in the 1950s, mainly in textile production, Syria’s industrial production stagnated during the 1970s. Many heavier industries were nationalized between 1958 and 1965, but since 1970, private investment has been encouraged. The country’s industry is still dominated by large state companies. In some industries, e.g. however, private companies have become an increasingly important role.

The most important industrial sectors are fertilizer, iron and cement industry, textile, food, glass and paper production, as well as the installation of tractors, refrigerators and TV sets. The most important industrial cities are Aleppo, Damascus, Hama and Hums.

Foreign trade

Syria’s foreign trade showed a surplus from the mid-1990s to the mid-1990s. Subsequently, the country has experienced a growing deficit, mainly as a result of falling oil exports and increased imports of consumer goods. Prior to 1990, the Soviet Union and other eastern states were the main exporting countries, but after 1991 Syria’s exports were increasingly directed at EU and other Middle Eastern countries. However, as a result of extensive smuggling, there is considerable uncertainty about trade statistics.

According to Countryaah, Syria mainly exports oil, food and textiles. Imports mainly comprise machinery and transport equipment, food and industrial goods. The most important trading partners are Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon and Germany.

Sri Lanka Business

Sri Lanka Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SL is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka is a developing country and the economy has traditionally been based on agriculture and simple industry, and tea, coconut and rubber used to make up most of its exports. The textile industry, the service sector and the construction industry have taken over in recent decades, and today provide large revenues to the country. The technology industry, especially the IT and telecommunications sectors, has been growing rapidly since the late 1990s.

The country has high debt and the country’s economy was hit relatively hard by the global financial crisis in 2008-2009. After the peace in 2009, more and more foreign companies have also established themselves in Sri Lanka.

The distribution of income is uneven and poverty is particularly marked in the countryside. Sri Lanka is the recipient of financial assistance, including from the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and Norway.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Sri Lanka

Economy

Foreign investors have gained increased interest in Sri Lanka since the end of the civil war (1983-2009), and the country has enjoyed steady economic growth in recent years.

Sri Lanka’s economy has traditionally been based on agriculture and simple industry, and tea, coconut and rubber used to make up most of its exports. The textile industry, the service sector and the construction industry have taken over in recent decades, and today provide large revenues to the country.

During the first three decades of independence, a number of economic and social reforms were implemented. The government had a strong commitment to developing social welfare and to replacing imports with local products. There were statutory price controls on consumer goods and access to free health care and free education. Economic policy introduced measures to increase local production while introducing various import restrictions. Through active welfare policy, the country achieved reduced illiteracy, lower mortality and a significant increase in life expectancy.

Industrial production was dominated by several large state-owned companies that produced goods such as cement, steel, ceramics, fuel and lubricant oils, paper, leather, tires, textiles, sugar and spirits. Only a few factories, most of them light consumer goods, were in private hands.

The strong state control of the economy hampered economic growth, and in 1977 the authorities introduced an economic liberalization policy. The goal was increased economic growth by stimulating private investment and increasing the country’s income by promoting a more export-oriented economy. Several state-owned industrial enterprises were privatized, and the authorities introduced incentives to attract foreign investors. Among other things, investment promotion zones were created where investors were offered a package of incentives.

Tourism was one of the industries that flourished under the liberalization policy, but this sector has been very sensitive to political instability.

Following the end of the 26-year civil war in 2009, the authorities have launched several major development projects to rebuild the country’s infrastructure and to stimulate growth in the war-affected areas. Small and medium-sized enterprises have been established, and measures have been taken to increase agricultural production in areas hit hard during the war.

The country has high debt, and the country’s economy was hit relatively hard by the global financial crisis in 2008-2009. After the peace in 2009, more and more foreign companies have also established themselves in Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, the country’s export earnings do not cover imports, and the country has a large foreign debt.

The financial contribution of the many Sri Lankans living abroad is a significant contribution to the country’s economy. Nearly one million of the population work abroad, most of them in the Middle East.

The distribution of income is uneven, and poverty is particularly marked in the countryside. Sri Lanka receives financial assistance, including from the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and Norway.

Sri Lanka is traditionally a popular destination, and the tourism industry is the dominant sector in the service industries. The numbers of visitors were marked by strong fluctuations as a result of the conflict, but have increased sharply since the end of the civil war in 2009.

Unemployment in Sri Lanka has been declining in recent years, but youth unemployment is still high.

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

About 30 percent of the land area is cultivated. The earlier clear divide between state plantation operations and private small farms has been more evened in recent years. Export products are grown to a greater extent among small farmers, and local agriculture has become more commercialized. Tea is one of the country’s most important export product, and Sri Lanka is one of the world’s largest tea producers.

Rice production is the most important economic activity for Sri Lanka’s farmers. Since independence, there has been a strong increase in the country’s rice production. Important factors for this increase are that in the 1970s it was adapted for rice production in the new area and that technology was used that contributed to increased crops. Rice is grown mainly for domestic consumption

Coconuts are grown in low-lying areas and were previously an important export commodity. Sri Lanka is one of the world’s seven largest rubber producers. Despite the authorities’ efforts to improve irrigation and fertilization methods and increased production, some rice must be imported to meet the country’s needs. The most important livestock are cattle, buffaloes, pigs and poultry.

In fisheries, the resource potential is plentiful, especially on the north and northwest coasts. The fishing is mainly conducted as coastal fishing for own and local consumption. Over the last few decades, the authorities have been focusing on modernization, including to increase fish consumption and to provide employment in coastal districts.

In 2016, agriculture (including forestry and fisheries) contributed 8.2 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) and employed 28.4 percent of the working population.

Industry and mining

The industry has grown significantly since the 1990s, especially in the IT and textile sectors. Among other things, an extensive rubber industry has been developed based on the country’s own rubber resources, and in recent years the country’s clothing industry has grown so much that it is necessary to import textiles into the country’s clothing factories. Industrial development areas have been established to attract international capital through tax cuts and other benefits.

Sri Lanka’s mineral extraction industry includes mining of gems and graphite, as well as excavation of beach sand containing ilmenite and monasite, and kaolin, apatite, quartz sand, clay and salt.

Most important is mining to extract gemstones such as sapphire, ruby ​​and topaz, as well as a number of semi-precious stones. Most of the gem extraction goes to exports. Ratnapura is famous for its gemstones.

Sri Lanka has been preparing experimental drilling for oil and gas offshore since the turn of the millennium.

Industry and mining account for 31 percent of GDP and employ 26 percent of the working population, and the figures for service industries are 62 percent and 46 per cent respectively. (2016).

Foreign Trade

The country’s exports go mainly to the United States, the United Kingdom, India, Germany and Italy. According to Countryaah, the most important export products are textile products, teas and spices, gemstones, rubber products, coconut products and fish. The majority of imports consist of textiles, mineral products, machinery, transport equipment, petroleum and petroleum products. Among the most important suppliers of imported goods are India, Singapore, China and Iran.

Transport and Communications

Sri Lanka has a relatively well-developed road network (approximately 114,000 km) and almost 1500 km of railway. Colombo has an international airport (Katunayake), and is also the country’s most important port city. Other important port cities are Trincomalee (main port for tea exports), Galle and Jaffna.

South Korea Business

South Korea Business

According to abbreviationfinder, KR is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of South Korea.

South Korea’s economy is a market economy with a high degree of state control. A strong export-oriented industry is the mainstay of the South Korean economy. China is South Korea’s most important trading partner.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of South Korea

Historical development

When Korea was divided, the southern part was essentially an agricultural country. Most of the industry was located in the north, which also had the bulk of Korea’s significant mineral deposits. Until the mid-1960s, living standards in North Korea were higher than in South Korea. Since the 1960s, South Korea has prioritized rapid economic development. A thriving export industry has been built, with an emphasis on consumer electronics, semiconductors, automobiles, steel and petrochemicals, partly thanks to Japanese loans and investments.

After constant high economic growth since the 1960s, in the early 1990s, South Korea entered a period of somewhat slower growth rates. Two-digit wage increases in the period 1988–1993 led to a slight weakening of competitiveness. South Korea was hit hard by the Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998, and unemployment reached 8 percent. Car manufacturer Daewoo Motors was hit in 2000 by the largest bankruptcy in the country’s history with a debt of $ 70 billion. Around the turn of the millennium, economic growth accelerated again. Already in 2001, unemployment had fallen to 3 percent, a level that persisted for the following years.

Agriculture

Agriculture used to be the main trade route, and as late as 1966, it employed 56 percent of the working population. In 2002, the primary industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) accounted for only 10 percent of employment and 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). In 2017, these figures had fallen to 4.8 percent of employment and 2.2 per cent of GDP.

Only one fifth of the land can be cultivated, but where climate and terrain allow, two crops are harvested a year. Farms are generally small (10 to 15 acres) and usually divided into small tigers, but thanks to a stronger degree of artificial irrigation, increased mechanization and more extensive use of improved cereals, yields in South Korean agriculture have increased significantly. Today, the country is largely self-sufficient with rice, but not with other cereals. It is grown among other things rice, barley, soybeans, sweet potatoes, potatoes, fruits, yams, tobacco, maize, millet, wheat and various kinds beans. For use in the textile and silk industry some cotton and mulberry trees are grown.

Like North Korea, since the 1990s, South Korea has been repeatedly haunted by natural disasters with major agricultural damage.

Forestry

Forestry plays a modest role in the country’s economy. The timber is usually of poor quality and not sufficient to meet local needs. Some South Korean companies own forests in Malaysia and Indonesia, among others.

Fishing

South Korea is one of the world’s leading fishing nations. Fishing meets the country’s own need for fish, and the surplus is exported. In addition to fishing, farming is driven by oysters and clams, and shellfish and edible seaweed are exported to Japan.

Mining

South Korea has only 10-15 percent of Korea’s estimated mineral resources. Mining accounts for about 0.3 percent of GDP, and only 0.1 percent of the workforce is employed in the mining sector. There are deposits of coal, iron ore, graphite, tungsten and gold.

Industry

A strong export-oriented industry is the mainstay of the South Korean economy. In 2017, exports of goods and services accounted for 43 percent of GDP. In 2017, the industry accounted for 24.6 percent of the country’s employment and 39.3 percent of GDP.

The industry has had a very rapid expansion in foreign capital investment, including many Japanese corporations, which have withdrawn much of their profits and made little use of domestic capital.

The country’s industrial policy is reminiscent of Japan, with an export-oriented industry based on imported raw materials. The export industry was partially transformed in the 1980s and 1990s from industries such as textiles and footwear to more advanced industries such as cars and electronics. The automotive industry has seen particularly strong growth. The country’s industry is largely dominated by so-called chaebols; large industrial conglomerates, such as Hyundai. An increasing part of the production base has been moved to other countries, not only to China and other low-cost countries in Asia, but also to Europe and America.

The Japanese have, among other things, participated in the development of the country’s iron and steel industry, which includes the large integrated iron and steel plant in Pohang on the southeast coast and smaller plants in Busan, Ulsan and Seoul. Primary metal production forms the basis for an extensive mechanical industry, and South Korea is one of the world’s largest shipbuilding nations. In the early 1990s, South Korea became the world’s leading shipbuilding nation, led by Hyundai Heavy Industries. The largest shipyards are located in Ulsan and Okpo on the island of Koje southwest of Pusan, but Pusan, Mokpo, Kunsan and Inchon also have a considerable shipbuilding industry.

In 2004, work was started on the infrastructure of three financial fronts for foreign investors. The Incheon Free Economic Area is located at one of Asia’s largest airports, which opened in 2001. A stated goal with the freezes is to make South Korea more of an economic hub in Asia.

Foreign Trade

South Korea’s export-driven economy has benefited from the strong Japanese yen currency. In 1995, South Korea became the 12th country in the world whose exports have passed US $ 100 billion. In 2017, exports reached US $ 577 billion, while imports reached US $ 457.5 billion that year. Industrial products primarily focus on semiconductors, consumer electronics, automobiles, steel and petrochemical products. Japan and the United States are the main targets for South Korea’s exports, in addition to Hong Kong, Singapore and Germany. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between South Korea and China in 1992, trade with China has increased significantly.

According to Countryaah, Japan and the United States are the most important countries for South Korea’s imports, as well as Germany, Saudi Arabia and Australia. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations with China in 1992, China’s trade has shown particularly strong growth. In 2017, 25.1 percent of exports to China and 12.2 percent to the United States went, while Vietnam took 8.2 percent, Hong Kong 6.9 percent and Japan 4.2 percent.

Of South Korea’s imports, 20.5 percent came from China, 11.5 percent from Japan, 10.5 percent from the United States, 4.2 percent from Germany and 4.1 percent from Saudi Arabia (2017). The main import goods are machinery and transport equipment, petroleum and petroleum products, chemical products and various factory-manufactured goods.

Transport and Communications

During the rapid economic development, transport has been heavily invested. The country has a well-developed state-owned high-speed rail network that connects the capital of Seoul with, among others, Pusan ​​(via Taegu), Mokpo on the southwest coast and Samchok on the northeast coast.

In 2001, North and South Korea agreed to reopen the old railroad between North and South, and on May 17, 2007, a passenger train crossed the border between the two countries for the first time in over 50 years. This was a preliminary one-off event, but is seen as an important part of the process of normalizing the relationship between North and South Korea.

The road network has a total length of approximately 100 428 kilometers (2016), which includes the 428 kilometer long motorway between Seoul and Busan. A highway through the DMZ border zone was opened in 2005, but only for strictly regulated traffic to/from a joint Korean industrial project near Kaesong. However, efforts are being made to improve the road connection between the two countries.

During the 1990s, the car fleet multiplied from just over 2 to 8 million. Seoul has had a subway since 1974.

The privately owned airlines Korean Airlines (KAL) and Asiana operate domestic and foreign routes from Seoul. In 2001, one of Asia’s largest airports opened on reclaimed land at the port of Inchon. Other international airports can be found at Seoul (Kimpo), Busan and Cheju. The main port cities are Pusan, Inchon, Donghae, Masan, Yosu, Kunsan, Mokpo, Pohang, Ulsan, Cheju and Kwangyang.

Singapore Business

Singapore Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SG is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Singapore.

Economics and business

Since Singapore became fully independent in 1965, the country quickly industrialized. The government focused primarily on labor-intensive manufacturing but also on education and better infrastructure. The lack of natural raw materials would be compensated by the availability of trained labor and a good business climate.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Singapore

One of the most liberal economies in the world grew up, where the market forces have a lot of room at the same time as the government is active through stimulations and small rule shifts and monitors that the development is moving in the desired direction. The business-friendly climate has promoted entrepreneurship and has for a long time attracted greater foreign direct investment than any other country in Asia. A number of multinational companies have placed their regional headquarters as well as some qualified manufacturing and research to Singapore.

More than in any other Asian country, Singapore has for a long time had a stable political regime, very good infrastructure, well-educated, though limited labor and high living standards, more than in Hong Kong’s main competitor. More than three quarters of industrial production now takes place in foreign-owned companies and, to an increasing extent, service production is also internationalized.

The permanent workforce is very well educated. Singaporeans over the age of 24 have, on average, gone to school for almost 11 years, and just over 28 percent of them have university education (2015). However, there is a shortage of trained personnel, and especially multinational companies are recruiting specialists from abroad. Singaporeans make up just over two-thirds of the country’s labor force. The remainder are foreign guest workers, most of them low-skilled. They work primarily in the construction sector, in households and in transport and commerce.

The country’s GDP grew rapidly and steadily most years until the beginning of the 2000s, with an annual increase of 7-10 percent during the years 2004-07. The decline was severe during the global financial crisis over the next two years, especially in the manufacturing industry. After a sharp upturn in 2010, five years followed with increasingly subdued growth.

In 2015, Singapore was one of the countries in the world with the highest economic prosperity. Foreign direct investment is still increasing and now the country is itself a significant investor in other countries in Southeast Asia and also in China and India. Domestic companies are encouraged to export in these new markets where there is a growing demand for high-tech products.

The early location benefits remain, but limitations have been added as a result of strong growth. There is very little land for housing, facilities and traffic and a problematic lack of water for households and businesses. The cost of living is rising and the pay gap is the same. The Government now emphasizes the need to strengthen the social insurance system, especially for pensioners, and the need for a major investment in lifelong learning as well as efforts to promote productivity and innovation in domestic companies.

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and other raw materials

Traditional agriculture, forestry and fishing have ceased in Singapore. Farming with grain cultivation no longer exists, and the farmers, who make up about 1 percent of the employed, mainly sell chickens and eggs and to some extent vegetables. About 95 percent of all food must therefore be imported. However, two goods are exported from this sector, namely orchids and aquarium fish.

There is no productive forestry either. The tropical forest that previously existed was harvested to give way to urban development. Remains of nature-protected areas of different kinds and higher vegetation at the water reservoirs remain. Singapore can still give a green impression because the city planning is concerned with elements of green environment with tree plantings and other green spaces.

Fishing was previously an important industry in the waters around Singapore but is no longer in traditional form. However, there are fish farms in some places on the coast and also offshore.

Singapore has no own resources on minerals and energy raw materials. The only mineral deposits that are mined are granite and sand used in road construction. The country also lacks its own resources on fossil raw materials. Until the beginning of the 2000s, energy supply was entirely dependent on oil imports. Since then, energy policy has changed. Natural gas is imported via pipelines from neighboring countries, and since 2009 there is also a port facility for handling liquefied natural gas (LNG) that is imported from more distant countries. The country has become increasingly clear throughout the region’s center for trade in natural gas and for the development of natural gas use.

Calculated per capita, Singapore has high electricity consumption. Several industries are energy-intensive, primarily shipbuilding and petrochemicals. The standard of living is high and, among other things, air conditioning consumes a lot of electricity.

In 2013, more than 90 percent of the electricity came from natural gas and 5 percent from oil, while only 3 per cent was renewable energy (biomass, mainly waste).

Imports of crude oil and oil products are still very high as fossil fuels are required for all international traffic with Singapore as a hub. Above all, crude oil is the raw material for Singapore’s oil refineries and other petrochemical industries. This is one of the world’s largest centers for oil trade and oil refining and several global oil companies have their regional headquarters in Singapore. Natural conditions are lacking to achieve a more sustainable energy supply, and the almost total dependence on imports means a great deal of energy security for the country.

Industry

The country’s manufacturing industry and service are highly developed industries with international markets.

Early in industrialization, both foreign and domestic companies invested heavily in electronics manufacturing, which has since been Singapore’s most important industrial industry; In 2013, it alone accounted for almost 1/3 of the value of the country’s industrial production. Mainly, computer equipment and other consumer electronics are manufactured. During the 2010s, the growth rate slowed down in this sector.

Instead, the government has stimulated strong growth in biomedical research, biotechnological development and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Global pharmaceutical groups are increasingly placing research and clinical drug testing in the country. Singapore is seen as the center for expansion in the growing Asian market. Also attractive is Singapore’s expertise and regulations in the field of trademark law.

Since Singapore has the world’s largest transhipment port, there have long been major repair yards and a number of companies with marine service. The country’s high-tech niche in this regard has become the design and production of oil rigs and other equipment for the extraction of crude oil and natural gas at sea. 70 percent of the world’s oil rigs are built in Singapore. In collaboration with Norway, research and development of oil extraction methods are being conducted at great depths and in stormy waters.

