Category: Africa

List of mountains:
On both sides of the East African Rift, volcanic massifs formed, in the eastern arm these are those of Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya.

Kilimanjaro massif
The massif is the highest mountain range in Africa. The highest mountain in the Kibo chain (5,895 m) is also the highest mountain in Africa. The Kilimanjaro massif is located in northeastern Tanzania. It is part of the UNESCO natural heritage.

Mount Kenya massif
The Mount Kenya massif in Kenya is the second highest mountain massif in East Africa. It has also been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Its highest mountain is the Batian (5,199 m), the second highest mountain in Africa after the Kibo.

Ruwenzori Mountains
The Ruwenzori Mountains are the third highest mountain range in East Africa. It is on the border between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. The Margherita Peak (5,109 m) is the third highest mountain in the country.

Verunga volcanic chain
The Karisimbi (4507 m) is the highest point in Rwanda. It is a dormant volcano in the Verunga chain of volcanoes. Nyiragongo in the Congo on the border with Rwanda is the most active and most destructive volcano in the chain. The eight peaks of the chain between Rwanda, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo strongly shape the eastern arm of the East African Rift.

Ol Doinyo Lengai
The Ol Doinyo Lengai is the last still active volcano in the eastern arm of the East African Rift. It is the only volcano in the world that spews lava dominated by carbonate mirals. The lave is relatively cool at below 600 degrees, but comes from much deeper layers than other lava.

Other important mountain ranges and mountains of East Africa are:
the Mitumba Mountains, Mount Elgon, Mount Meru For more information about the continent of Africa, please check computergees.com.

Sights of Madagascar

Sights of Madagascar

ANTANANARIVO

Visit to the old city and the upper part of the city: you will see the palace of the queen, from where you can enjoy a wonderful view of the capital from the highest point in the city.

Visit to the city center and business district: you will see the main commercial and administrative districts of the capital, which stretch from the Soarano railway station through Independence Avenue and the place where the Zoma Friday Market used to be held – the largest open-air market in the world. You will have the opportunity to climb one of the many stairs called “totobato”, which will lead you to the business part of the city, to the street of jewelers and to the presidential palace.

A visit to the Royal Hill of Ambohimanga: About 17 km north of Antananarivo is the Royal Hill of Abohimanga . Its territory consists of a royal city and a cemetery, as well as several sacred places. The hill is associated with a strong sense of national identity and has retained its spiritual and sacred significance for the past 500 years. It remains a place of worship, visited by pilgrims from all over Madagascar and beyond.

ANDASIBE

Pereira Butterfly Farm: This is a private zoo in Marozevo, 75 km east of Antananarivo, between the towns of Manjacandriana and Moramanga. It was founded and owned by the French entomologist and naturalist André Pereira, whose name the park later received. There are many reptiles (chameleons, iguanas, geckos, frogs), bats, crocodiles and butterflies. On the territory adjacent to the zoo, a population of families of resettled and accustomed to the presence of humans, sifak Verro and brown lemurs is maintained, which gives tourists the opportunity to observe them from a short distance when feeding.

Night visit to Woimma Park: After dark, you can go for a walk in Mitsinjo Park with headlamps and hand lanterns. In 2012, villagers from Andasibe established this park as an alternative to the area’s government-run national park. The local people wanted to manage their land on their own again and be part of the region’s ecotourism. Reptile and amphibian lovers will also enjoy the park, as the park’s crystal clear river is home to many frogs, and the forest is home to several species of chameleons. In addition, here you can meet a unique species – a fantastic flat-tailed gecko, as well as incredible insects – for example, the giraffe pipe-roller beetle.

Mantadia Park: These are virgin forests that cover an area of ​​more than 15,000 hectares. The park has 108 bird species, some of which play an important role in plant conservation, such as the Madagascar paradise flycatcher. In addition, 14 species of lemurs, several species of reptiles, including the Madagascar tree boa, and 84 species of amphibians live in the park. This walking tour requires moderate to good physical fitness as the park has steep slopes and dense vegetation. It is also easy to meet indri lemurs in the park – the largest living lemurs and endemic to Madagascar, which keep in groups. Also in Mantadia, there are other representatives of endemic species – brown lemur, meek lemur, lepilemurs and the smallest primates in the world – mouse lemurs. The national park is also famous for its orchids.