Singapore has no oil resources of its own, but as a result of its excellent transport situation, the country has become one of the world’s largest centers for oil trade. In connection with this, an extensive petrochemical industry has emerged. It has expanded during the 2010s, despite changing conditions in the world’s oil market, and in 2015 it accounted for approximately the same share of the industry’s production value as the electronics industry. The operations have been gathered on Jurong Island, the largest of Singapore’s artificial islands, which is adjacent to the south-west coast.

The major global chemical groups have both manufacturing and research here, among other things regarding more efficient forms of fossil energy for the transport sector, chemicals for safer agricultural production and a long-running water purification.

As in the previous ten years, Singapore 2015 was placed first in the World Bank’s measurements of the world’s countries’ business climate. Among other things, the reliability and efficiency of the operations were noted. The good international rating is reflected in the importance of the service industries in the economy. Business services accounted for 15 percent of GDP in 2015, the financial sector for 13 percent and trade for 15 percent.

Foreign trade

Singapore advocates a very liberal trade policy and has concluded free trade agreements with most of the world’s largest economies. During the period 2009-14, the value of Singapore’s foreign trade in goods increased by about a third, and in particular, the importance of trade in oil, oil products, chemicals and chemical products increased in both imports and exports. At the same time, the share of machinery and equipment decreased, particularly as regards the income from electronics exports.

2015 saw a significant change in the trade in oil and oil products. Volume still increased, but prices fell sharply and in terms of value, the composition of trade changed significantly. The downturn in the oil trade also meant that export revenues in that year decreased by just over 7 percent (to US $ 476 billion) and import costs by 12 percent (to US $ 408 billion).

Singapore’s important role as a hub in the international transport networks is reflected in the fact that a large part of its foreign trade is re-export. Imported goods are further exported in unchanged condition. Half of the country’s exports in 2015 consisted of goods produced within the country while the other half were re-exports.

According to Countryaah, the country’s most important trading partners are China and Malaysia. Significant is also trade with Hong Kong and Indonesia as well as with the EU and the US.

Service exports, which have steadily increased since 2010, are another important income. In the middle of the 10th, it generated revenue corresponding to about four-fifths of goods exports. The increase came mainly from repairs and maintenance of ships and aircraft, as well as information and communication services and insurance. Another source of income is tourism. In the mid-10s, about 15 million visitors came to the country annually.

Saudi Arabia Business

Saudi Arabia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SA is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Saudi Arabia.

In less than a century, Saudi Arabia has undergone a dramatic social change, socially and economically, as a result of large revenues from its oil and gas deposits. The Kingdom is the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, with the largest proven oil reserves and the largest available production capacity. The establishment of the State of Saudi Arabia happened in 1932, the year before the first oil exploration license was granted, and the development of the country has largely been linked to the extraction of its oil resources – primarily after the Second World War, and especially from 1970 years, when revenues rose sharply as a result of higher prices, combined with more reform-friendly monarchs. From being a tribal society rooted in a Bedouin and nomadic culture in a geographical area divided between different clans and emirates, For half a century, Saudi Arabia became a modern state with an expanded infrastructure and established welfare services, especially in education and health, and rapid urbanization and substantial industrialization. However, even with some minor governance reforms towards the end of the 20th century, Saudi Arabia has remained a monarchical monarchy ruled by the house of Saud, which occupies important functions in social life and which has not allowed openness e.g. in the country’s budgets and economy. This has led to questions about the state of the economy, including the size of the oil and gas reserves.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Saudi Arabia

According to countryaah, Saudi Arabia is heavily dependent on petroleum revenues, and the country is very vulnerable to fluctuations, especially in oil prices. More than 90% of the country’s total export revenues, and 70-80% of the state’s revenues, come from the petroleum sector. After a sharp increase in income in the 1970s, there were periods of low prices and a decline in income in both the 1980s and 1990s, which led to financial tightening and borrowing. Because of. Due to its large production capacity and large reserves, Saudi Arabia has been able to influence price developments, and – within OPEC – has been the country that has varied the production to a large extent to help regulate the price of crude oil on the world market.

Especially since the 1980s large public investments have been made in the development of other business activities, in particular industry and agriculture, not least to reduce the unilateral dependence on the oil sector. In particular, much has been invested in the petrochemical industry, and much has been invested in agriculture and fisheries to reduce the dependence on food imports.

The 1991 Gulf War also incurred great expenditure on the country; so does the construction and operation of a modern defense. The economic costs of the Gulf War are estimated at approx. $ 60 billion, financed by drawing on the country’s foreign exchange reserves, as well as loans. In subsequent years there was increasing pressure on the Saudi economy, with increased debt and budget deficits. The authorities implemented several measures to reduce public spending and adapt the economy to a new era with increasing globalization and market adaptation. This was done i.e. by reducing government subsidies, replacing foreign workers with Saudis, and introducing more liberal foreign ownership rules. In 2005, it was estimated that more than 6 million foreign nationals, most from South Asia and the Middle East, worked in the country – and thus also accounted for substantial capital exports. The Saudi state plays a major role in the country’s business, and liberalization in the form of privatization in the early 2000s had not yet yielded significant practical implications. One of the reasons for economic liberalization, including foreign investment facilitation, was Saudi Arabia’s desire for membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO). A particular challenge for the Saudi economy is the large population growth combined with the high level of welfare services and subsidies – which leads to a rapid increase in government spending, while at the same time oil production and income per share. capita drops drastically. Reducing subsidies, and increasing taxes, are measures that are considered necessary but politically difficult to implement. Establishing sufficient jobs to meet population growth is another challenge.

Water supply is a serious problem in Saudi Arabia and a restriction on economic activity. Water is needed for the population, industry and agriculture. Extensive investment in saltwater desalination has resulted in increased access to water. for irrigation in agriculture, but at a high cost, both economically and environmentally, including side effects such as increased salt content in the soil and falling groundwater levels.

Saudi Arabia is traditionally one of the world’s largest donors of development aid, primarily to Arab states and countries with an Islamic population.

Agriculture and fishing

Saudi Arabia is by nature not very suitable for agriculture, due to the fact that. lack of both arable land and water. Cultivation is limited to oases and areas under artificial irrigation. Even with considerable economic investment in agriculture, the economic importance of agriculture has decreased, both with regard to agriculture. production and employment. At the turn of the century, the share of agricultural workers had fallen to less than 5%; the contribution to GNI was approx. 5%. In addition to low rainfall, the operation is also hampered by increasing salinity in the soil and small units of use. The cultivated area is only approx. 2% of the total area; a further approx. 35% is used as pasture, but is of low quality. Urbanization has also resulted in labor shortages in the sector. Improved irrigation and drainage systems and greater control of migratory sand dunes have been significantly invested with increased yield, but at high production prices. Main agricultural products are wheat, sorghum, millet, barley, dates, tomatoes, fruits and vegetables. Large animal husbandry. Saudi Arabia is self-sufficient with a variety of dairy products and with eggs and poultry. The nomads (Bedouins) keep camels, sheep and goats.

The development of fisheries has also been focused on. There is some fishing for crustaceans, mussels and various sea fish, mainly in the Indian Ocean.

Mining and energy

Saudi Arabia is very mineral rich and is the world’s largest producer and exporter of crude oil. The country also has the world’s largest known oil deposits, and the world’s fourth largest known natural gas reserves. In addition, the country has significant deposits of a number of other minerals.

The production and export of crude oil, and gradually natural gas, is the dominant sector in the Saudi economy, and the very foundation for the development of the modern kingdom as one of the world’s leading welfare states. The first oil exploration licenses were granted in 1933, and the same year the Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco) later began drilling. In 1938, the first export took place, before recovery began in earnest in 1946. In 1980, a consensus was reached on full Saudi takeover of the foreign oil companies’ operations in Saudi Arabia, effective back to 1976. The state-owned oil company Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco) is the world’s largest and the country’s leading economic player, alongside Saudi Basic In-dustries Corp. (SABIC); one of the world’s leading petrochemical groups.

Petroleum production is by far the most important economic activity in the country, and normally contributes between 30% and 40% of GDP, accounting for over 90% of total export value, and 70-80% of the state’s total revenue. The sector means less employment, with only 2% of the working population. Saudi Arabia has the world’s largest known oil reserves, as of 2005, estimated at over 260 billion barrels, ie around one-fourth of the world’s total proven reserves. Saudi Arabia is also the world’s largest producer, with a daily output of just over 10 million barrels/day in the early 2000s. Saudi production has varied considerably, ia. as a result of OPEC’s attempt to regulate prices, and the country claims to have a capacity of approx. 15 million barrels/day Natural gas reserves in 2005 were estimated at 235 trillion cubic feet. Saudi Arabia has about 80 oil and gas fields, but over half of the oil reserves are concentrated on only eight fields, of which Ghawar and Safaniya are the world’s largest for respectively. onshore and offshore production – and Ghawar, with approx. 70 billion subjects, the world’s largest oil field ever. Saudi Arabia also mines a field with Kuwait, the so-called. neutral zone, from which the income is distributed equally between the two countries. The field contains approx. 5 billion barrels. Saudi Arabia produces oil along with Bahrain, in the Abu Saafa field, and has donated its proceeds to neighboring countries. Saudi Arabia is a key supplier of oil to Europe and the United States, and responded in the early 2000s for approx. 15% of the country’s oil imports. About 60% of exports go to Asia, which is also the main recipient of Saudi refined products. Saudi Arabia has eight refineries with a total capacity of approx. 1.75 million barrels/day. Most of the exports take place via the Ras Tanura and Ras al-Juaytmah terminals, as well as Yanbu. For these, two major oil lines operate. Saudi Aramco’s subsidiary Vela has one of the world’s largest tankers and accounts for a large part of its exports. The largest gas deposits are related to the oil, mostly from the Ghawar, Safaniya and Zuluf fields.

Saudi Arabia has significant reserves of several minerals, especially in the north of the country. Gold, plaster and limestone are also mined, and there are known deposits of iron, phosphate, bauxite, uranium, silver, tin, tungsten, zinc, copper and more.

Due to both urbanization and industrialization, Saudi Arabia has a large and rapidly growing energy demand. In 2016, the production of electric energy was 345 TWh, with 59 percent being produced with natural gas and 41 percent with oil. Around 70 percent of electricity consumption goes to air conditioning and cooling, while 20 percent is used for seawater desalination. Consumption growth has been between 6 and 8 percent per year. Installed production capacity is above 60 GW and this is expected to increase to 120 GW by 2032. It is planned that a large part of the growth in the future will be covered by renewable energy and nuclear power.. In 2014, it was reported that 100 percent of rural people have access to electricity.

Industry

Saudi Arabia has built up an extensive industry since the 1970s/1980s, which is essentially linked to the country’s petroleum extraction and petrochemical activities, including oil refineries, gas plants and other petrochemicals, including fertilizer production. The industrialization program has also focused on building materials, especially steel and cement, as well as hardware and metal products. Production of food and pleasure products is also an important part of the industrial sector, which accounts for approx. 10% of GNI. Most of the industry is state-owned, but the authorities are encouraging the creation of private small businesses. Industrial centers have been established in Jubayl and Yanbu.

Foreign Trade

Saudi Arabia has traditionally had significant surpluses in the balance of trade with foreign countries, but has had deficits during periods of lower production or lower oil prices. The volume of foreign trade is closely linked to the prices of petroleum. As of 2005, petroleum and petroleum products contributed almost 95% of the country’s total export revenue. The main customers for the country’s exports are the USA, Japan, France, South Korea and Italy.

Transport and Communications

Saudi Arabia has a well-developed transport network, with approx. 159 000 km of main road including connecting Dammam on the Persian Gulf with Riyadh and Mecca and Jeddah on the Red Sea. Also road along both coasts. Filling bridge over to Bahrain in Persian Gulf. Railway connections exist between Riyadh and Dammam, and between Riyadh and the petroleum fields. An extension of the railway from Dammam to Jubayl is planned. Pipelines from the petroleum fields to the shipping ports.

The main ports are Jeddah, which receives most of the pilgrimage traffic to Mecca, Dammam, Jubayl, Yanbu and Jizan. Petroleum terminal at Ras Tanurrah (north of Dammam). The country has 25 commercial airports; international airports in Riyadh, Jeddah and Dhahran (Zahran) and 22 airports for domestic traffic.

Russia Business

Russia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, RU is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Russia.

Business

Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation is considered a market economy, and in 2016 the country was the sixth largest economy in the world. However, economy and business are still characterized by Soviet economic policy. Business is adversely affected by the fact that the banks are not sufficiently independent of political and economic power, that the so-called oligarchs have a strong influence and it is difficult for SMEs to obtain financing.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Russia

The legacy of the Soviet era.

In the Soviet Union, so-called five – year plans were used, which would increase the state’s control over the country’s resources. One consequence was that production was focused on heavy industry and energy and mineral extraction. Soviet industries and agriculture were large. This is as a result of the government trying to maintain control over production and increase efficiency. Even today, this is noticed by the fact that small and medium-sized industries and agriculture are not common.

Since the Soviet system failed to distribute goods efficiently, there was a shortage of both raw materials for industry and everyday goods for citizens. For ordinary people, personal networks became important to obtain the necessary products. The pricing of goods did not reflect supply and demand as in a market economy. When the Soviet Union disintegrated and the Russian Federation introduced market prices, this was something new for citizens, which contributed to the economic turmoil in the early 1990s.

Economic turbulence.

The 1990s posed several major challenges and changes in the Russian economy. In addition to the fact that the production and corporate structure has not been reformed since the Soviet era, high levels of inflation contributed to making the situation unsustainable.

Extensive reforms were implemented to stabilize the price level, among other things. The decisions were subsequently criticized for being too hastily and ill-prepared.

Privatization was carried out to transfer large parts of the business sector to private ownership. State-owned assets would be distributed through a system of coupons, vouchers, and auctions. In principle, all Russian citizens were able to participate in privatization, but as citizens did not receive sufficient information about the processes, many lost the government assets.

Privatization was the fastest in trade, while it took longer to privatize the large Soviet industrial companies. In 1996, Russian authorities announced that 70 percent of GDP was generated outside the state sector.

At the beginning of 1995, a certain stabilization of the Russian economy was noticed. Over a few years, production increased in certain industries, mainly smaller operations.

In 1998, however, the country was again hit by an acute financial crisis. The International Monetary Fund granted the Russian Federation a loan of USD 11.2 billion. As a result of the financial crisis, the economic progress and stabilization achieved in 1995-98 were lost. Inflation for 1998 was estimated at 85 percent. The economically turbulent years hit the Russian citizens hard.

Putin in power.

From the turn of the millennium, the Russian economy grew stronger. Growth averaged 7 percent per year. Exports benefited from Russian goods becoming cheaper on the world market at the same time as the price of oil rose, which significantly increased Russian export earnings. The period of economic success coincided with the appointment of Vladimir Putin as President.

The Russian industry and the service sector had been modernized, but the business sector was still dominated by large companies. Small and medium-sized businesses were difficult to establish. The fact that the Russian Federation is highly dependent on commodity exports means that the country is sensitive to changes in world market prices. This became evident during the international financial crisis of 2008 and 2009 when the Russian Federation was hit by falling oil prices. The Russian central bank lowered the value of the ruble twice.

Russian Federation and the outside world.

The Russian economy stabilized in the years 2010-12 and the country had a GDP growth of almost 5 percent. The recovery was interrupted in 2014, when the economy again deteriorated and the currency lost in value. This was mainly a consequence of the financial sanctions imposed by the outside world in response to the Russian Federation’s annexation of the Ukrainian Crimean Peninsula and the entry into eastern Ukraine (see Donbass conflict).

In 2014, the world market price of oil fell by almost 40 percent and the Russian currency fell in value by 22 percent against the US dollar. The ruble continued to weaken further thereafter. At the same time, the proportion of people with incomes below the poverty line increased.

Opinion surveys conducted in Russia in 2018 show that there is widespread pessimism and that the country’s economy is described as chaotic. The country is also considered to have major problems with corruption and great economic inequality (see human rights).

After many years of negotiations, the Russian Federation became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2011.

Agriculture

Russian agriculture has shown poor returns for a long time. The main agricultural areas are located in the southern part of the European Russian Federation.

Good soils, but with a short vegetation season and limited rainfall, are also found in southwestern Siberia. The conditions for livestock management are relatively good, but modern animal production is often limited by the supply of forage crops. The distribution of agricultural products, especially fresh produce, is hampered by large distances and a lack of suitable transport and storage facilities. In general, rural infrastructure is a major obstacle to development.

Traditionally, cereals, potatoes, beets and root vegetables are the most important crops. Feed and oil plants and flax also occur to a significant extent. From being a major exporter of cereals during the Tsarist era, the situation changed during the Soviet period. Low productivity and long-time waste, combined with an increased investment in animal production, contributed to the country’s emergence as a leading import nation in the 1970s, a pattern that could not break out until the turn of the 2000s. In the early 2000s, it was the first time in almost a hundred years that the Russian Federation exported more grain than it imported. During the 2010s, grain exports increased and the country became one of the world’s leading wheat exporters.

Background.

For Soviet agriculture, the first five-year plan (1928) meant a large-scale transition to collective forms of farming, often introduced under duress. In addition to the state farms (dormitories), the peasants were organized into collective farms (dormitories). In addition to these two types of agricultural units, machine and tractor stations were also set up, on which the kolchos had to rely on their supply of machinery and agricultural technical expertise. Taken together, these units were said to secure rural access to goods and services, while promoting productivity through the introduction of modern or industrial methods. In fact, they served primarily as a control body and in addition offered the state good opportunities to transfer resources from the kolchos to the country’s industry.

Programs for cultivation of new land and the introduction of new crops and production forms have been launched on several occasions. Throughout the Soviet period, state and collective agriculture as well as central production planning remained the organizational foundations of the system. The system has only slowly been replaced by private farming practices, and only then with a cautious and little comprehensive reform effort during the second half of the 1980s. The dissolution of the Soviet Union allowed for a more offensive policy, and at the beginning of 1993, most of the former state and collective agriculture was at least nominally organized so that the privatization of agricultural land could take place. Despite this, privatization has not been fully implemented.

Forestry

By virtue of its vast assets in forests, the Russian Federation has long been one of the world’s leading producers of timber, sawn timber, pulp and paper. It is mainly the coniferous forest belt, the tajgan, which forms the basis for the forest industry. The Tajgan goes south into a mixed forest belt, whose more varied flora of species is used for, among other things. furniture, matches and tools.

During the post-war period, especially in the western parts of the country, a decrease in the supply of raw materials and rising production costs have been recognized as a result of the fact that easily accessible forest areas have been subjected to excessive harvesting and in some cases also environmental degradation.

Fishing

The extent of inshore fishing is hampered by the limited access to temperate seas. Nevertheless, the local fishery and fish processing industry is of great importance. This is especially true when coastal fishing is combined with high sea fishing, for which purpose the Russian Federation has taken over numerically large fleets of trawlers and floating canning factories from the Soviet Union. Residents, especially in the Kaliningrad exclave, on the Barents Sea and on the coast of the Russian Far East, have a large radius of action and have sometimes had the opportunity to exploit the territorial waters of former Soviet republics. Accusations of predatory behavior occur.

Moreover, as one of a small number of countries, the Russian Federation is still catching elections. Inland fishing is also primarily of local importance. However, as in so many other cases, large distances and poor transport capacity limit access to the national market.

In many places, environmental degradation has gone so far that conditions have drastically deteriorated.

Mineral

Few countries can exhibit as extensive and diverse assets of metals and minerals as the Russian Federation. Even after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation is largely self-sufficient in this regard. The exception is bauxite and chromium, where most of the Soviet Union’s production came from the then Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan. The Russian Federation is regarded as the world’s leading producers of iron ore, nickel, cobalt, platinum, tin, copper and gold. Beryllium, manganese, molybdenum and silver are also extensively mined. However, earlier large deposits of lead and zinc have been partially exhausted. In addition, the Russian Federation also has good assets on barium, diamonds, emeralds, sulfur and phosphates, and clay for ceramics and building purposes.

So today’s problems are not the size and diversity of the assets, but rather are found in the often neglected technology in extraction and processing as well as bureaucratic organizational forms. Moreover, since the deposits are in many cases located in peripheral regions (the Kola Peninsula, the northern parts of central and eastern Siberia, the Russian Far East), the long transports offer both technological and economic difficulties. The exceptions are mainly the iron ore fields, the most important of which are found in the southern central part of the European Russian Federation, and the Ural region with various metals and minerals.

Energy

The Russian Federation is well stocked with energy raw materials. Although the country’s industry is a large and often inefficient user of energy, there is considerable room for export, especially of oil and gas. Since 1900, the country has been one of the world’s leading producers of oil. The largest deposits are found in the central part of Western Siberia, while the previously dominant mining areas between Volga and Ural have been difficult to maintain production volume. Oil is also extracted elsewhere in the Russian Federation, for example in Sakhalin.

For a long time, however, the Soviet leadership, especially under Stalin, chose to invest in coal as its primary source of energy. Of the dissolved Union’s three largest coalfields, one is found, Kuzbass in central Siberia, in its entirety within the borders of the Russian Federation. In addition, the coal fields around the Petjora River are an important asset. Smaller deposits are distributed throughout the country, but are usually of local importance only. Low-grade lignite deposits are also extracted where deemed necessary, primarily in the Moscow region.

In addition to oil and coal, natural gas has since the 1970s developed into an important source of energy and export revenue. Very large deposits are found, for example, in northern West Siberia and the areas around Volga and southern Ural. Water energy also plays a role in the country’s energy supply, and some of the world’s largest hydropower plants are located in the Russian Federation. However, water energy has the disadvantage that most of the capacity is in the Asian parts of the country. To compensate for this, the major rivers in the European part of the Russian Federation have also been expanded, with significant consequences for the environment, fishing and river transport. In addition, high-voltage technology for long-distance transmission of electricity has been invested and nuclear energy has been expanded.

Industry

During the Soviet period, the manufacturing industry, and especially the heavy engineering industry, was a priority. The iron and steel industry was particularly favored. Of the more than sixty companies in this industry that accounted for the supply of iron and steel to the Soviet Union, about half are found in the Russian Federation today. The geographical emphasis has been in the Urals and Kuzbass during the 20th century, but due to the ore deposits in Kursk and the increased use of scrap as raw material, a large part of the modern steel industry is found today in the European part of the country. Other metallurgy is largely located in Ural and Siberia, partly due to proximity to the raw material sources and partly due to military considerations. The engineering industry, which is undergoing rapid transformation, has primarily been concentrated on a number of large and medium-sized cities within a base triangle along the line St. Petersburg – Kursk and its tip in Kuzbass. Thus, despite its geographically dispersed structure of industrial combination in the metropolitan cities of Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Perm, Chelyabinsk and Yekaterinburg. Particularly noteworthy is that almost a quarter of this production comes from the Moscow area. Other branches of the engineering industry, such as manufacturing of agricultural machinery and mining equipment, are more tied to their immediate marketing markets.

The chemical industry was long overdue, but in pace with increased fossil fuel extraction, the petroleum-based production in particular has expanded. For the most part, refineries and other processing plants are located near the sources, with a significant center of gravity between Volga and western Siberia. Production of, for example, plastics, synthetic fibers, artificial fertilizers, solvents and paints usually also follows this pattern. However, more specialized industries (pesticides, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics) are often found in Moscow or other metropolitan regions.

The other process industry is strikingly often raw material oriented. This may be mainly the case for paper and pulp production. However, as the harvesting of forest for domestic consumption and exports has progressed, the supply of raw materials has become a problem. In addition, like many others, this industry is characterized by outdated production equipment and transport problems.

While the engineering industry in general benefited, consumer goods production ended up in the cloud for a long time. Although this has a regionally more fragmented structure than other industries, some industries are geographically concentrated. By tradition, textiles and clothing have been dominated by the medium-sized cities of the middle region. However, wool and linen have had to give way to Central Asian cotton and synthetic fiber as the prevailing material. Another peculiarity, which is partly a legacy from the epoch of central planning, partly a result of the attempts to convert the military industry to civilian production, is that, above all, consumer capital goods are often produced by companies with heavy workshop products or weapons as a real specialty.

Foreign trade

In the Soviet economy, foreign trade was of secondary importance. Trade was organized through a foreign trade monopoly, and its orientation and scope were usually regulated through bilateral agreements with other states. For the trade in the Eastern Bloc, the nominally supranational organization, SEV (COMECON), was used, within whose framework transactions and goods flows were organized.

The Russian Federation is therefore facing the task of reorganizing foreign trade. Already during the late 1980s increased leeway was given to world market pricing, but it was only with the dissolution of the Union that trade with the outside world was liberalized. The structure of the Russian Federation’s foreign trade has only partially changed compared to the Soviet period. Above all, one can note the great dependence on commodity exports. Energy (oil and gas) and minerals as well as forest raw materials and sawn timber are important components in this regard. The dissolution of SEV has entailed a certain reorientation of these exports, as the countries outside the old eastern bloc today constitute the most important market. At the same time, the former Soviet republics have been recognized as having a reduced supply of, in particular, energy supplies from the Russian Federation.

According to Countryaah, other export goods include furs, food and engineering products (including transport). The greatest successes are likely to have been noted in the arms exports, whose sales market has expanded.

As in the Soviet period, many industrial products are imported from the Western world. The previous embargo on technology exports to the Russian Federation has been lifted, which has enabled increased Russian use of the electronics products of the Western world. At the same time, imports of consumer goods have increased significantly in scale, and the country still relies on food imports for its supply. Imports of raw materials have decreased in scale as industrial production has declined, but the Russian Federation is still dependent on imports of mainly bauxite and some inputs for the chemical industry. As a whole, imports have been reoriented to increasingly rely on Western European, North American and East Asian suppliers. Trade with the former Eastern bloc and the Third World is declining.

Tourism and gastronomy

In 1994, the Russian Federation was visited by 900,000 foreign tourists, in 2015 the number of visitors was 33.7 million. About 65 percent of these come from other former Soviet states, but some are believed to be guest workers.

The two largest tourist destinations are Saint Petersburg, with stately architecture and history as the capital of the last tsars, as well as Moscow, the country’s economic and political center. Other historically interesting cities include Yaroslavl 250 km northeast of Moscow, one of the oldest Russian cities, Novgorod 150 km southeast of Saint Petersburg, with one of the country’s oldest fortifications and the Byzantine Sofia Cathedral from the 1040s and 1050s, Ekaterinburg on the east side of the Ural Mountains, Astrachan 70 km north of the Caspian Sea, with fortifications from the 16th century, and Irkutsk in southeastern Siberia, an old hub of trade with China and cultural center for the whole of eastern Siberia.

The Trans-Siberian Railway, whose first section was opened in 1905, is one of the major tourist attractions. The railway is just over 9,300 km long, and today you can choose between several different routes. A trip from Moscow to Vladivostok takes six and a half days. You can also combine with stops in cities along the way. The world’s largest freshwater lake, Lake Baikal in Siberia, is about to become a major attraction for nature enthusiasts.

Its beaches and surrounding forests have been set aside as a national park. Traveling on the Russian Federation’s huge river and canal network is also popular.

Russian cuisine, which at the turn of the 1900s could be equated with the French in refinement and finesse, rests on a wealth of raw material from different regions and climatic types today, wiped out by the major political changes. The basic features date from the peasantry of the 16th century. The rye turned into sour rye bread, the grits into porridge. Mushrooms, fish and vegetables depleted the diet and were preserved to last all year. Meat was a luxury item, where game was more common than domestic sheep. The religion, which stipulated many fasting days during the year, forced the Russians to feed on vegetables, fish and mushrooms; meat and dairy products were prohibited during fasting. They usually did not mix raw materials, and pure flavors were long one of the most distinguishing features of Russian cuisine. Acidic and salty flavors were already prevalent then, as was the soup the most common dish.

During the 18th and 19th centuries, it became customary among the gentlemen to retrieve their chefs from abroad, and influences from mainly France, but also from Germany, the Netherlands and Scandinavia, made a marked mark. The impact was also reciprocal; Russian cuisine and its serving technology, ie. to serve one dish at a time, broke through in France and thereby throughout the rest of Europe. Now came the custom of drinking tea and eating starters, called zakuski. These were developed into veritable sandwich tables, which are traditionally served with vodka. They consist of salads on cabbage, beets, potatoes, apples and horseradish, herring in various forms, cooked fish, caviar, vegetable dishes, pies, pelmeni (ravioli with meat or cheese filling), syrniki (cheese balls in the smetana)), rastegaj (egg and salmon filled pies) and of course different types of bread.

The soup is still the basis in the food intake today, shtji (cabbage soups) is most common, borscht (beetroot soup) most knowledgeable.

Among the fish dishes are boiled jellies with horseradish. Eel and salmon can make kulebjaka, a pajrulle or pierogi with hard-boiled eggs. The game (eg bear and deer) still occupies a place of honor among the meat dishes, others are the cholod (meat baptism), kurnik (chicken and rice roasted) and solonina (salted beef with sauerkraut and potatoes). The desserts often contain fruits, nuts, berries and milk; chalva is walnut or sunflower seed pudding, silicon a cream made on berries. In addition to tea and vodka, you can drink kvass.

Qatar Business

Qatar Business

According to abbreviationfinder, QA is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Qatar.

Qatar was previously one of the poorest areas in Arabia. The business sector included pearl diving, fishing and some nomadic food. With the extraction of the country’s petroleum deposits after World War II, and the country’s independence in 1971, Qatar has become one of the world’s richest countries. Modernization took place especially from the 1970s, with significant investments both in infrastructure and service industry and in industrialization – primarily related to oil and gas extraction. Qatar has a relatively modest production of crude oil, but possesses the world’s third largest known natural gas reserves, after Russia and Iran.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Qatar

Qatar has scarce natural resources except for oil and gas, and only a small part of the land is suitable for agriculture; Lack of water is another limitation for agriculture. The development of the country’s economy has to a large extent been based on cooperation with foreign capital and technology, as well as foreign labor in all areas. At the beginning of the 2000s, approx. 85 percent of the total number of employees of foreign origin. Based on revenues from oil exports, Qatar has invested heavily in modernizing society in all areas, and the population is enjoying a high standard of living. Due to lower oil prices in parts of the 1980s, infrastructure and industrial development slowed somewhat, and the country incurred considerable foreign debt, but the modernization process, including efforts to make itself less dependent on the petroleum sector, accelerated again in the 1990s. The economic significance of the petroleum sector has therefore, relatively speaking, become somewhat less. In 2005, oil and gas accounted for just over 60 percent gross national income (GNI), approx. 85 percent of export earnings and approx. 70 percent of the state’s revenue. Like other countries in the Arabian Peninsula, Qatar has also focused on tourism development.

Agriculture, fishing

Qatar’s land area consists mainly of desert and is little suitable for agriculture, which accounts for less than 1% of GNI. Agriculture is based on artificial irrigation and some vegetables, grains, dates and fruits are grown. There is also some livestock farming, including cattle, camels, sheep, goats and poultry, but the country is heavily dependent on food imports. There is some fishing, mainly for shrimp.

Industry

Qatar has a significant industrial sector, which is essentially developed in connection with and based on energy from the country’s oil and gas resources. The industrialization strategy initially consisted of establishing businesses in the extension of oil and gas extraction, and then by developing a somewhat wider complex industrial base. The country’s hydrocarbon deposits have formed the basis for the development of several large companies in the chemical industry, in particular refining of oil, conversion of natural gas to liquid gas (LNG), as well as the production of mineral fertilizers, aluminum and steel. The oil refinery at Umm Said was upgraded in 2002 to a capacity of 137,000 barrels per day. The world’s largest LNG plant was opened at Ras Laffan in 2004, with a capacity of 4.7 million tonnes per year. Other industries include bant other cement production. Umm Said is Qatar’s industrial hub.

Norsk Hydro has an extensive involvement in Qatar since the late 1960s, primarily through a collaboration with the Qatari State on the construction of ammonia and mineral fertilizer production facilities through the company Qatar Fertiliser Company (QAFCO). This was established in 1969, and began production in 1973. A fourth development (Qafco-4) was inaugurated in 2005, with an annual capacity of 1.1 million tonnes of fertilizer. The Qafco plant thus became the largest in the world. Norsk Hydro’s share of 25 percent accrued to Yara International when it was demerged from Hydro in 2004. Yara signed a 25-year agreement on the supply of gas from Qatar in 2006. In 2006, Norsk Hydro signed an agreement with Qatar Petroleum (QP) to establish a joint company, Qatalum, to develop, build and operate a plant for aluminum production in Qatar, with an annual capacity of 585,000 tonnes in 2009. QP and Hydro each have a 50 percent stake. Hydro is also part of another company in the chemical industry, Qatar Vinyl Co.

Mining, energy

Qatar has significant oil reserves and large gas reserves, and the country’s economic development has been, and continues to be, based on oil and gas extraction and export. Oil exploration started with the first concessions in 1935, and the first discoveries were made in 1939. The war delayed recovery and the first exports happened in 1949. By the country’s independence in 1971, the oil industry was reorganized, with larger state interests, but still with extensive foreign participation. Qatar joined OPEC in 1961 and from the 1970s has been subject to the organization’s quota regime. The country’s production has varied considerably, and was close to 800,000 barrels per day in the early 2000s. Total production from the entire sector was just over 1 million barrels/day.

Qatar’s well-known oil reserves in 2005 were approx. 15 billion barrels, with the Dukhan field (onshore) being the largest; in addition, the country has six offshore fields. At the same time, natural gas deposits were estimated at approx. 910 trillion cubic feet; corresponding to approx. 5 percent of the world’s occurrences, and the third largest in the world. Qatar’s offshore North Field is the world’s largest free-standing gas field. The gas deposits were detected in 1971, and the first deliveries took place in 1996. The country has developed an extensive petrochemical industry, refining oil and converting natural gas into liquid gas for export. Almost all oil production is sold to Asia, with Japan as its largest customer. Asia is also the primary market for gas, which is also exported to Europe and the United States. In 1999, agreements were signed with a view to building a Qatar gas pipeline United Arab Emirates and Oman – with a possible submarine extension to Pakistan.

Qatar had an installed capacity for 8.56 GW of electric energy in 2016. Almost all power generation is based on the use of natural gas.

Foreign Trade

Qatar, thanks to oil and natural gas exports, most often have a trade balance surplus abroad. Varying levels of production and prices, as well as large imports as part of the modernization of the country, have at times created deficits. According to Countryaah, petroleum products usually account for 80-90 percent of export revenues. Japan, Korea, Singapore, the United States, the EU, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are among the most important trading countries.

Transport and Communications

About. 1200 km away, the capital of Doha, Dukhan and Mesaieed connects to the northern tip of the peninsula. Via Salwah in the south, Qatar has road links with Saudi Arabia and on to the Mediterranean, and it connects southeast to Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. Main ports are in Doha and Mesaieed. From 1995 new industrial port at Ras Laffan (outside al-Huwaylah). International Airport at Doha, which underwent modernization in the early 2000s, and fishing ports in Al-Khor and Doha. Qatar withdrew from the regional airline Gulf Air in 2002, and the state subsidizes the company Qatar Airways.

Philippines Business

Philippines Business

According to abbreviationfinder, PH is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Philippines.

1946 «Independence»

Independence meant no social change. The country was still characterized by the plantation economy. A US-Philippines trade agreement stipulated that there should be free trade between part two countries for 8 years and that North Americans should have the same right as Filipinos to engage in economic activity and exploit natural resources in the Philippines (the “Justice Decision”). In 1954, the agreement was revised to allow the Philippines to safeguard its industry with progressively increasing import duties on North American goods, but the decision of the Justice was not touched. The entire economy was then dominated by North American groups up to approx. 1970, when Japanese companies began to penetrate.

In 1946, the United States was also granted the right to have military bases in the Philippines for 99 years. This was changed in 1959 to 25 years with unlimited renewal rights. The US bases made the country the strategically most important area for the US in Southeast Asia. Especially after the end of the Vietnam War. In 1954, the country joined the Southeast Asian military organization SEATO. In 1967, it helped to form the regional cooperation organization, ASEAN.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Philippines

According to Countryaah, the Philippines has rarely had legal left wing parties. A Communist Party (PKP) was formed in 1930, but banned the year after. The party then worked illegally, and the situation changed only during World War II when the guerrilla movement Hukbalahap – the People’s Anti-Japanese Army – became the driving force in the fight against the Japanese. After the war, Hukbalahap was legal for a period, but the United States unilaterally focused on the bourgeoisie and banned the movement. In the late 1940s, Hukbalahap – which had a strong support from the poor peasants in the battle against the large landowners – was quite active on the main island of Luzón and the Visayas, but the movement was broken by Defense Minister Magsaysay in the period after 1950. Until 1970, however, remnants of this guerilla that survived in inner Luzón.

1965-86 The Marcos dictatorship

In 1965, nationalist Ferdinand Marcos was elected president – and re-elected in 1969. During his reign, the contradictions within the bourgeoisie intensified as the economy deteriorated and corruption and crime increased. He also had problems with a new guerrilla movement, the New Peoples Army (NPA). It was the military branch of the newly formed Communist Party, the CPP. The party had been formed in 1968 as a peel from Hukbalahap. The party’s young dynamic leader was José Maria “Joma” Sison. It was marked by the then fierce contradictions between China and the Soviet Union. While the traditional Communist Party, the PPK was a mosquito, the CPP was Maoist, aiming for a Chinese model to build a guerrilla that could pave the way for a takeover of power. Initially, the NPA was based on the experience of the Hukbalahap guerrilla and was soon able to recruit among the peasants. In addition, many frustrated students from the cities poured into the guerrilla, which after a few years was a threat to the regime in the unsettled mountain regions of northern Luzón.

Marcos took the opportunity on September 22, 1972 to proclaim the state of emergency. Parliament was disbanded and many opposition politicians imprisoned. The dictatorship continued until 1986, when a broad alliance of opposition parties rebelled against the Marcos dictatorship, thus paving the way for a democratization of the country. The Marcos dictatorship was linked to a growing repression directed not only at communist and Muslim guerrillas, but also at political and trade opposition. On several occasions, North American troops participated in this repression.