Andasibe hamlet: A small hamlet with a population of approximately 5,000. Having visited it, you can observe the daily way of life of the inhabitants of this quiet and vibrant village, along with a guide, walk along narrow dirt paths along small stalls. There is an opportunity to interact with the locals and see how they earn their living and how they spend their free time. The walk will start or end at the old Alpine-style colonial railway station, which in the 1930s housed the then very fashionable Buffet de la Gare restaurant.

Wakona Lemur Island: Surrounded by fresh water, the vast area of ​​Wakona Island is home to many species of lemurs such as brown lemur, meek lemur, wari lemur, diadem sifaka. On this island, tourists have a rare opportunity to get up close and interact with these amazing primates. At the end of this tour, all participants will undoubtedly have beautiful photographs and souvenirs. Also on the territory of the island there is a small lake where you can see a lot of crocodiles.

Analamazaotra Nature Reserve: there you will look for the largest lemur on. Madagascar – indri, which is also endemic to this area. You will have an easy walking tour of 2-3 hours, during which you will look for groups of indri lemurs. In addition, you will see representatives of other species of lemurs, birds, chameleons and more, as well as endemic flora, including various types of orchids and medicinal plants.

Mitsinjo Park Night Walk: After dark, you will go for a walk in the jungle of the park with headlamps and hand torches.

KIRINDI

Kirindi is a privately managed nature reserve and one of the most endangered ecosystems, dry deciduous forests.

Kirindi Forest: The Kirindi forest is home to the fossa, the largest carnivorous mammal in Madagascar. The forest is also famous for the Madagascan giant hamsters (voalavos), and it is also home to seven species of lemurs and a number of endemic reptiles.

Sights of Madagascar

Sudan Geography, Population and Economy

Sudan Geography, Population and Economy

Physical conditions. – Sudan within the narrowest limits of its extension can be considered a remarkably homogeneous region. From the point of view of the relief it appears as a vast flat expanse whose altitude remains below 500 m. and descends to 240 m. in the mirror of Lake Chad and only 170 m. in the Bodele depression. The highest altitudes would be found in the watershed region between the Congo basin and that of the Nile and Lake Chad where they would reach 1500 m at some point. it’s more. From the point of view of its constitution, the same uniformity is not maintained. The Lake Chad region including the Bodele depression as well as that of middle Niger for a large radius around Timbuktu and the Nile and Bahr el-Ghazal valleys are covered with recent alluvial formations. A notable part there are the archaic sediments and the ancient crystalline rocks, on which recent volcanic formations rise in various points. An extensive part of the territory is made up of sandstone or limestone formations of an unspecified age, while in the westernmost part paleozoic desert sandstone formations prevail, similar to those of the adjacent Saharan region.

Totally included in the intertropical region, Sudan has its own climate, not modified by the altitude or by a sensitive influence of the sea. Enclosed in January between the isotherms of 20 ° and 24 °, it passes in April-May from that of 28 ° to that of 34 °, with a pronounced tendency of increase proceeding from north to south; rainfall is scarce especially in the northernmost area bordering the Sahara, with waves ranging from less than 250 mm. he nodded at a meter in the southernmost regions.

The following table gives the climatic data for some of the most characteristic Sudanese locations.

We can distinguish three different river basins in Sudan. That of Niger, that of Chad and that of the Nile. Niger and its main tributaries can be said to run their entire course in Sudan. Lake Chad (v.), A vast expanse of marsh rather than a real lake, is fed by the Sciari and other minor rivers whose toll is absorbed entirely by evaporation so that, at least normally, the lake has no emissaries and only in the case of strong floods it seems that part of the water flows into Niger. The Bahr el-Ghazal flows mainly into the Nile, which is considered to constitute the limit of Sudan to the east, although it is customary to include the part of the lowland extending to its right, which with the vast range of its tributaries remains totally included in the boundaries of the Sudan. A part of the territory of Sudan,