The Catholic Church played an important role in developing the resistance to Marcos. For historical reasons, the church continues to play a major social role in the community, and 75% of Filipinos over the age of 10 still attend church affiliated schools today. In 1976, the church played an important role in condemning the electoral fraud around the referendum that would endorse Marcos’ exception law. In 1981, 45 political and professional organizations joined forces to boycott the unconstitutional election held by Marcos to stay in power. In September of that year, thousands of people in the streets of Manila demonstrated demanding the dictatorship ended and a retreat of the North American military bases.

On August 21, 1983, Marcos executed the popular opposition leader, Benigno Aquino, when he got off a plane, on his way back to the Philippines after a protracted exile in the United States. At Benigno’s funeral in Manila, ½ million people attended. From that point on, the popular movement against the Marcos dictatorship gained momentum that did not cease until it had fallen.

In April 1985, officers in the military created RAM – Reform the Armed forces Movement. They were dissatisfied with the intervention of Marcos in the military leadership. In a climate of violence and oppression that the church compared to the “dirty war” in Argentina in the 1970s, the population demanded that elections be held in 1986, and at the same time, it supported Cory Aquino’s candidacy. She was a widow of the slain Benigno Aquino.

Pakistan Business

Pakistan Business

According to abbreviationfinder, PK is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Pakistan.

Business

Pakistan’s business sector is heavily dependent on agriculture, where just over 40 percent of the economically active population is employed. The country’s development strategy focuses on increased industrialization and reduced dependence on raw material exports.

Unlike in India, since independence in 1947, the economy has been focused mainly on expansion in the private sector. A small number of financial families control most of the investments, and the distribution of income and financial influence is extremely uneven. The economy is dependent on foreign loans and assistance. Also important are income from the large number of Pakistanis working abroad, mainly in the Arab countries.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Pakistan

Agriculture

About a quarter of Pakistan’s land is cultivated land. Wheat, rice, sugar cane and cotton are the most important crops. Wheat and rice are the main domestic staple crops, while rice and cotton are the most important export goods. Livestock farming is an essential part of the industry and accounts for almost half of production.

More than 80 percent of production is dependent on irrigation in connection with the larger rivers. Extensive dust structures and over-utilization of the irrigation systems have caused major problems with salting and neglect. The so-called green revolution has, since the 1960s, contributed to increased production through increased use of artificial fertilizers and high-yielding crops, but at the same time has widened the regional and economic gaps in agriculture. Like mechanization, it has mainly benefited larger landowners, while the situation for poor tenant farmers has hardly improved. The attempts at land reform made have had very limited effect.

Forestry

Forestry has no major commercial significance in Pakistan. The entirely dominant use of wood is for household fuel. In total, an estimated 33 million m 3 of round timber was harvested in 2008, of which 30 million m 3 was used for fuel.

Mineral

Pakistan has good assets on only certain minerals. The most important mining precious metal minerals are chromite, but the country also houses large copper deposits as well as gold deposits. The iron ore is of low quality and is not used in the steel industry. Quantitatively, the quarrying of limestone is the most extensive.

Energy

The most important commercial energy sources in Pakistan are natural gas and oil, which in 2008 accounted for 51 and 28 percent of consumption respectively. Then comes coal and water energy. About 20 percent of the oil is mined in the country, mainly in the Dhurnal area of northern Pakistan and from the source at Badin in the south. The natural gas resources are extensive, and the extraction takes place mainly in Sui and Mari in the southern Indus Valley. Coal is available to a lesser extent and the quality is low. Hydroelectric power stations are located in Indus and some of its tributaries in northern Pakistan. Energy shortages are prevalent in both households and industry. Power distribution is faulty, and power outages are common. Plans are underway to expand hydropower and to build a larger thermal power plant near Karachi. Pakistan has two smaller nuclear power plants.

Industry

The industrial heritage from the colonial era was a poorly developed food and textile industry. After independence in 1947, both these industries have grown substantially, while the heavy industry (partly due to the lack of domestic resources) has not been given the same role as in India. The most important individual industry branch is today the cotton industry, but also other lighter, often small-scale, manufacturing industries are increasing in importance. Natural gas is an essential base for Pakistan’s industry, as an energy resource, but also as a raw material in manure production. In the 1970s, during Ali Bhutto’s reign, public investment in heavy industry increased. However, growth remained low, and so did the subsequent industrial development, which returned to a strong focus on private investment; characterized by economic inefficiency and low productivity. However, the ’00s has meant strong growth in the electronics and automotive industries.

Foreign trade

According to Countryaah, Pakistan’s exports are dominated by textile products, mainly cotton, cotton products, clothing and carpets, as well as rice and leather. The economically most important import goods are oil and oil products, machinery and plastics. The main trading partners are the US and China.

Tourism and gastronomy

Pakistan has good conditions for a developed tourism industry, but political concerns and competition from more easily accessible neighboring countries in South Asia mean that tourist visits are still at a low level. In 2012, the country was visited by just under 1 million tourists.

For the archaeologically interested, there are some of humankind’s oldest urban formations in Pakistan. Mohenjo-Daro in Sind, like Harappa further north, exhibits the remains of a large city from the high culture of Indusdalen 2500-1700 BC, to which is added interesting architecture from the beginning of our era. Also Taxila, just north of Rawalpindi, has the remains of a prehistoric city, but here it is mainly the expressions of Greek-Indian mixed culture with from the 100 century AD. which fascinates.

The art lover can note that Lahore, with its huge palace, the Baha’i Mosque, the Imperial Garden Shalamar Bagh and its museum (famous for its miniature collection), is actually part of the mogul culture that is expressed across the border in places like Delhi and Agra.

The hiker and mountaineer in northern Pakistan have a given destination. While mountains like K2 are climbed by a small crowd, mountain hikes offer lower altitudes, for example in the Swat Valley, unique scenery and contact with the many Buddhist monasteries in the area. Gilgit’s surroundings also offer opportunities for downhill skiing.

Spices, leather and groceries and textiles (including embroidery work and carpets) are offered in the Pakistani bazaar districts. The capital of Islamabad is the sibling city of Rawalpindi, against which it contrasts with its completely modern architecture and city plan.

The food is similar to the Indian, but is rarely as spicy and slightly oily. Features are also available from the Afghan and Iranian cuisine. In the northern parts of the country, peaches, apricots, almonds, apples and mushrooms are harvested; in combination with fatty tail sheep and chicken they provide a diet that is tasty and not very strong. Burra is diluted lamb that is completely grilled, filled with rice, nuts and raisins. Bread, goat cheese and yogurt are included in the daily diet.

In Baluchistan, the diet is even more based on the livestock herds. A common dish is aloo bukhara gosht (meat stew with plums, nuts, onions and raisins). The Punjab region is fertile, and here bread is eaten for every meal. Bread is also often, in combination with different fillings, a whole dish. Makai ki roti is corn bread eaten with sargon cheese saw, casserole with mustard bowl, and sag gosht, spinach meat. In Sind along the Indus and with access to the sea, seafood is common; mussels, oysters and crabs are usually served for rice, as it is in this part of the country that the basmati rice has its residence. The freshwater fish pallet, which is grilled, is a local specialty. Another specialty is kori gosht, lamb saddle marinated in yogurt and then grilled.

Oman Business

Oman Business

According to abbreviationfinder, OM is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Oman.

Oman is located on the Arabian Peninsula, adjacent to the Gulf of Persia as well as the Red Sea. Oman, like other countries in the region, has used oil and gas deposits to develop the country, but – compared to other Gulf states – has very small reserves. The coast, with strategically located ports, has traditionally made trade an important trade route, but has become less important over the years. Despite oil revenues, Oman is primarily an agricultural country.

Geographically, Oman is both a coastal state and a desert country. Although a very small part of the country (0.1 per cent of the area) is cultivable, agriculture, including animal husbandry, has traditionally been the dominant economic sector. On the coast, fishing has been important, and it is still in smaller coastal communities.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Oman

From the late 1970s, Oman has implemented a program for modernizing society, including a differentiation of business, including industrialization and privatization. This has been possible both thanks to the change of head of state in 1970, when Qaboos bin Said took over as sultan, and the revenue from oil extraction. These have been used to develop infrastructure and to invest in other businesses to create new business avenues. Among other things, the government has encouraged efforts to control the development of tourism.

A major concern is providing jobs for Omani citizens; so-called reorganization. Like other Gulf countries, Oman has opened to a large number of private sector guest workers, which the authorities want to replace with Omanans as far as possible, also as a result of significant population growth.

During periods from the mid-1960s, economic growth in Oman was higher than most other countries. However, Oman does not belong to the most oil-rich Gulf states, and the deposits are already largely exploited. This, and lower oil prices over time, have led to falling export revenues, lower growth, and higher debt.

Commercial oil was first detected in 1964, and the first oil export occurred in 1967. Thereafter, the oil sector dominated the country’s economy, and continues to do so. Revenue from the petroleum sector accounts for about three-quarters of export revenue, and around two-fifths of gross domestic product.

In the 2000s, Chinese investors have invested in several sectors in Oman.

Agriculture and fishing

Oman is not very suitable for farming, but there is a considerable animal husbandry and extensive fishing. Just under ten percent of the working population of the population is employed in agriculture. Oman is not self-sufficient in food, and agriculture is dependent on artificial irrigation. Reducing food imports is a political priority, also through increased investment in fisheries.

The most important agricultural areas are located in the Zufarr area in the southwest, and on the al-Batinah plain along the coast to the north. The main crops consist of fruits and vegetables, especially melons, citrus fruits and wheat. Tomatoes, alfalfa, mangoes, melons, cabbage, bananas and tobacco are also grown. In the oases mainly dates are grown, and in addition, extensive farming of camels. Oman is a leading producer of meat in the Arabian Peninsula.

Since the 1980s there has been a gradual expansion of the fisheries, including with processing for export. Fishing is mainly conducted as coastal fishing with smaller boats.

Mining and energy

The first oil extraction licenses were granted as early as 1937, but deposits were first discovered in 1964, at Fahud, and commercial extraction and export of crude oil began in 1967. Oman does not have large reserves of crude oil, and the deposits are scattered in a number of smaller fields, both onshore and offshore; the main fields are southwest of Muscat and in Zufar (farthest southwest).

Known crude oil reserves (2017) are estimated at 5.4 billion barrels. The daily production (2017) is around one million barrels. Oman also has large deposits of natural gas. These (2017) are estimated at just over 651 billion cubic meters, a large part of which is expensive to extract. Liquefied natural gas production started in 2000.

Oil and natural gas exports account for about 70 percent of Oman’s total export revenues. In 2017, oil exports were around 800,000 barrels per day. There are pipelines from the production fields to the shipping port of Mina al-Fahal outside Muscat. In the late 1990s, a pipeline for export of gas to India, under the Indian Ocean, was investigated, but the project supported technical difficulties.

Oman has deposits of several minerals, some of which are mined. Commercial extraction is concentrated to copper, chromium and limestone. Copper deposits are found mainly in the Suhar area on the coast of al-Batinah, and copper has been processed since 1983 at the state-owned Suhar plant. In the same year, chromium production began, including in Suhar. Kalstein used in cement production is extracted both north and south of the country. Occurrences have been found including asbestos, lead, dolomite, plaster, gold, iron ore, cobalt, coal, manganese, nickel, silicon, zinc and silver.

Power is primarily produced from own petroleum sources. Work is underway on the development of large solar power plants in the south of the country.

Industry

Since the mid-1970s, Oman has used export revenues from the petroleum sector to develop a modern industrial sector. Foreign interests have also invested in the country. Before the oil age, the industry was little developed and traditionally consisted essentially of crafts.

Oman has a significant cement and building industry, which together with petroleum refining are the most important industries. The first oil refinery was completed at Mina al-Fahal in 1982; another is listed by Suhar. Petrochemical industry has also been established and aluminum and mineral fertilizers are produced. A number of desalination plants have been established to remedy the water situation. Otherwise, household items and food are produced.

Foreign Trade

According to Countryaah, Oman’s main export products are oil and gas; then metals and metal products, as well as smaller quantities of agricultural products, dominated by dates, fish, citrus fruits and live animals, as well as some textiles. The country imports a variety of goods, including machinery and transport equipment, industrial goods and food. The main trading partners are (2017) China, the United Arab Emirates, South Korea and Saudi Arabia. Over 43 percent of exports went to China. About a third of imports came from the United Arab Emirates; well a quarter from the United States.

Oman’s trade with Norway is modest, but imports in 2017 were high, when the country bought Norwegian defense equipment (rockets).

Transport and Communications

The development of the transport network has largely taken place since 1970. All major population concentrations are connected with roads except for some mountain villages. There are no railways in Oman, but several airports and strips. International airports can be found at Muscat and Salalah.

With its strategic location and tradition of shipping and trade, Oman has focused on port development. The most important are Port Sultan Qaboos, which includes a container port, and Mina Raysut; both are near Salalah. Mina al-Fahal is an important petroleum port. At Matrah there is a deep water port. Oman has launched a program to modernize the port infrastructure. It is designed to facilitate the export of petroleum and industrial products, and to diversify the economy, including tourism facilitation. Oman also aims to make better use of its strategic coastal position, and to establish a hub for international trade. Investments in an economic free zone in Duqm should contribute to this.

Chinese investors have been involved in the development of transport in Oman, with plans for development of roads, water and power grids, as well as in industrial and energy production.

North Korea Business

North Korea Business

Business

It is extremely difficult to find information on business conditions and changes in North Korea. According to countryaah, objectives are published while actual conditions are often foregone.

When the Korean Peninsula was divided after World War II, the best agricultural areas were included in South Korea, while just over 3/4 of the mineral resources and 2/3 of the heavy industry were in North Korea. From the mid-1950s and three decades onwards, North Korea had a positive economic development, probably with about 9 percent growth per year. Only in the latter part of the 1970s did GDP per capita in South Korea reach the same level as in North Korea. Subsequently, South Korea’s GDP per capita has far exceeded that of North Korea.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, KP is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of North Korea.

North Korea has always been a centrally planned state with self-sufficiency and self-reliance (juche) in focus. The state owns almost all companies and has a monopoly on almost all trade. Emphasis has been on heavy industry. In addition, the country has always had a very large and resource-intensive military sector, which still takes about 1/5 of the budget. The regime sees this sector as a driving force in the economy. But the army consists of 1/5 of all men aged 17-49 and that means a shortage of manpower in civil society.

After 1990, when the Soviet Union disbanded, North Korea’s situation deteriorated radically. Soviet financial assistance ceased and North Korea was forced to enter the international trade exchange dominated by capitalist countries in the West with completely different trade rules and product requirements. Problems in the business world became increasingly clear with energy shortages, technological backlog, lack of factory maintenance and inadequate investments. In addition, devastating floods in 1995-96. For the first time ever, North Korea turned to the UN and other international organizations and called for emergency relief. On average, GDP fell by 3.8 percent per year during the 1990-98 period and 1-2 million North Koreans died of starvation during those years.

In 1998, the concepts of privatization, profitability and economic stimulation were introduced. The leaders said they were eager to increase foreign trade, encourage foreign investment and adopt modern technology. The years 1999-2005 showed a positive development with a stabilization of agricultural and industrial production, inflow of foreign aid and a hint of liberalization. On a small scale, market reforms began to be noticed, reminiscent of what happened in China in the early 1980s, and a wage and price reform was implemented in 2002.

However, to increase production, mass mobilization, demanding speeches and campaigns are still mainly used, not economic driving springs. The state still determines all wages and most prices and production levels. Exceptions are operations in a number of state-approved markets and in a few special economic zones, mainly Kaesong.

In 2006-07, the economy again fell, especially in agriculture and light industry. The causes were partly abnormal weather, and partly the world’s reactions to North Korea’s nuclear weapons test in the form of trade restrictions and withdrawn development assistance.

Within the state leadership, there are now likely to be those who want to follow at least part of China’s development model, and those who do not want to allow market-oriented reforms that can undermine socialism and party control. The economic policies that are implemented therefore vary from year to year. But North Korea is still a planning economy and economically the most isolated of all countries.

The food situation has deteriorated further and the currency shortage limits food imports. In 2009, WFP (World Food Program) estimated that 1/3 of North Koreans suffered from malnutrition and hunger. The worst is in the old industrial areas in the northeast. North Korea faces the food shortage with tougher rationing and reiterates the requests for foreign aid in the form of crude oil and artificial fertilizers, rather than food.

Agriculture

Prior to the peninsula, North Korea was heavily dependent on agriculture in the south. After 1954, collectivization began in North Korea and in 1958 it was fully completed. Only 18 percent of the country’s area can be used. Up to the beginning of the 1990s, 90 percent of these belonged to about 3,800 collective farms. In addition, there were 180 state farms. Since then, there has been a transition from some collective farms to state farms.

Agriculture employs about 26 percent of the labor force and together with forestry and fishing accounts for 22 per cent of GDP. The best cultivation conditions are found on the plains in the west. Rice is grown on 53 percent of arable land, mainly on irrigated land. Other important crops are maize (33 percent of acreage) and potato (9 percent). In addition, wheat, soybeans, tobacco, cotton and hemp are grown. However, half of the country’s agricultural land is of poor quality and cannot be used for growing wet rice. In the north, the growing season is too short and chilly for rice cultivation. Potatoes are becoming an increasingly important crop, as they provide high calorie yield per unit area.

To cope with food self-sufficiency, North Korea has made major investments in agriculture. Rice cultivation is highly mechanized and a lot of artificial fertilizer has been used. The arable land has been expanded through the dredging of marshlands, embankment of marshland, terracing and new cultivation. In 1994, 70 percent of the arable land could be irrigated. But this infrastructure has subsequently been hit by flooding and neglect. Agriculture is also facing a growing shortage of artificial fertilizers, fuels and spare parts. The area yield is now less than in the 1980s and the population is growing faster than total food production. The repeated floods have led to a lack of growth and food shortages and, in addition, seriously degraded the quality of the fields. Livestock management (mainly cattle) occurs mainly on state farms. Farmers are now allowed to own larger plots (1,300 m)2) than before. There they can grow food that they can sell in the approved markets and also in an informal, prohibited market.

Forestry

About 60 percent of North Korea’s area is wooded. High-quality forests (mainly coniferous forests) are found only in the inland areas of the north. In these mountain regions, however, it is difficult to access, and the forestry and forestry industries are poorly developed. In other areas, forests have been felled on slopes to increase arable land, which has led to increased erosion and thus soil degradation. Forest planting programs have had little success.

Almost 80 percent of the domestic harvesting goes to fuel and the remainder to sawmills. The shortage of domestic timber is offset by imports from the Russian Far East and Siberia.

Fishing

The waters around the Korean Peninsula are fish-rich, especially in the Japanese Sea, where cold and warm ocean currents meet and create good conditions for a large and varied fish population. Fishing is conducted partly by the state and partly by cooperatives. Herring mainly catches herring, mackerel, cod, octopus, sardines and flatfish as well as shrimp and other seafood. However, fish plays only a minor role in the diet.

Large-scale deep-sea fishing began to develop in the 1970s and large fish farms began to be established in 1994. The annual catch of fish and shellfish in the early 1990s amounted to close to 1.8 million tonnes, some of which were exported. Thereafter, however, the catch decreased significantly, i.e. due to lack of fuel. Despite the increase in the 2000s, catches have not reached the previous level at all. The main fishing ports are Sinpo and Kimchaek as well as the deep-sea fishing bases Yanghwa and Hongwon, all on the east coast. In addition, there are fishing cooperatives in old fishing villages along both coasts.

Mineral

The Korean Peninsula is mineral rich and 85 percent of all assets are in North Korea, mainly large deposits of iron ore, limestone, magnesite, coal and zinc. Iron ore is of great importance, both for the domestic industry and for exports. The iron ore mine in Musan, near the Chinese border in the north, is probably the largest open pit in Asia. Significant iron extraction also occurs in other parts of the country, for example in the southwest near Haeju. Graphite, copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum and gold are also mined and exported periodically. Internationally, the most important is the mining of magnesite that occurs in collaboration with a US company. Magnesite is used as refractory lining in steel furnaces, and North Korea is the second largest exporter of this mineral. Uranium mining can also occur in North Korea.

Mining decreased during the 1990s but has subsequently increased, accounting for 11.4 percent of North Korea’s GDP in 2007. Energy shortages and outdated equipment mean that the plants can only use part of their capacity. But North Korea’s mineral resources have become very interesting to China and South Korea, and companies from there are increasingly engaged in exploration as well as modernization and expansion of the mines in North Korea.

Energy

Since the 1970s, North Korea’s energy supply has increasingly been based on coal. International analysts estimate that coal in 2005 accounted for just over 85 percent of North Korean energy production, water energy for just over 5 percent, oil for just under 4.5 percent, and wood and waste for the rest. The country has had large assets on coal, but the deposits are becoming increasingly difficult to access. The quality is low and the mines are poorly mechanized. Coal production has stagnated while industry demand for energy is increasing. More and more coal is imported from China. Until 1990, North Korea imported cheap oil from the Soviet Union, but it ceased almost entirely after that. North Korea has no domestic oil extraction, but oil can be found at sea and cooperation is sought with foreign, mainly Chinese companies for the capital-demanding exploration. Oil is required for aviation and other motor traffic, but the lack of foreign currency limits the import of oil, as well as coal. In 2005, 68 per cent of the energy supply went to industry, while the transport sector accounted for only 2.5 percent.

In 2005, 57 percent of the electricity came from hydroelectric power stations, 39 percent from coal-fired power plants and only 4 percent from oil-fired power plants. North Korea has great water energy potential, but water supply varies considerably over the year, providing an uncertain supply of electricity. In remote areas, small hydropower plants are still being built to provide regional self-sufficiency with electricity. In 1999, an agreement was signed with South Korea on technical assistance to produce civilian kernels and two light-water reactors began to be built in Kumho on the east coast. But the operation was halted as early as 2003 because aid was linked to North Korea’s nuclear weapons program promises, which were not met. Nuclear weapons tests in 2006 and 2009 have meant that the power plant has not yet been completed. South Korea says it intends to sell the equipment to another country.

The energy problems of recent decades are reflected in the fact that in 2005 the industry consumed only 3/4 of the energy used in 1990. The energy shortage is becoming a major obstacle to the country’s economic development. Since 2005, there has been a grid connection with South Korea to secure energy supply to the export-oriented industry in Kaesong.

Industry

The mining and manufacturing industry, including construction and energy production, accounted for 48 percent of GDP in 2017. The corresponding figure for the manufacturing industry alone was 20 percent. North Korea has always prioritized heavy industry. It includes partly the armor industry, and the manufacture of capital goods for other industries, such as agricultural machinery, plant equipment and generators, and of transport equipment such as locomotives, vessels and trucks.

Heavy industry accounts for about 65 percent of the manufacturing value of the manufacturing industry. Nearly half of the country’s steel production takes place in the iron and steel center Kimchaek in the northeast, 100 km from the largest iron mine. The lack of coke and worn equipment means that the entire capacity of the steel mills cannot be utilized and production is not enough to meet the domestic need for iron and steel. Similar problems are likely to limit the operation of the metal smelters.

Another important industry is the heavy chemical and petrochemical industry, which mainly produces fertilizers, but also ethylene, synthetic fibers and plastics. Chemical weapons can also be manufactured. In addition, the cement industry is of great importance. All these industries have been hit hard by the lack of energy, spare parts and modern equipment. This also applies to a large extent to the machinery industry, which is mainly located in the metropolitan area and in Hungnam and Wonsan on the east coast.

Since 2002, the state has gradually reduced its support for old unproductive companies. Subsidies have increasingly been replaced with bonus payments related to productivity. But the lack of both means of production as well as educated manpower and business leaders with financial education makes it very difficult to modernize and streamline operations. In the past decade, manufacturing of consumer goods has become increasingly important, and cheap clothing is now exported to Japan, the United States and Europe. The wages in North Korea correspond to a very small proportion of the South Korean and only half of the Chinese. Foreign companies are therefore interested in starting joint ventures in North Korea. The country’s management has long been positive about such cooperation because it sees it as a way to get capital and new technology and in addition to get a competitive export of t. ex. electronic goods.

In 2004, a special industrial zone, KIZ, began to be developed in Kaesong near the demilitarized zone in the southwest. The project is funded with funds from South Korea and the area is intended for foreign, mainly South Korean companies in light industry who receive special liberal production conditions there. Exports from there will pull in hard currency to North Korea. However, many difficult practical problems have arisen, and the North Korean Nuclear Weapons Program has also hampered cooperation.

Foreign trade

North Korea’s economic policy, with its strong emphasis on self-sufficiency, has meant that foreign trade has been small. The important thing is to import the raw materials needed to meet the production targets in the economic plans. The role of exports is to provide money for imports.

Foreign trade accounted for only 16 percent of GDP in 2007, which can be compared to 75 percent in South Korea. Importance and importance of imports is now difficult to assess, as much of it is primarily development assistance and periodically also disaster relief. For many years, there has been an imbalance in foreign trade, and in 2006 import costs were more than twice the export revenues.

Traditionally, exports have mainly come from mines, smelters and heavy machinery industries. In recent years, however, the composition of commodities in exports has widened and a growing proportion comes from light industry, e.g. textiles. Almost 1/10 now consists of minerals.

Until 1990, more than half the foreign trade with the Soviet Union was conducted, but the Soviet dissolution radically changed this pattern of trade. Instead, since the 1990s, China has become the most important trading partner. At the same time, China’s investments in North Korea are also increasing. To top it all, North Korea imports coal and other energy raw materials from China, but also food, primarily in the form of aid.

During the 2000s, South Korea has become North Korea’s second most important trading partner, and that trade has also increased substantially. In that case, North Korea exports raw materials and machinery. Most of the imports from South Korea can be characterized as aid (food, fertilizers), not ordinary trade. In 2005, Japan was in third place as an export destination and in fifth place in terms of imports. Subsequently, this trade decreased as Japan responded to the North Korean nuclear weapons tests.

North Korea’s regime has begun to open the country to a small number of tourism groups. They are taken care of by state guides, have strictly limited mobility and may only visit the capital and a few mountain areas. The tourists come mainly from South Korea.

Nepal Business

Nepal Business

Business

According to countryaah, Nepal is one of the least industrialized, least urbanized and poorest countries in the world. 75 percent of the working population are employed in agriculture.

The manufacturing industry is very small and mainly located to the Kathmandu valley as well as eastern and middle Tarai. Important sectors are the food industry (for example, sugar refining) and the textile industry. Industrial development is hampered by a very poorly developed infrastructure, modest domestic market, competition from India and the great distance to trade ports. The significant water energy resources are utilized to only a fraction.

Nepal’s economy is dependent on foreign aid, including from neighboring India. An increasingly important source of income is increasing tourism.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, NP is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Nepal.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Nepal

Agriculture

A large majority of Nepal’s population live as farmers in a rural area overcrowded, either in the valleys of the mountain areas or in the plain of Tarai. Despite several attempts at land reform in recent decades, land ownership is highly concentrated. Farmers’ livelihoods are usually burdened by lease fees and liabilities, which in combination with increased resource utilization, an unpredictable monsoon climate and the absence of transport systems keep productivity down.

The most important crop is rice, which is grown both on the southern plains and on terraces in the mountain areas. Other cereals of importance are maize, wheat and millet. The main forage crops, which are grown almost exclusively in the Tarai, are sugar cane, tobacco and jute.

A serious problem is the ever-increasing risk of severe soil erosion, floods and landslides on the mountain areas’ cultivation land, which is an effect of deforestation, high grazing pressure and terracing in increasingly steep areas.

Forestry

The forest is of great importance to the Nepalese farmer. for grazing, for collecting wood, building materials, fruits and herbs and for hunting. The increased pressure on land resources has led to an over-utilization of the forest with serious ecological consequences, mainly a sharp increase in soil erosion. This could include total deforestation (in industrial felling or burning), heavy slurry (in intensive wood collection) or new, undesirable vegetation (for example, if too high grazing pressure).

The harvest for industry and export is very small compared to that for household needs.

Foreign trade

Nepal has a negative trade balance, which is only partly offset by foreign aid and tourist income. The country is dependent on India, which is partly the dominant trading partner and partly controls Nepal’s communications by sea. Other important trading partners are China and the US.

The main export goods are carpets and clothing, as well as simpler products such as yarn, fabrics and leather. Import goods are mainly oil products, machinery, gold, transport equipment, chemicals and medicines.

Tourism and gastronomy

The number of foreign visitors to Nepal in 2015 was just over 500,000. Most visitors come from India, the UK, the US, China and Japan. Tourist revenues in 2012 amounted to USD 379 million.

The absolute biggest attraction is the Himalayan mountain range with its magnificent scenery. Highly visible from the capital Kathmandu lies Mount Everest, the world’s highest mountain. The city is the center for most hikers and climbers, but is also an important tourist destination in itself. Other places to visit are Buddha’s birthplace of Lumbini in southern Nepal and the seaside town of Pokhara at the foot of Annapurna mountain.

The food in Nepal has been greatly influenced by Indian cuisine. Traditional Nepali food is fairly uniform with a constantly recurring dish, dhal bhat tarkari. This soup or stew consists of lentils, rice and vegetables, which are only varied by seasoning. Beef is rare for religious reasons, instead water buffalo, chicken and goat are eaten on more festive occasions. For the most part, however, the diet is vegetarian. Ground draft (vegetable soup) or gurr (potato pancakes) is served with chiya (tea with milk, sugar and spices) or beer. Tea can in itself constitute a whole dish, tsampa, if mixed with flour and water or milk. Occasionally, tea with salted yeast butter is served in. Yogurt on buffalo milk (curd) is an important nutritional supplement; mixed with water it becomes a thirst quenching drink (lassi).

Myanmar Business

Myanmar Business

According to countryaah, Myanmar’s economy and business are characterized by being one of the poorest countries in Southeast Asia and suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement and isolation. The lack of infrastructure and the lack of skilled labor in modern technology are a hindrance to Myanmar’s economy.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, BM is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Myanmar.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Myanmar

With the establishment of the State Council for the Restoration of Law and Order (SLORC) in 1988, the former economic policy, the “Burma Road to Socialism “, was formally demolished. After violent demonstrations in 1988, partly as a result of deep economic crisis, the policy was changed to a more open policy. Foreign investment was welcomed. The socialist system, and thus the state directing of the entire economy, was gradually abolished. Like in China, capitalist instruments were opened.

However, the growth of the economy is hampered by widespread corruption, lack of professional competence in the governing military junta, political instability and large military spending. The military service is deeply involved in business operations in a number of areas. The Democratic Alliance that won the 1990 election has asked foreign companies not to invest in the country until political and human rights have improved.

The isolation was somewhat softened from 1992, with some degree of domestic political liberalization and increasing foreign investment. The countries of the Southeast Asian ASEAN Alliance led what they called a “constructive engagement”, which broke with the West’s boycott line. In July 1997, Myanmar became the ninth ASEAN member. Myanmar, however, resigned from the chairmanship following international pressure; The United States threatened to boycott all ASEAN meetings in which Myanmar presided.

In October 2004, Myanmar was seated for the first time at the table when EU countries and thirteen Asian countries met in the cooperation organization ASEM. The EU announced new sanctions here, and following Khin Nyunt’s fall, these were implemented. General financial sanctions were tightened, along with a ban on further investment. The economic isolation led to China strengthening its influence in the country.

The US and the EU eased their trade sanctions in 2012, and with the free elections in 2015, trade relations between Myanmar and most other countries were normalized. Large foreign investments were predicted, but expectations were higher than actual investments. Stagnation in the peace process, new fighting, and not least the massive assaults on the Rohingya population in the Rakhine state, put a damper on investment. Nevertheless, gross domestic product growth was 6.8 percent in 2017.

Almost all foreign investment has come from natural resource extraction (oil, gas, minerals, timber and fishing) as well as in hotels. The largest single projects come from the UK, the US (Texaco) and France (Total), but the vast majority of investments come from other Asian countries such as South Korea, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and China. Following the accession of Myanmar as a full member of the regional cooperation organization ASEAN in 1997, economic cooperation with neighboring countries in Southeast Asia has expanded considerably.

Agriculture

Agriculture is the country’s most important business sector. It comprises (including fishing) over half of the gross domestic product, employs about 70 percent of the working population and contributes around three quarters of export revenue. Around 30 percent of the land area has the potential to be used as agricultural land. However, insufficient infrastructure means that only half of this is cultivated. About a fifth of the cultivated area has artificial irrigation. To increase agricultural production, the development of artificial irrigation plants is a priority target for the authorities.

Half of the agricultural land is used for rice production, which is mostly in very small units. Rice is both the most important calorie and protein source in the population and an important export product. For a time under British colonial rule, Myanmar was the world’s largest rice exporter. Under central socialist policy, rice production stagnated, and the country struggled to supply its own growing population. The restructuring of agriculture from the 1970s again led to an increase in rice production.

The most important rice cultivation areas are found in the Ayeyarwadys and Thanlwin delta areas, along the Sittung, in the plains along the Ayeyarwady’s middle course and in the coastal districts to the west and in the Taninthayi area. In these areas wet rice is grown, largely based on artificial irrigation. Highland rice is cultivated on the Shan Plateau and in the northern and western mountain ranges, in several places in Sweden. However, production is still characterized by both lower productivity and lower quality compared to neighboring countries in Southeast Asia.

Wheat, maize and millet are grown from other cereals. Wheat is mostly grown on the Shan Plateau and along Ayeyarwady’s middle course. Corn is grown south of Mandalay as well as in parts of Ayeyarwady’s delta. Millet is most prevalent in the northern and western mountainous areas. In the “dry zone” oil crops and cotton are grown. The tea bush is wild in several places, including on the Shan Plateau, and in the Tanintharyi division fruits and rubber are produced on plantations. Other products include cane, peanuts, legumes and tobacco.

On the Shan Plateau and partly in the mountainous regions along the border with India, there is extensive cultivation of opium poppy (” the golden triangle “). Several reports point to a military participation in opium exports. Myanmar is the world’s second largest opium producer after Afghanistan.

Since the country is very poor, livestock farming plays a relatively modest role. Domestic animals are primarily used as draft animals. The authorities are investing in increasing the number of migratory animals to achieve the goals of increased agricultural production. Only poultry (chicken and duck) are used to some extent for meat production, and meat is still considered “luxury food”. In higher and dry areas, smaller goats are kept with goats.

Forestry, fishing

Teak and other hardwoods comprise a significant portion of the country’s forests. It is estimated that Myanmar has over three-quarters of the teak exploitable reserves in the world. To increase export revenues, the authorities issued licenses to Thai logging companies in the late 1980s. Illegal logging and smuggling across the border into Thailand is a general problem and teak reserves are seriously threatened. Although there has been some replanting of teak, the authorities are criticized internationally for little ability and willingness to control the harvest, which takes place in part in outbreak regions. Deforestation is believed to have contributed to the country more often being hit by floods.

Fish represents the most important animal source of protein for the population, and is therefore an important part of the diet. About three quarters of the catches are in salt water and one quarter in fresh water. A large proportion of the saltwater fishing takes place in the Myeik archipelago. The authorities have invested in expanding the fishing fleet to increase export revenues. Licenses granted to foreign (Asian) trawlers have led to reports of overfishing.

Energy, mining

The country’s expanded capacity for electric energy production in 2013 was 3,735 MW, of which hydropower amounted to 2,780 MW and gas power 835 MW. Annual production is around 18 TWh. Of electrical energy produced in 2015, 68 percent came from hydropower and 32 percent from fossil energy. Many villages are not connected to the national electricity grid, and in 2014 it was estimated that only 30 percent of the population had access to a reliable power supply. The final consumption per capita is thus very low and in 2016 calculated at 293 kWh.

A number of major hydropower projects are planned to be developed along the Thanlwin River in the eastern mountainous areas. The deposits of mineral oil have been known since the 13th century and have been used for lighting. The authorities have invited foreign companies to the country to invest in oil and gasrecovery. A number of problems related to corruption, inefficiency and strong pressure from international human rights organizations, including charges of forced labor, have severely limited the activities of foreign companies. The government’s ambition for the country to be self-sufficient with crude oil has in reality never been fulfilled, and the country suffers from continuous energy shortages. The most important deposits of crude oil are found in the Ayeyarwady basin and along the Rakhine coast. Since the 1980s, gas has been produced from offshore deposits in the Gulf of Martaban and in the Tanintharyi Division. From the Yadana field in the Gulf of Mottama (Martaban Bay), gas is exported to Thailand via a pipeline.

Less good quality coal is mined in the upper part of the Chindwinn Valley. Tin and tungsten are mined in the Tanintharyi Division. Lead, zinc and silver are mined on the Shan Plateau, copper in Monywa and gold at Bawdwin northeast of Mandalay. From ancient times, the country is known for its production of jade and gemstones (sapphires and rubies).

Natural gas and other riches

About one-third of foreign trade takes place with neighboring Thailand, which imports natural gas for close to USD 2 billion annually. In the Bay of Bengal off Myanmar’s west coast, large deposits of natural gas have been detected in recent years. China, India and other neighboring countries are competing for new gas deals. In 2008, new exploration agreements were signed with Russian, Thai and Vietnamese companies. By the way, the country is rich in tropical timber and minerals, jade and other gemstones. Myanmar is believed to extract about 90 percent of the world’s rubies (measured by value) and 80 percent of the world’s teak timber. In addition, they have one of Asia’s largest proven deposits of natural gas.

Work is underway on massive projects for further development of gas exports. China secured an agreement to build a pipeline for oil freight (from the Middle East) from the deep-water port of Rakhine State to Yunnan Province in southwest China. Another natural gas pipeline has been built from the Shwe field to the same Chinese province. The two pipelines are the largest investment in Myanmar ever. Myanmar also has a central place in China’s Belt and Road initiative.

Industry

The industry is small and mainly based on the processing of agricultural and forestry products and minerals. Oil refineries are found in Chauk, Thanlyin (Syriam) and Mann. The cotton industry is concentrated to Yangon, Mandalay and Myingyan. Yangon also has facilities for the production of steel products and pharmaceuticals; furthermore there are cement plants in Thayet, a paper mill in Rakhine and factories for the production of fertilizers based on natural gas at Sale and Kynchaung. The industry is hampered by inadequate energy supply and high prices for machinery and spare parts. The textile industry has been hit by international sanctions.

Tourism

Myanmar has, with its exceptionally rich and genuine cultural traditions, basically a great potential as a tourist destination. A number of magnificent palaces and Buddhist temples are scattered around the country. The most attractive tourist destinations are Yangon, Mandalay, Maymyo and Pagan. After the fight against the democracy movement in 1988, the tourist flow stopped almost completely. Later, the authorities have sought to expand tourism in order to attract foreign currency. A combination of Western sanctions, restrictive visa rules and inadequate infrastructure has kept visitor numbers down.