Population. – Given the uncertainty of its limits and its extension and the fact of the lack of correspondence between these limits and those of the political-administrative districts to which the demographic data refer, the population of Sudan cannot be fixed in any other way. largely approximate. Considering that the colonies of French Sudan and Niger (French West Africa) and those of Chad and Ubanghi-Sciari (French Equatorial Africa) together with the northern part of British Nigeria and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan are totally within its borders, which altogether cover an area of ​​over 5 million square kilometers, the total population would be 19 million residents with an average density of less than 4 residents per sq. km, almost the average density of the continent, density that reaches its maximum with 16 ab. per sq. km. in northern Nigeria, while it is just 1 residents in the colony of Chad. The population of Sudan lives thickened in villages and cities, some of which represent notable urban clusters although they have nothing of the characteristics of European cities and are nothing more than vast areas, enclosed by beaten earth walls, with huts of straw and mud. The occupation by European powers, which took place in the last decades, has given rise to neighborhoods, or at least buildings, of a European type alongside the ancient indigenous centers. Apart from Khartoum, which is now a European city, the most important Sudanese city is Kano, which has 90,000 residents, already the metropolis of a vast and industrious kingdom, followed by Kuka, or Kukawa, near Chad, both in northern Nigeria. But also in French West Africa there are considerable centers, such as Bamako (18,000 residents), Mirriah (15,000), Kayes (12,000). Timbuktu, once celebrated as the metropolis of Sudan, is no more than a large village of less than 6,000 residents

Economic conditions. – The climatic conditions of the region in which the steppe vegetal formation prevails immediately give us an idea of ​​what its economic activities can be: agriculture, that is, for areas where the presence of considerable watercourses allows irrigation and cattle breeding. Among the irrigated crops that of cotton has taken a particular development. But the extension of the European colonization work, which dates back to only a few decades, will allow for greater development, contributing in particular to facilitated communications by river, where these are possible, or by rail. The railway constructions to which the possibilities for enhancing the immense region are mainly linked, which can be said to have no maritime borders, they are the object of particular interest on the part of the dominating colonial powers. A large penetration line, pushed up to Kano for some years, is close to reaching the shores of Lake Chad. The upper course of Niger is already connected to the Atlantic port of Dakar, while for some time it has been thought to connect Niger itself with the Mediterranean by means of a trans-Saharan railway.

Political order. – Sudan, in whose vast territory already strong and powerful autonomous states arose that exercised considerable action in the affairs of central Africa, today is in its entirety an immense colonial domain divided between France and Great Britain. It belongs to the former with the colonies of West Africa and precisely with those of French Sudan, Niger and with those of Chad and Ubanghi Sciari belonging to Equatorial Africa; it belongs to Great Britain with Northern Nigeria and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Condominium. The ancient Sudanese states of Timbuktu, Masina, Mandingo, Mossi, etc, therefore remain in French West Africa; in Equatorial Africa the realms of Kanem, of Wadāi. In northern Nigeria the kingdoms of Bornu, of Kano and Sokoto; in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Kordofdn, Darfur.

Sudan Economy 2

Djibouti History

Djibouti History

Djibouti (Djibouti), republic on the northeast coast of Africa. The country is predominantly a flat semi-desert (with salt lakes) that is hardly economically viable. Over half of the population is crowded in the capital of the same name. The service sector dominates here, and Djibouti is a trade hub for the region due to its location.

The area, which had been under Arab rule since the 16th century, came under French influence in 1862 and became independent in 1977.

Location

Djibouti borders Eritrea in the northwest, Ethiopia in the southwest and Somalia in the southeast.

Djibouti is located on the Gulf of Tadjoura, the far western part of the Gulf of Aden, which extends far into the country. The 80 km long Gulf of Tadjoura is still 55 km wide at the entrance between the city of Djibouti and the town of Obock and then tapers off sharply. Djibouti, located in the Afar Depression, is one of the most inhospitable areas on earth. In the predominantly flat semi-desert there are salt plains and salt lakes such as the Abbé and Assal lakes, which at 173 m below sea level form the deepest point on the African continent.

The mostly tabular land surface rises in the north to the volcanic chain of the Mablagebirge, in the west to the clump-like Danakilberge and in the south to the Bara Quin plateau. The highest point in the country is the Moussa Ali volcano (2 028 m above sea level) in the triangle of Djibouti / Eritrea / Ethiopia. The Godaberg National Park is located in the center of the country.