In the western countries, a debate has been held on whether to visit Myanmar as long as the military regime is in power. Tourist visits automatically lead to increased military dictatorship. Suu Kyi and her democracy movement have advised tourists not to travel to the country as long as human rights are not respected.

Foreign Trade

Myanmar has long had a current account deficit with foreign countries. However, the launch of natural gas exports to Thailand has led the country to have a surplus on the trade balance since 2002. Other important export products are rice, legumes (to India), hardwood and marine products. Other exports are hampered by US sanctions, European restrictions and general boycott campaigns launched by international interest groups. Together with Afghanistan, Myanmar is unofficially regarded as the world’s leading exporter of opium. Imports consist of consumer goods, semi-finished goods, capital goods and military equipment.

The main trading partners are neighboring countries Thailand, India, China and Singapore. Border trade with China has expanded since 1987. It exports jade, gemstones and teak, and cheap consumer goods and capital goods are imported. China is also the main exporter of military weapons to Myanmar.

Transport and Communications

The transport network is poorly developed and is characterized by old and poorly maintained equipment. In essence, the connections are built north-south. The railway network is approximately 3955 kilometers long with the main train from Yangon to Mandalay and Myitkyina. The road network is extensive, but only a small part has a fixed tire. The rivers are traditionally important in transport. In total, there are 12,800 kilometers of navigable waterways, of which Ayeyarwady and Chindwinn are the most important. During the dry season, boats can navigate all the way up to Bhamo (1450 km), during the rainy season to Myitkyina. International airport can be found at Yangon (Mingaladon) and Mandalay.

Mongolia Business

Mongolia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, MN is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Mongolia.

In the early 1990s, Mongolia introduced a series of market economy reforms and privatization programs that replaced a former socialist planning economy. The transition was difficult, among other things. because the country’s foreign trade in the past was almost exclusively with the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe. Since 1994, the country has had poor economic progress, but the country is still a poor developing country with a poorly developed economy. Approximately nomadic animal husbandry is still the most important trade route, but mining and industry are becoming increasingly important for the country’s economy.

According to countryaah, the country is completely dependent on receiving foreign aid. The EU, the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and various UN organizations as well as individual countries such as the United States, Japan, Germany and the United Kingdom provide both technical assistance for development projects and pure financial assistance.

The country’s biggest challenge is to reduce poverty. Nearly 40% live below the publicly defined poverty line, and most marked is in the capital Ulaanbaatar.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Mongolia

Agriculture, fishing

The land is rich in pasture, but relatively poor on cultivable land. In total, approx. 80% of the land is used as pasture. The Mongols have long traditions as nomadic peoples, and have used the wide grasslands for breeding sheep, goats, horses, camels, cattle and hunts. The company has supplied the Mongols with meat and milk which are the most important ingredients in the Mongolian diet. used for clothing production. During the period of centralist planning economics, livestock farming was organized in cooperatives, but it was completely privatized in 1990. The stocks are 11.9 million sheep, 9.7 million goats, 2.2 million horses, 1.1 million cattle (incl. jackets) and 285,500 camels (2001). The nomadic population is subject to constant natural disasters that can hit their thugs hard. Eg. caused severe drought in 1999, followed by strong cold with great snow and cold in 2000, to over 7000 families losing their entire livestock. In 1996, an exceptionally extensive grass fire caused the death of 25 people and 7800 animals. Later that year, more people drowned as torrential rains created sudden floods while other parts of the country suffered from drought.

Agriculture is hindered by a low fertile soil. Cultivated land comprises less than 1% of the area. Cultivation of the land in organized forms did not begin in Mongolia until large state farms in the 20th century were established in the central and northern part of the country around the rivers Selenge, Orkhon and Kerulen (Kherlen). Cultivation of new agricultural areas has largely had limited success. Since 1991 most of the agriculture has been reorganized and transformed into smaller private units. The most important agricultural products are cereals, potatoes and vegetables. Mongolia is completely dependent on imports of grain from abroad.

Almost 10% of the area is wooded, mainly in the mountain areas in the north and west.

The country has several fishy lakes, but the commercial catch of fish is negligible.

Mining, energy

Mongolia is rich in natural resources. coal, copper, fluorite, tungsten, tin, gold, lead and salt. At present, natural resources are only partially utilized. At Erdenet, large quantities of copper concentrate and molybdenum are produced for export, which, however, are subject to constant price changes on the world market. Mines at Baganuur and Sharyn Gol, respectively, supply the two industrial centers Ulaanbaatar and Darhan with coal power. Smaller quantities of oil are extracted at Tamsag east of the country and exported to China. Otherwise, gold and fluorite are extracted.

Despite a small energy grid, Mongolia has a high energy consumption compared to the population and compared to other Asian countries. The high energy consumption is caused by a particularly energy-intensive industrial structure and the cold climate. The country’s wide and poor area means that transport’s share of total energy consumption is particularly high. Coal is currently Mongolia’s only domestic power source. Oil refineries and hydropower plants are under development, and wind turbines are planned in the districts. In the countryside, traditional sources of energy such as wood, roots and dried animal scraps are still used.

Industry

The industry is based on the processing of mineral resources and agricultural products, and is concentrated in the major cities of Ulaanbaatar, Erdenet, Darhan and Choybalsan. Mongolia was a member of the Eastern European cooperation organization Comecon 1961–91 and through this received considerable help through credits and joint ventures to build up the industry. Following the dissolution of Comecon, the industry was severely hampered. The most important industrial group is the smelter in Erdenet (completed 1979). Other industries mainly comprise the manufacture of textiles and clothing.

Tourism

Tourism is little developed, and relatively few foreigners visit the country. Most tourists come from Japan and South Korea. The connection between the Russian Trans-Siberian Railway and Beijing, which passes through Mongolia, makes the country less isolated. The main attractions are the landscape, wildlife, culture and historical monuments.

Transport and Communications

Transport is hampered by the great distances and the low density of people. The railway network has a total length of 1815 km and connects the capital Ulaanbaatar with both the Trans-Siberian railway in Russia and with the Chinese railway network. From Darhan, side roads lead to the coal mines at Sharyn Gol and the copper mines at the Erdenet, and from Choybalsan a line leads to the Siberian grid. The railway network has been developed in collaboration with the former Soviet Union. The gauge is therefore the same as in Russia, but different from the Chinese, which creates problems for the country’s foreign trade. The railways are in total responsible for most of the freight transport, while the majority of passenger traffic is by car and bus. By the way, horses, oxen and camels are still widely used as migratory and cloven animals. The nearest port city is Tianjin in China (1400 km from the border), where part of the port is set aside to serve Mongolia’s foreign trade. The country’s total road network is 49,200 km, but only 2% is paved and 13% gravel-covered. The rest consists almost exclusively of terrain driven wheel tracks. International airport can be found at Ulaanbaatar.

Foreign Trade

The foreign economy has for some time shown some large deficits. Russia (oil and electric power), Japan, China and South Korea are major suppliers of goods to Mongolia, while China (copper) and the United States are the country’s main export markets. Minerals and metals (especially copper concentrate) are the main export goods, making Mongolia very dependent on commodity prices on the world market. Other important export goods are livestock and meat, wool, fur, hides and timber.

Imports include machinery, fuel and various industrial products.

Maldives Business

Maldives Business

According to abbreviationfinder, MV is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Maldives.

Business

The Maldives economy is mainly based on fishing and tourism. There is a shortage of cultivable land and there are no mineral resources. The fragmentation of the many islands impedes economic development. A large part of the population lives outside or on the brink of the monetary economy through fishing, coconut harvesting or farming for housing needs. Fisheries and agriculture account for about 15 percent of official employment. Of the fish catch, 2/3 are tuna, a large part of which is exported. In agriculture, maize, jams and millet are grown mainly. As the population increase, the country has become more and more dependent on imports. The industry accounts for about 15 percent of employment and consists mainly of the food industry based on fishing, but there is also textile manufacturing and shipbuilding.

According to Countryaah, the most important trading partners are Thailand, Singapore and Sri Lanka. The international airport is located on the island of Hulule, near Male. The 2004 Indian Ocean Flood catastrophe caused a temporary disruption to the country’s tourism industry. Despite this and the international financial crisis during the late 1990s, the country’s economy has performed relatively well.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Maldives

Tourism and gastronomy

Maldives tourism is focused on sun and bathing tourists. The Muslim religion’s demands for alcohol prohibition are complied with, which limits the market. The hotel capacity is distributed over a hundred islands with sandy beaches, coral reefs, swimming and sport diving as main attractions. To limit the effects of tourism on the country, tourists live fairly apart from the majority of the population and everyday society. The number of foreign visitors in 2012 amounted to 958,000. The tsunami disaster in 2004 and the financial crisis in 2008 meant temporary declines for the tourism industry.

The spices play an important role in Maldivian cuisine, and the use of chili, curry, garlic and ginger for the thoughts of India and Sri Lanka. Coconut is also a flavoring. Food intake is largely based on fish (often tuna or sea bass), rice, sweet potato and millet. Not infrequently the fish is dried and torn down into the pots. Fish curries, fish buns (galas), fish soup (often on tuna, garrudia), fish omelets and fish cakes are examples of fish dishes – most are eaten with unleavened bread (roschi). Tea is the most common meal drink.

History. – In March 1975 Prime Minister A. Zaki, accused of bad governance, was forced to resign by President of the Republic AI Nasir. In October 1977, the government, in keeping with its policy of non-alignment, rejected the Soviet offer of a million dollars for the lease of the former British base of Gan.

In November 1978, MA Gayoom, former Minister of Transport, was appointed president, who during his first mandate began a new political course, breaking with the past and trying to broaden the basis of political and economic power up to that moment in a democratic sense. in the hands of a few families.

In September 1983 Gayoom was re-elected. Shortly before, an attempted coup d’etat, organized by some businessmen, was thwarted. A new coup attempt was carried out in November 1988 (in September 1988 Gayoom was re-elected for the third time), when Tamil mercenaries stormed the presidential palace and forced Gayoom to take refuge in a secret place from which he launched an appeal. to the United States, Great Britain and India. A raid ordered by R. Gandhi marked the failure of the coup. Gayoom, in November 1992, announced that he wanted to reappear in the 1993 elections.

Malaysia Business

Malaysia Business

Business

Malaysia is Southeast Asia’s most industrialized country. The driving forces of development have been growing exports, based on the extraction and processing of domestic natural resources, and it has been promoted by the country’s good location on one of the world’s busiest waterways, the Malacca Strait. Good access to foreign direct investment has also been of great importance. Calculations of the Human Development Index (HDI) 2017 showed that Malaysia was then ranked 57th among 189 states, significantly better than the other countries in Southeast Asia, except Singapore. The OECD describes Malaysia as upper middle income country.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, MY is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Malaysia.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Malaysia

Malaysia has rich resources on a variety of minerals and fossil fuels. The soils are mostly meager and floods occur frequently, but the good trade situation has also stimulated agriculture in Western Malaysia. Raw material exports were of great importance already when the area was a British colony. It was then a world leader in the export of tin and rubber. Since the country became independent in 1957, an industrialization began, which was mainly intended to process the raw materials before export. It was supplemented with the manufacture of textile and simpler electronics products. The Chinese and Indians were the driving force in sales agriculture and new industrial and service industries, while Malaysians were mainly in traditional agriculture and low-wage jobs. Such a stratification is still evident (see social conditions), despite a leveling policy since 1970.

From the mid-1970s to the late 1990s, Malaysia had one of the most dynamic and fastest growing economies in Asia. Per capita GDP grew annually by more than 5.5 percent in 1985-96. A new development policy in 1991 emphasized liberalization and privatization, mainly in transport, healthcare and education. The Southeast Asian financial crisis at the end of the 1990s halted growth, but it returned with full force, and during the period 2000-08, GDP increased by just over 5 percent annually. A broad middle class emerged.

In the production of simpler industrial goods, Malaysia can no longer compete with the neighboring countries with lower production costs, mainly India and China. The past five-year plans have therefore focused on building a knowledge-based business community with the production of an ever-increasing proportion of products with high value added and with modern, highly developed service. Emphasis has been on IT, biotechnology and health care, as well as expanded and improved higher education, which is required to produce sufficient domestic well-educated workforce. Foreign investment is now increasingly directed to the service sector. Private companies play an increasingly important role, but the state is still the majority owner of more than half of the largest companies and several companies have close ties to leading politicians. Malaysian companies have become increasingly involved in operations abroad, eg. in the construction of roads and other infrastructure.

Foreign trade is of great importance to Malaysia’s economy and the country is very vulnerable to demand fluctuations. In 2009, the global economic crisis caused a 1.7 percent decline in Malaysia’s GDP. Already in 2010, GDP growth returned.

Continued industrialization, a rapidly growing trade and an increasing number of international contacts have resulted in the modernization and “Western” development of society in Western Malaysia, the fastest and most pervasive in the western part of the peninsula. Sabah and Sarawak are still significantly poorer than Western Malaysia. In order to reduce regional differences, in 2007, five economic development corridors were identified, in northern, eastern and southern Western Malaysia as well as in Sabah and Sarawak.

Many decades of accelerated raw material extraction on the Malacca Peninsula have led to major environmental changes and serious environmental impacts. Large parts of the rainforest have been harvested and the abandoned mining quarries of the tin extraction form wounds in the landscape. Fishing in coastal waters has for many decades already resulted in restrictions and eventually almost total ban on such fishing. In recent decades, the rain forest area and fish stocks have also shrunk in eastern Malaysia.

For information on GDP and other business statistics, see Landsfakta.

Agriculture

About 18 percent of the land area is used for agriculture, of which a quarter for rice and vegetables and the remainder for tree and bush crops. The agricultural area increases every year, mainly through planting more tree crops such as oil palms and fruit trees. In the mid-1970s, agriculture accounted for just over half the export value, but in 2007 the share was just over 7 percent. One third of these were palm oil. Agriculture, forestry and fishing also provide raw materials to a large domestic industry that exports a large part of its products.

Rubber was the country’s most important export product from agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s, but since the 1980s the area of rubber trees has gradually decreased and in 2007 rubber accounted for only 1.4% of the total export value. However, Malaysia is still the world’s third largest natural rubber manufacturer, a leading manufacturer of rubber gloves and a major producer of rubber tires.

The cultivation of oil palm trees began in the 1960s and has subsequently constantly increased. At the beginning of the 1990s, more than 40 percent of the cultivated area was overgrown with oil palms and thereafter the demand for palm oil continued to increase. Biofuels now also get biofuels. In 2007, Malaysia accounted for 47 percent of world production and 62 percent of palm oil exports. More than half the palm area is privately owned, either by very large companies that have plantation operations or by Malay small farmers.

Cocoa cultivation increased sharply in the late 1980s and for a few years Malaysia was the world’s third largest cocoa producer. But low prices, rising labor costs and plant diseases led to a gradual decline in production. In 2008, the cocoa area accounted for only 5 percent of the 1989 crops. Now there is an incentive program for small farmers with free re-planting of cocoa plants that are high-yielding and resistant to diseases.

In Sarawak, small farmers grow black pepper for export and Malaysia was the fourth largest exporter of it in 2007. During the 00s, fruit growing has also increased and tropical fruits such as papaya, mango and pineapple are sold to, among other things. neighboring Singapore.

Rice is the most important food and is grown mainly in the highlands. Despite state aid, rice production has declined. In the rice cultivation areas, the farmers are poor; business is one-sided and young people are moving away. In 2007, Malaysia was self-sufficient with rice to only 72 percent and now imports rice mainly from Thailand. Malaysia produces a surplus of poultry meat, eggs and pork but only a small part of the beef and lamb demand.

Forestry

From the 1960s, the original rainforest was felled at an ever faster rate and exports of tropical woods became one of the new country’s most important sources of income. Forest clearing accelerated further in the 1970s and 1980s to provide land for oil palm plantations. The annual harvest fell to its maximum in the mid-1990s. At the end of the 1990s, it was only 60 percent of that, to a large extent due to a conscious development and environmental policy. About 55 percent of the land area is still wooded. In addition, 17 percent is covered by tree crops and plantings in connection with buildings.

At the environmental conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, Malaysia pledged to retain half of the land under natural forest, and in 2010, nearly 80 percent of existing forest was set aside as permanent forest land. There are strict rules for how much can be harvested, and there should be sustainable forestry with selective harvesting and with requirements for replanting. About 7.5 percent of the remaining forest area is allocated as total protected areas, ie. such as national parks, forest and animal sanctuaries, where no harvesting is allowed. The remaining 13 percent of the forest area is open for exploitation for other purposes. However, illegal logging occurs in remote, difficult-to-control areas. In order to reduce the pressure on the natural rainforest, the government has promoted the establishment of plantations with teak, acacia and other fast growing tree species, for example in Sabah,

Malaysia still exports tropical wood, and more than 80 percent of it comes from Sabah and Sarawak. The state encourages processing of the timber before export, e.g. at plywood and furniture factories, to increase the value of wood products. Therefore, exports of timber and sawn timber decreased during the 00s, while exports of floors, doors and above all wooden furniture increased significantly year by year. Malaysia exports plywood worldwide and in 2008 had also become the 10th largest furniture exporter in the world.

Fishing

Fish accounts for half of the protein intake in the diet in Malaysia and per capita intake of fish is twice as high as in Thailand and China, for example. Of the 1.5 million tonnes produced in 2007, 80 percent came from sea fishing and the remainder came from fish and shellfish farms. Tuna and seafood of high value are exported, together about 18 percent of the catch (2008), while 30 percent of the most low-value catch is used for fishmeal. Therefore, to meet the domestic demand for fish, imports are required.

Traditionally, fishing has been conducted along the west coast of West Malaysia, but since the beginning of the 1990s the fish stock has been depleted more and permits to fish there are no longer issued. Fishing according to old methods is still important off the east coast of the peninsula and in eastern Malaysia. About 80 percent of Malaysia’s fishing is still just outside the 30-mile limit and half of it with small outboard boats. For households in remote coastal communities, fishing has great socio-economic importance.

During the latter part of the 1990s, the government sought in various ways to achieve self-sufficiency with fish and to increase fish exports. In order to stop the depletion of coastal fish stocks, deep-sea fishing was encouraged and fishermen could buy diesel at a subsidized price to afford fishing in remote waters. In Penang in the northwest, a deep harbor with modern infrastructure is being built to facilitate the handling, storage and processing of ever-increasing catches of tuna in the Indian Ocean. Fishing in the eastern part of the country is also slowly being modernized. Fish farming and other aquaculture are also stimulated by the state. To a growing extent, the catches are quality-controlled to launch seafood exports to the EU, among others.

Mineral

Malaysia has long been the world’s largest producer of tin and in the 1970s accounted for almost 40 percent of world production. Thereafter, a sharp decline began. Occurrences in Western Malaysia were shrinking and found at greater depths. In addition, they were of inferior quality than before. Mining costs increased, while the world market price fell, and most of the more than 800 mines were abandoned. In 1995, only 6 percent of world tin production came from Malaysia, in the mid-00s less than 1 percent. Now it is necessary to import most of the raw material to the large tin smelter. For similar reasons, the recovery of copper has almost completely ceased. In contrast, the mining of iron ore during the latter part of the 00s increased in the more than 15 mines in Western Malaysia. However, most of the raw material for the country’s two steel mills must be imported. The extraction of bauxite in south-eastern Western Malaysia has also increased significantly, due to rising world market prices. All bauxite is exported unprocessed. Gold is also mined in Western Malaysia.

Energy

In Malaysia, oil is extracted in some fifty oil fields offshore, but they are small and production represents only 1 percent of the world’s total oil recovery. However, it is enough to make the country self-sufficient with crude oil and to give it a small export. About half comes from deposits off the east coast of West Malaysia, the remainder from fields outside Sabah and Sarawak. Natural gas is extracted near several of the oil fields. Outside Bintulu on Sarawk, there is one of the world’s largest natural gas deposits and from there natural gas is exported in liquid form to Japan and South Korea. The state-owned oil and gas company Petronas is part of the country’s largest corporate group and has accounted for a significant part of the revenue in the state budget since the 1980s. Petronas now also operates in several countries in Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia.

Coal is also extracted, to a small but growing extent. Most of the need for coal is covered by imports. Renewable energy, mainly biofuels (mainly from oil palm) but also hydropower, has become increasingly important. The electricity comes largely from natural gas but also from coal. Hydropower accounts for less than one tenth.

Industry

Malaysia’s first five-year plans in the 1960s and 1970s emphasized industrialization. Raw materials would be processed before export and simpler consumer goods would be manufactured in-country to reduce the need for imports. In the 1970s, export-oriented, labor-intensive manufacturing of textile products and simpler electronics were also encouraged, mainly financed by foreign investment. In the early 1980s, a capital-intensive, heavy industry developed and then the production of cars of the national brand Proton also started. In the late 1980s, the manufacturing industry passed on agriculture as the most important industry in Malaysia.

The largest part of industrial exports in 2009 consisted of electronics, electrical machines and electrical equipment, and a significant part of the industry employees work in usually foreign-owned factories to manufacture semiconductors, which are exported mainly to the USA, Japan and China. The food industry is also extensive and is the industry most widely spread across the country. This includes risk mills and other factories that produce food for the domestic market as well as palm oil mills and plants for preserving and deep-freezing fish, vegetables and fruit for export. The processing of metals and the manufacture of metal products is mainly done in Western Malaysia, in connection with the ore deposits, and there is also most of the rubber and plastic products industry and the manufacture of other chemical products, transport equipment and furniture. Sawmills and factories that manufacture plywood, particle board and veneer are the most important export-oriented companies in Sabah and Sarawak. Extensive state ownership exists in several industries, but the private sector plays an increasingly important role.

The country’s industrial center is very much the Kuala Lumpur area with the Klangdalen leading down to the most important port city, Port Klang. There is most of the electronics manufacturing, where research and development has been placed. A secondary center has long been in Georgetown in the northwest. During the 1990s, the government began actively working to spread activities to other parts of the country. In order to upgrade the manufacturing industry, 14 economic free zones have been established where the companies are free to import means of production. In addition, there are high-tech industrial parks.

Foreign trade

Malaysia has an open economy which shows that the value of foreign trade in goods and services exceeds its GDP; In 2009, it represented 123 percent of GDP.

According to Countryaah, the country’s trade balance has for many years shown a surplus. Since the beginning of the 1990s, four countries have been prominent trading partners. Among them, the role of the United States has diminished, while the role of China and Singapore has been significantly enhanced. In 2017, China, Singapore and the United States were the largest markets. More than 3/4 of the import goods were then semi-manufactured, mainly for the electronics and textile industries, and in addition came equipment for factories and other plants. Exports in 2017 went mainly to Singapore, China and the USA. Electrical components and semiconductors then accounted for 32 percent of the export value, and electrical machines for households and businesses accounted for 12 percent (TVs, refrigerators and computers). Other important export goods were palm oil (6 percent), rubber products, natural gas, crude oil and wood products. Malaysia has been a member of the WTO since 1995

The exchange of services provided a deficit for many years, but it decreased as tourism increased, and since 2007, the current account also shows a surplus.

Tourism and gastronomy

Malaysia has a rapidly growing tourism industry and tourism has become a very important source of income. Since the mid-00s, the number of visitors has increased by more than 1 million per year and in 2015 totaled more than 25 million. About half came from Singapore, many on short visits. The number of tourists from China and India increased sharply during the latter part of the 1990s.

Malaysia’s main attractions are the varied tropical nature as well as the ethnically mixed population that has given rise to a rich cultural offering. The long coasts and the many islands in the tropical waters also attract many visitors. Popular destinations are the islands of Pinang, Langkawi and Tioman with their beaches, Taman Negara National Park, Kuala Lumpur and Melaka, all in Western Malaysia. In East Malaysia, nature attracts, among other things. Southeast Asia’s highest mountain Kinabalu (4,101 m above sea level), rainforests and several smaller coral islands. Many tourists are interested in Malaysia’s colonial history and British colonial architecture

The cuisine in Malaysia is largely characterized by Chinese, Indian and Indonesian food storage. The basic products are rice, coconut, fish, chicken and beef as well as fresh fruit. However, the pure Malay diet has its own characteristics and dishes; The spice is plentiful, varied and usually quite strong with a distinctive element of chili. For all meals – including breakfast – steamed rice (nasi) is served in different varieties, with coconut milk it becomes nasi lemak, with curry seasoned meat nasi padang. Satay, which can be said to have the status of national dish, consists of marinated meat (chicken, lamb or beef) grilled on skewers and served with peanut sauce and ketupat, rice cooked cooked in palm leaves. Laksa lemakis a spicy noodle soup with coconut, and tahu goreng bean sprouts with soybean cheese. The availability of fresh fruit is plentiful. In addition to the more exotic fruits that are common to us, there are rambutan, durian, papaya, guava and mangosteen.

Lebanon Business

Lebanon Business

According to abbreviationfinder, LE is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Lebanon.

Lebanon has since ancient times been a trading center in the Middle East, and developed into an intellectual and financial center in the Arab world from the 1960s. From its independence in 1943, the country has pursued a very open economic policy. Lebanon’s, and above all Beirut’s, position as a financial and trade center was strengthened in the early 1970s, with increased oil revenues in the Gulf, but suffered a serious blow to the civil war of 1975-76. Following this, as well as the Israeli bombing of Beirut in 1982, a number of banks and other foreign companies established in the country moved to establish themselves especially in Cyprus or Kuwait. As a result of the devastation of the war and the Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon, the modern sector in particular was weakened and a large part of the industry taken out of production. The strong weakening of state power from the civil war, also led to increased corruption and less opportunity to collect taxes. Throughout the 1980s much of the trade was controlled by various parties and their military departments; the traditional, strong families and clans once again controlled the parties and militias. This business, including through the control of legal and illegal ports, helped fund the various groups’ warfare. So did extensive drug production and export. In the mid-1980s, the national currency, the Lebanese pound, weakened.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Lebanon

Consequences of the Civil War 1975–1990

Lebanon has a tradition of emigration to several parts of the world, and the transfer of currency from these to their families is an important source of income. As a result of the war in the 1980s and 1990s, far more than normal Lebanon left; especially highly educated, with the negative consequences it has for a society. It is estimated that approx. 900,000 left Lebanon because of the war. It has also been devastating for the once thriving tourism industry, which has to some extent picked up after the end of the civil war, especially in the form of visiting Lebanese abroad. The war has also led to great material destruction. Estimates of the damage from the Israeli bombing in the summer of 1982 alone were estimated at $ 1.9 billion. In total, it is estimated that the war has resulted in material destruction worth at least $ 25 billion. It is also estimated that the war has cost more than 150,000 lives and 68,000 Lebanese have fled their homes. The war also contributed to significant social distress, not least among refugees from southern Lebanon who settled in Beirut. Regardless of the war, Lebanon is a strong class-divided society, with large differences between city and country, and between poor and rich. The social and economic problems are compounded by high unemployment, which is partly due to the fact that hundreds of thousands of Syrian workers have taken up work in Lebanon.

Several post-war reconstruction programs have been prepared, but have not been implemented because of. new periods of war. It was not until the early 1990s that a large-scale reconstruction program began, in particular the capital Beirut, but also the general infrastructure of the country. Businessman and Prime Minister Rafiq al-Hariri was central to this work, securing investment and support, among others. from Saudi Arabia and from several other countries. Lebanon took out large foreign loans to pay for the reconstruction, and has accumulated a considerable debt burden. The rebuilding of the 1990s was also somewhat restrained by new Israeli attacks, especially Operation Grapes of Wrath, 1996. From the mid-1990s, several economic reforms and measures have been implemented, including further liberalization – with the privatization of state-owned enterprises – and strengthening the collection of taxes and fees, including the introduction of value added tax. In 2002, Lebanon signed the cooperation agreement between the EU and the Mediterranean countries.

Agriculture

According to Countryaah, Lebanon is to a large extent an agricultural country, where the sector traditionally accounts for a large part of employment, although agriculture’s share of gross domestic product has decreased. Around 40% of the land area is considered cultivable, but only approx. 23% is grown. Soil erosion and contamination of groundwater are threats to expansion in the sector, which otherwise has good natural conditions, especially along the Mediterranean coast and in the Beka Valley. At the coast, citrus fruits, bananas and olives are mainly grown, while Bekaa is the most important area for growing cereals. In the valleys between the coast and inland fruit and olives are grown; In the more sparse south, olive is the most important product – and livestock farming is widespread. Lebanon also has significant tobacco production, and in Bekaa grapes are grown for wine production. In the northern part of the Beka Valley, cannabis was the most widely used product for many years; The opium poppy was also grown. The Israeli invasion of 1982 destroyed much of southern Lebanon’s agriculture, partly because plantations were destroyed, partly because the farmers were not allowed to transport their produce north, and partly because the Israelis flooded the local market with their own products. Lebanese farmers have also objected to what they consider dumping cheap Syrian products on the Lebanese market. The extensive Israeli action in 1996 also caused great damage to agriculture in southern Lebanon. While almost half of the working population was employed in agriculture (including forestry and fishing) in 1982, the proportion was just over 3% in 2002. partly because plantations were destroyed, partly because the farmers were not allowed to transport their products north, and partly because the Israelis flooded the local market with their own products. Lebanese farmers have also objected to what they consider dumping cheap Syrian products on the Lebanese market. The extensive Israeli action in 1996 also caused great damage to agriculture in southern Lebanon. While almost half of the working population was employed in agriculture (including forestry and fishing) in 1982, the proportion was just over 3% in 2002. partly because plantations were destroyed, partly because the farmers were not allowed to transport their products north, and partly because the Israelis flooded the local market with their own products. Lebanese farmers have also objected to what they consider dumping cheap Syrian products on the Lebanese market. The extensive Israeli action in 1996 also caused great damage to agriculture in southern Lebanon. While almost half of the working population was employed in agriculture (including forestry and fishing) in 1982, the proportion was just over 3% in 2002. The extensive Israeli action in 1996 also caused great damage to agriculture in southern Lebanon. While almost half of the working population was employed in agriculture (including forestry and fishing) in 1982, the proportion was just over 3% in 2002. The extensive Israeli action in 1996 also caused great damage to agriculture in southern Lebanon. While almost half of the working population was employed in agriculture (including forestry and fishing) in 1982, the proportion was just over 3% in 2002.

There is some fishing off the coast, which, however, has limited economic value.

Mining

Lebanon has few mineral resources, and deposits of oil and gas have not been proven for a long time. In 2010, on the other hand, significant deposits, primarily of natural gas, were projected in Lebanon’s economic zone in the Mediterranean. Despite unclear boundaries against Israeli and Cypriot waters, exploration drilling is planned for 2019. Several international energy companies, including Norwegian Equinor, have shown interest in licenses in Lebanon, and Norwegian authorities have contributed advisers in establishing an oil and gas sector in the country through Oil for Development program. In addition, Lebanon has long had a significant petroleum industry, based on imports and refining of the Gulf of Persia, in Tripoli and Zahrani (by Sayda). Some iron ore and lignite (lignite) have been mined.

Industry

Lebanon is a relatively industrialized country, with varied light industry, and somewhat heavier industry. Prior to the Civil War (1975–76), industrial production was stimulated by a relatively rich domestic market, but the sector suffered major damage both during the Civil War and later, partly as a result of the Israeli invasion of 1982. A large part of the factories were destroyed and many were not destroyed. put back into operation. Lebanon is still more industrialized than most other states in the Middle East. The most important industrial sectors are the food, textile, furniture and wood industries, as well as petroleum refining. Building and civil engineering is an important industry, and saw a major upswing as a result of the restoration program implemented in the mid-1990s. This sector has also been important for Syria’s economy, as a large proportion of the workforce consists of Syrian guest workers.

Most of the industry is located in, or near, Beirut and Tripoli, but a larger proportion of the post-war industry is found in the Christian areas of and around Beirut – although this was also inflicted significant damage during the 1989-90 civil war. An industrial zone was established at Sayda from 1976, but was severely damaged during the 1982 invasion, after which the Lebanese industry also suffered to some extent from competition from subsidized Israeli goods.

Energy

Deficit of electrical energy has been a constraint to economic development in Lebanon, and power production was also affected by the war and Israeli actions. In 2018, installed capacity was 2,550 MW, while the need for peak load is estimated at around 3,500 MW.

It has also proved difficult for Lebanon to import oil and gas to meet its energy needs, and the country has relied, among other things, on floating power plants hired from Turkey. In addition, large sections of the population rely on aggregates to meet private electricity needs, which has given rise to an extensive unregulated power market.

In 2012, the Lebanese authorities embarked on a controversial dam and hydroelectric project in one of the country’s most pristine natural areas, but the project was still unfinished in 2019.

Transport and Communications

Lebanon has a road network totaling approx. 7100 km, of which approx. 1990 km constitutes a main road network of relatively good standard – and where the main road along the coast and from Beirut to the Syrian border are the highest priorities. As part of the post-war reconstruction, large parts of the main road network have been upgraded. coastal roads Beirut – Sayda. Large parts of the original railway network were destroyed during the Civil War, and plans have been laid for possible reconstruction of parts of it. The southernmost part of the railway linking Lebanon to Palestine was closed as a result of the 1948 war, after which the border between the two countries was also closed. Until Israel withdrew its forces from southern Lebanon in 2000, the border was controlled by Israel, which opened it to some civilian traffic – including for Lebanese who had jobs in northern Israel and for trade.

Before the Civil War, the international airport in West Beirut was the busiest in the Middle East, but the airport was partially destroyed by the war and closed for long periods before being rehabilitated after the war and reopened in 1992. Several ports were also partially destroyed during the war, and for otherwise largely controlled by various militia groups. The main ports are Beirut, Tripoli and Tyr, as well as Juniyah (north of Beirut); work on the development of the port of Sayda began in the late 1990s.

The telecommunications system broke down along the way during the war, and a number of private satellite-based solutions were created. From the 1990s, the telephone system has been rehabilitated, while the prevalence of mobile telephony has been, relatively speaking, greater in Lebanon than any other Arab country.

Laos Business

Laos Business

According to abbreviationfinder, LA is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Laos.

Business

After the People’s Republic was proclaimed in Laos, preparations for the transition to socialist economics began, which would be implemented during the first five-year plan 1981-85. However, stagnant production and a number of other difficulties caused the rate of transformation to slow down. During the second five-year plan, 1985-90, agriculture and infrastructure were mainly developed. Forestry and export-oriented, raw material processing industries also received support.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Laos

Laos is one of the least developed countries in East and Southeast Asia. Human Development Index (HDI) calculations in 2017 placed the country in 139th place among 189 states. More than 70 percent of the population lives in rural areas, and three-quarters of these households live on agriculture as self-catering. These are therefore included in the informal sector of the business sector, as are many who are employed in the cities. This means that business statistics for Laos can be difficult to interpret.

From other countries, there is a great interest in the natural resources of Laos, mainly minerals, hydropower and forest, and the country is increasingly drawn into the global economy. Foreign companies are looking for valuable minerals and international forestry companies are establishing large tree plantations. Most of the raw materials are exported without being processed, and the benefits of the extraction will to a small extent benefit the country’s residents. Industrialization is slowing down in Laos, as the country is very scarce for domestic capital and substandard infrastructure. In addition, the level of education is low. Laos does not receive foreign investment on such a scale as neighboring Vietnam does.

The country’s GDP increased by about 7 percent per year during the period 2000-08. Mining in particular increased sharply during the 1990s. Furthermore, major road and power plant projects have been completed, financed by foreign aid. Further such projects are ongoing but have been delayed by the global economic crisis during the latter part of the 1990s. Poor transport conditions are still a serious obstacle to economic and social development. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) supports a comprehensive development program for better road networks and integration in the valleys of the Mekong and its tributaries. Since the 1970s, development assistance has played an extremely important role for Laos. Sweden has been one of the larger donors but is now phasing out its assistance.

For information on GDP and other business statistics, see Landsfakta.

Agriculture and fishing

Agricultural production increased by 2.5 percent per year in 2005-08, which was a slower growth than in industry and service. Less than 1/10 of the land is considered to be possible to cultivate and currently about 4 percent of all land is used for agriculture and livestock management. Cultivation and yield varies greatly between the different parts of the country due mainly to topography, transport conditions, proximity to the market and the extent of foreign aid to the farmers in each area. Undetected landmines from the wartime are a major obstacle to using the agricultural land.

Agriculture in the Mekong Valley is responsible for most of both rice and other forage production, and the farmers can afford to invest in better aids for cultivation, irrigation and fertilization. On the highland plateaus there is widening and slow modernization of agriculture, but there the development is strongly dependent on the destruction of land mines. Self-catering still exists in the inaccessible mountain regions, mainly in the north. Sweat farming has almost completely ceased.

Rice is the basic food and is grown on most of the agricultural land. Until the latter part of the 1990s, only one crop per year was harvested. Artificial irrigation was lacking and dry-time crops therefore yielded very small harvests. Food production then increased more slowly than the population and more and more rice had to be imported. To reverse that trend, the state made a big investment in the late 1990s by importing diesel-powered pumps and distributing them among farmers. As the rice fields could be watered during the dry season, the second crop of the year was also large and the entire agricultural production increased. Laos is now self-sufficient with rice during years of normal weather. A smaller part of rice production is made up of mountain rice that is not as water-intensive as wet rice.

Foreign aid has been used to broaden the production of dry land crops for sale, and the cultivation of maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts, soybeans, cotton, spices and tobacco has increased, as has the cultivation of coffee, which is exported. Cassava, vegetables and fruits are also important elements in the daily diet. On new plantations, rubber, tea or sugarcane is grown.

The northwestern part of Laos is part of the so-called Golden Triangle, where for many decades opium poppy and smuggled opium have been cultivated. In the 1990s, Laos was the third largest opium producer in the world. With great foreign aid and hard methods, the government subsequently managed to eradicate almost all such activities. The poppy area was estimated at 280 km 2 in 1998 but is estimated to cover only 1.5 km 2 in 2007. Smuggling of opium is likely to be insignificant and cultivation is now motivated by demand from local drug addicts.

Livestock management has received less support for development, but it is of importance to the peasant households. Water buffaloes are the most important migratory animals, and poultry, cows and pigs provide animal food and also income for those living near the market. Fish is another important source of protein in some areas. Of the catches in the late 00s, 3/4 came from fish farms. They are also fishing in the Mekong and its tributaries and in the new power plant ponds.

Forestry

Growing production of charcoal, illegal logging and sweat farming with ever-shorter turnaround times reduced the forest area at an ever faster rate during the late 1900s. According to the government’s estimate, the proportion of forest land decreased from 47 percent of the country’s land in 1992 to 41.5 percent in 2002. Deforestation has subsequently continued, also as a result of the construction of roads and large power plant dams. However, current information on the extent of the forest area varies greatly, since a large part of the forest can be described as economically unproductive and difficult to classify.

In 2005, most of the logging was used for fuel (wood, charcoal), and only 10 percent went to sawmills. Since then, the timber industry has expanded and timber and timber products have become more important in exports. In 2007, the state established guidelines for the use of the forest. About 20 percent should be used for productive forestry, just over half will be saved as protection against erosion and close to 25 percent should be set aside as nature conservation areas.

The government and also regional and local authorities are increasingly granting concessions to foreign forest companies wishing to plant forest plantations for future export of pulpwood. This means first harvesting on a large scale and then monoculture with fast-growing trees such as eucalyptus. As a result, natural forest disappears with its diversity of plants and animals. Concessions have also been provided for rubber plantations, to Vietnamese in the south and Chinese in the north. An increasing number of tree plantations and unclear ownership conditions mean that the forest areas are shrinking for the farmers, who are sourcing fuel as well as food and medicine from the forests. Critics believe that some of the companies are rogue and only devastate forests, not replanting for sustainable forestry. Laos lacks resources to monitor what is happening to the forest in remote areas.

Mineral

Laos is rich in numerous minerals and the mining industry accounted for a growing share of the country’s exports in 2007-10. Until 2003, only limestone, tin and plaster were recovered on a significant scale, the latter two in the Savannakhet area in central Laos. Over the past decade, foreign companies, mainly Australian ones, have conducted extensive exploration in Laos and found breakable deposits of a number of minerals in various parts of the country. In an open-pit mine in Sepon east of Savannakhet, an Australian company started extracting gold in 2003 and copper in 2005, and above all gold mining has become of great financial importance. The mine was purchased in 2009 by a Chinese company that will also produce copper on a large scale. Another Australian company started mining copper, gold and silver north of Vientiane in 2008. On a small scale, zinc and lead and precious stones have long been extracted, mainly sapphires. Together, a Chinese and an Australian company are preparing for the start of bauxite mining in southern Laos. The mining industry is dependent on foreign investment, and these were delayed by the global economic crisis of 2008-09. Much money is also needed to make road transport and energy supply work in mineral rich but remote and roadless areas.

Energy

The mountainous Laos has very great water energy potential and in the cities most of the energy needs are covered by water electricity. Electricity production more than tripled between 1995 and 2007 and increased even more strongly in the next few years when several large power plants were put into operation. But the country lacks a nationwide wiring network and only just over 20 percent of the population has access to electricity. Wood and charcoal are used in the countryside. In the mid-1990s, about 60 percent of the electricity was exported to Thailand, but that proportion has subsequently declined. There are plans for a further number of power plants in the Mekong tributaries, but in most cases money for construction is lacking.

The state, together with foreign oil companies, has searched for oil in the area of Savannakhet in central Laos. This work is made more difficult by the fact that landmines still remain there since the war years. In southern Laos there are deposits of coal, and coal from two small mines provides energy to the country’s cement industry.

Industry

The manufacturing industry accounts for just over 5 percent of GDP. The vast majority of this is light industry that manufactures simple consumer goods. Most important for employment is the food industry, while the economically most important industry is the manufacture of fabrics, clothing and shoes, as it accounts for a significant portion of export earnings. Such crafts are also important. Furthermore, there are breweries and sawmills as well as the manufacture of simpler furniture, plastic products, detergents and cigarettes. The only activity that refines the country’s mineral resources and also the only heavy industry is the production of cement and concrete products. It expanded significantly during the 1990s, stimulated by increased construction of roads, bridges and power plant dams.

In 1989, the communist regime began a comprehensive restructuring and privatization of state-owned enterprises. Various forms of ownership are now found in Laos, ranging from local collective and private small companies to larger companies that are wholly or partly foreign-owned. A number of so-called strategic activities, such as electricity and water supply, still belong to the state but now levy user fees. Foreign investment in the manufacturing industry is not as common here as it is in neighboring countries, mainly as a result of a low level of education, infrastructure deficiencies and bureaucratic difficulties. The manufacturing industry is mainly located in the largest cities, for example most of the clothing industry is located in the Vientiane area.

Foreign trade

Absolutely reliable information on the scope and direction of foreign trade cannot be obtained. Particularly in the north, the border regions are very difficult to reach and cannot be controlled against smuggling, for example by gemstones. Illegal trade should occur with all five neighboring countries.

Until the mid-00s, the export of electricity to Thailand was the most important entry in Lao’s foreign trade. But in 2006, production at the gold and copper mine in Sepon had started at full scale and since then these minerals are the leading commodity group in exports. Exports of timber declined in the 1990s, but during the latter part of the 1990s, exports of timber, sawn timber and furniture increased sharply and this is now one of the largest product groups. In the late 1980s, Laos began to export mainly cotton and silk clothing, and such exports grew during the 1990s, including to countries in the EU. In the textile industry’s global market, Laos faces strong competition from neighboring countries such as China and Vietnam and is therefore seeking to find niches for its special products. Craft products in textiles and wood are also included in exports as well as agricultural products such as coffee and tea. The export of raw rubber is increasing as the new plantations become productive.

Foreign trade has increased very sharply during the latter part of the 1990s, when Laos has been heavily dependent on imports of capital goods for the major construction projects, such as machinery and equipment, building materials, fuels, and vehicles. In addition, consumer goods and raw materials are added to the clothing industry. Every year, the current account has a sharp deficit. For many years, Thailand has been by far the most important trading partner. Since the end of the 1990s, trade with China and Vietnam has increased significantly and China is now in second place, followed by Vietnam.

In 2017, Laos was visited by 3.2 million tourists, almost half of whom were from Thailand. Tourism was the second most important source of foreign currency in the late 00s after mineral exports.

Kyrgyzstan Business

Kyrgyzstan Business

According to abbreviationfinder, KG is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Kyrgyzstan.

Business

The fact that Kyrgyzstan suffers from a lack of natural resources and a limited industry has made the Republic one of the poorest members of the CIS. Business is highly differentiated on the basis of ethnic boundaries. About 75 percent of farmers are Kyrgyz, while other ethnic groups make up the majority of industrial workers and other non-agricultural occupational groups. The traditional business catch in Kyrgyzstan has been livestock management, and it still forms an important part of the country’s economy. In line with the political release, Kyrgyzstan has launched a program for the privatization of the state sector, and a greater scope for free markets is foreseen.

According to Countryaah, the country was hit hard by the Russian financial crisis in 1998, but recovered somewhat during the early 2000s when new gold deposits were put into operation. However, the recovery turned out to be temporary, and the country ended up in financial problems again in the late 00s.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Kyrgyzstan

Economic conditions

The end of the planned economic system and the transition to a market economy have created considerable problems. Foreign investments were very modest compared to those that flowed into the neighboring countries of the CIS. However, a certain internal political stability, the ability to maintain good relations with powerful neighboring states, as well as the development of relations with China, which has become Kyrgyzstan’s second trading partner (after the Russian Federation and the rest of the CIS), favor recovery prospects.

In the valleys separating the parallel chains, oriented from E to West, various artificial dam lakes were built starting from the 1970s, used for considerable irrigation crops (sugar beet) and for the production of hydroelectric energy. In the richest pastures cattle breeding is practiced (in particular of the yak, an animal that can live even at the highest altitudes); elsewhere, sheep are very numerous, especially in relation to the number of residents, ensuring that Kyrgyzstan has a good production of wool; there is no shortage of small and robust Kyrgyz horses. The cultivation of tobacco and the breeding of silkworms are also widespread.

In south-western Kyrgyzstan, modest quantities of oil are extracted; more consistent, but still limited, is the coal production of the Ulusgen and Kavak basins; among the metalliferous productions of the country, mercury, gold and antimony are worthy of note; small quantities of uranium are present in the Ču river valley. At the base of the Kyrgyz industrial development lies the availability of hydroelectric energy: the traditional food (sugar) and textile (cotton, silk factories) industries have been joined by metallurgical and cement plants. But still at the end of the millennium over 40 % of the active Kyrgyz population remains employed in the rural economy (which is slowly being privatized, but not without resistance and obstacles).

Since 1994, Kyrgyzstan has participated in an economic union with Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and also maintains close relations with other former Soviet Central Asian countries, as well as with Turkey, which in a certain sense represents its cultural reference. However, the ancient link with Moscow is not denied: an economic integration treaty with the Russian Federation, Belarus and Kazakhstan was signed in 1996.

Agriculture

Agriculture is the main industry in Kyrgyzstan. Livestock control dominates, and cattle, sheep and goats are kept in large numbers (the production of wool is considerable). There is also breeding of riding horses and camels. About 7 percent of the acreage is cultivated, and about 45 percent is pasture. Half of the cultivated area lies in the river valleys, where irrigation is possible. The most important cereals are wheat and maize, but vegetables, tobacco and cotton are also grown. A land reform to lead to the privatization of cooperative agricultural land was initiated in the 1990s. However, the work has encountered widespread problems regarding the traditional ownership of grazing land.

Minerals and energy

The availability of fragile raw materials is limited. However, Kyrgyzstan is a significant producer of gold, antimony and mercury. Of these, gold production is of central importance to the country’s economy. Since 1997, when the first gold mine was opened, gold has dominated the country’s exports and has also been the driving force in the country’s industrial development. Coal, oil and natural gas are extracted to some extent. Water energy covers half of Kyrgyzstan’s electricity needs; There is also some export of electrical energy.

Industry

After World War II, industries for processing raw materials, e.g. coal, textile, clothing and food industries, increased in importance. However, the country’s engineering industry is of limited size and usually quite outdated. The exception to this is the gold industry, including the Canadian-owned Kumor mine, which accounts for about 10 percent of the country’s total GDP. The industry is mainly concentrated in the cities of Bishkek and Osh.

Tourism and gastronomy

Tourism in Kyrgyzstan was very limited during the Soviet era. The country’s spectacular natural conditions with high mountains and deep valleys have attracted more and more tourists during the 2000s. The political turmoil in the country in 2010 slowed the influx of tourists, but they have subsequently returned and in 2015 the country was visited by 3 million tourists. Mainly attracts hiking trails in Tien Sha and the tourist facilities at Lake Issyk-Kull. The majority of visitors come from neighboring countries. A major obstacle to the further development of the tourism industry is the country’s neglected infrastructure.

The kitchen is based on meat as well as vegetables, cereals, milk and cheese products, honey and fruit. The meat, mainly horse meat but also lamb and sheep meat, is usually served cooked and together with a dough product, for example in the national dish besjmarak, pieces of lamb meat cooked and served in sauce with square pasta pieces (lapsja) or with kefir (ajran). Sausages of horse meat (twenty-thick) are common. Vegetables and fruits are included in many dishes. An example is pumpkin, which can be filling in the popular stuffed pancakes (lepjesjki). Cheese production is an important industry, among other things, made carrot, a sour, stored cheese that is crumbled into various dishes. Apart from the flour dishes, apart from pancakes and thin bread, oladji, pieces of dough are fried in oil. Tea is often served with bread, honey, butter and dried fruit.

Kuwait Business

Kuwait Business

According to countryaah, Kuwait’s rapid economic development – from a trade center to a modern state – since the 1950s is primarily linked to the large oil deposits that were discovered just before the Second World War. With large oil revenues for a small country, not least following the 1973 price increases, Kuwait became one of the world’s richest states, with high average income and extensive welfare schemes. State revenues are largely controlled by the almost single-family al Sabah family, and wealth is unevenly distributed. The same applies to the welfare goods, which are guaranteed to Kuwaiti nationals, but do not automatically accrue to others, including the many foreign guest workers, who have largely contributed to the construction of modern Kuwait. Until the 1991 war, more than half of the population were foreign nationals, and it has not succeeded in making itself less dependent on imported labor, although it has long been a political goal. Modernization and wealth development have been based on oil exports, which normally account for 90-95% of total export value, and approx.2/5 of GNI. Kuwait has few other resources, and has only to a limited extent established other business avenues, beyond the financial ones. An unofficial exchange, Souq al-Manakh, collapsed following unregulated speculation in 1982, with major social and political consequences. The land has little cultivable land and suffers from a lack of water – and is therefore not suitable for agriculture. Kuwait also has no significant mineral resources – beyond oil and natural gas. The country, on the other hand, holds as much as 8% of the world’s known oil reserves. Prior to the oil age, economic activity was essentially about fishing and trading – i.e. to India and Africa. Until the late 1920s, pearls were the foremost export item; pearl fishing employed up to 30,000 people. Commercial oil recovery increased after the Second World War, and eventually brought large profits – even after financing modernization. Until Iraq’s invasion in 1990, Kuwait built up a fund, reserves for future generations (Reserve Fund for Future Generations, et al. 1976), and invested, among other things. in foreign property, including petrol dealer links. About. half of these assets were realized to finance the costs of the war; from wages to Kuwaiti in exile to the participating countries’ war efforts, then for reconstruction. Privatization is complicated by the need to secure Kuwaiti citizens’ work; they are substantially employed in the public sector, including public enterprises. Kuwait’s values ​​abroad were estimated at approx. $ 65 billion. The war had widespread economic consequences for Kuwait. Blue. the Iraqi occupation forces robbed public offices and private homes, and also took $ 1.5 billion in gold and cash from the central bank. In addition, the country’s infrastructure, including the vital oil industry, was severely damaged. With reduced production capacity and low oil revenues in the first years after the war, Kuwait borrowed and suffered a large trade deficit. As part of economic liberalization, a controversial law was also passed that opened up access to foreign majority ownership in Kuwaiti business, but – with few exceptions – except for the oil sector. In 1999, the country’s first free trade zone was opened in Shuaikh. The Kuwaiti state as well as individuals and companies have received war damage compensation from Iraq, but almost all claims were met when the US-led regime was deployed there in 2003, and it was taken to cancel Iraq’s debt raised under the deposed regime. A significant cost of rebuilding Kuwait has been the building of a new defense. One consequence of the economic crisis the war inflicted on Kuwait has also been that parts of the public subsidies – which made Kuwait the world’s leading welfare society – were reduced. Until the war, Kuwait was a significant aid provider, with a level of development aid well above western countries. The aid was channeled in particular through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED), and went to both Arab states and other countries. Kuwait was a major financial contributor to the 2003 war against Iraq. The same year, the Kuwaiti dinar was linked to the US dollar.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, KW is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Kuwait.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Kuwait

Agriculture and fishing

Kuwait is poor in water, and the agricultural sector in 2003 accounted for only approx. 0.5% of GNI. Almost all food and all agricultural raw materials must be imported. With the help of artificial irrigation, melons, tomatoes, onions and dates, which are also partly exported. There is also, partly on an experimental basis, breeding cattle, sheep and goats; Animal husbandry was an important industry among the nomadic population before the oil age. The fisheries, including after shrimp, are relatively modest.

Mining

In 1938, oil was discovered in Burgan, the world’s largest oil field outside Saudi Arabia, but due to. World War II began commercial production for export only in 1946. The British company Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) was responsible for the extraction, which in 1948 was 6 million tons, 1956 at 54 million tons, when Kuwait was the largest producer in the Middle East. With operations in new oil fields, production rose to 148 million tonnes in 1972; the year before, Kuwait was among the states that lowered production and raised prices as a political tool for the West, putting pressure on Israel.

Kuwait secured full national control of the oil industry when it was nationalized in 1975, run by the Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC). Besides the fields in Burgan, Maqwa and Ahmadi, which are the oldest and most important – with approx. 70 billion barrels, there is a large field in Raudhatayn in the north, several offshore fields in the Gulf of Persia and smaller fields in Kuwait’s part of the former neutral zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The oil reserves are (2005) estimated at 102 billion barrels, which corresponds to around 8% of the world’s known reserves, and are the third largest in the world after Saudi Arabia and Iraq. In 2004, daily production was approximately 2.5 million barrels; plans are set for a level of 4 million barrels/day in 2020. This is part of “Project Kuwait”, an ambitious 25-year plan to increase production, especially in the north of the country.

Most of the production is exported as crude oil, but an increasing part of it is refined in Shuaibah, Mina Abdullah and Mina al-Ahmadi, the largest with a capacity of just over 440,000 barrels/day. The high sulfur content of the oil has made it necessary to build oil desulfurization plants. During the 1991 Gulf War, Iraq set fire to approx. 650 of Kuwait’s about 1,000 oil wells, but after the war it took less than a year before the fires were extinguished and production resumed. Mina al-Ahmadi, the country’s most important export terminal for crude oil, was almost completely destroyed during the war, but has been rebuilt. Kuwait has invested in the oil sector in several countries, including Asia, the North Sea and the United States.

Natural gas is extracted in connection with oil production. such as liquid wet gas. In 2002, the reserves were estimated at 293 billion cubic feet. Kuwait seeks to increase the use of natural gas for power generation, both using its own gas and gas imported from Qatar; an agreement on import from Qatar was signed in 2000, and an agreement on the construction of a gas pipeline from there was signed in 2003. Kuwait is also looking into the possibility of importing gas from Iran; Before the war, Kuwait imported significant quantities of gas from Iraq. Kuwait, Iran and Saudi Arabia are contending for border demolitions in the rich offshore gas field of Dura. Kuwait’s installed capacity for electricity generation was 2004 at 9.4 GW, from five power stations. Power has been heavily subsidized for years, and Kuwait has one of the highest per capita consumption in the world. used for air conditioning and desalination of water.

Industry

Kuwait has, with government incentives, invested a lot in building industry beyond the oil-related, and the industrial zone around Ash-Shuaybah includes, in addition to oil refineries and other petrochemicals, several power plants and seawater desalination plants. Fertilizers (urea and ammonia), cement, foodstuffs, mineral water, etc. The building industry, with the production of building materials, is also of great importance. Rather than investing in major national heavy industry projects, as several Gulf states have done, Kuwait has sought partnership with neighboring countries on such developments. As of 2003, the industry (including oil refining) accounted for 7% of GNI.

Foreign Trade

According to Countryaah, crude oil and petroleum products normally account for 90-95% of Kuwait’s exports by value, and their exports give Kuwait substantial foreign trade surpluses. The exception was in the early 1990s, due to the war and the subsequent production failure – combined with borrowing to finance reconstruction. Imports include: machinery, transport equipment, food and various industrial products. Kuwait has long traditions as a transit trading country, and still serves as an intermediate station for much of the Gulf trade.

Transport and Communications

Kuwait has a well-developed road network, which has been rebuilt and further modernized after the war in 1991. The capital of Kuwait has an international airport, which was severely damaged during the war, but was quickly rehabilitated. The country has a significant trading fleet. The main port cities are Ash-Shuwaikh and Shuaibah; both modern container ports. Mina al-Ahmadi is the export port for oil. In recent years, a modern communication network has been developed.