History

The area of ​​today’s Djibouti was already known to the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, was under Arab rule since the 7th century, under Turkish rule since the 16th century, and came under French influence in the middle of the 19th century. Between 1862 and 1885 the territory was acquired by France through treaties with the Afar and Issa, and in 1896 it was declared a colony of French Somaliland. It remained after 1960 as the only French colony on the African mainland with the status of a French overseas territory within the French Republic. In 1967 it decided to remain with France as the Afar and Issa Territory. On May 8, 1977, 98% of the population of the Afar and Issa Territory voted in a referendum (turnout 77%) for the establishment of an independent Republic of Djibouti. H. G. Aptidon, an Issa. However, France continued to secure military bases and economic influence. In terms of foreign policy, neutral and oriented towards good relations with the neighboring states of Somalia and Ethiopia as well as with France and the Arab League, Aptidon became internally after the re-election(1981) Declared Djibouti a one-party state (Rassemblement populaire pour le Progrès [RPP]). In the mid-1980s there were increasing calls for democratization, which v. a. articulated by the Afar, who are disadvantaged in public life. In 1991 the situation escalated into an open military conflict between government troops (indirectly supported by French units) and units of the rebelling Afar under the leadership of the Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie (FRUD), who temporarily managed to occupy larger areas in the To bring the north of the country under their control (armistice on November 25, 1991). A multiparty system was introduced in September 1992 amid persistent tensions. In the parliamentary elections boycotted by the opposition on December 7th. In 1992 the ruling party won all seats. In the presidential election on May 7, 1993 was Aptidon confirmed in office. Thereafter, the conflict between the Afar opposition and the Issa government escalated into a civil war, in the course of which the government troops prevailed. After ongoing guerrilla actions, a peace agreement was reached between the government and moderate FRUD forces on December 27, 1994, and the parliamentary elections on December 19, 1997 for the RPP alliance and the FRUD’s moderate wing, legalized in 1996, to win.

The new President of the Republic was I. O. Guelleh (RPP), a nephew of Aptidon who did not run again from the elections on April 9, 1999. The government alliance Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle (UMP) won the parliamentary elections in January 2003 and February 2008 and received all parliamentary seats. In 2008 fighting broke out between troops from both countries on the border with Eritrea. In 2010, the governments agreed on a peaceful settlement of the conflict. Guelleh was confirmed by the population in the presidency in 2005 and 2011. On February 18, 2011, the unrest in the Arab world spilled over to Djibouti. The protests were directed against the president, who had changed the constitution the previous year so that he could be elected a third time. The unrest was stopped by the security forces by force. Parliamentary elections were held on February 22, 2013 and were won by the UMP. The opposition, united in the Union pour le Salut National (USN), which boycotted the 2008 elections, was able to send members to the parliament for the first time. However, the USN accused the UMP of election fraud. In the last presidential election on April 8, 2016, I. O. Guelleh the mandate for a further term of office with 87.1% of the votes. In the parliamentary elections on February 23, 2018, which were boycotted by the main opposition forces, the UMP won 57 out of 65 seats.

According to prozipcodes, Djibouti serves as a base to fight international terrorism and piracy in the Horn of Africa. In addition to France, other countries also have military bases there, such as the USA and Japan. In 2014, Djibouti signed a security agreement with the People’s Republic of China. Based on this agreement, China opened its first foreign military base in Djibouti in 2017. According to the agreement, which runs until 2026, the People’s Republic may station up to 10,000 soldiers there.

Djibouti History

Somalia Literature

Somalia Literature

Poetry occupies an important place in Somali life. The nomads of the North have a richer oral literature than the peasants of the South, with poems with strict rules, characterized by alliteration, metaphors and allegories, intended for recitation, sometimes with the accompaniment of drum and hand clapping. The reciters memorize them and thus pass them on to future generations. The classification of these poems is based on the tone on which they are sung or the rhythm of the words. The noblest genres are three: Gabahi, which generally deals with serious or philosophical themes, with satirical elements, in long verse and calm tone, and is used in meetings or assemblies, today also for propaganda purposes; Jüfto, faster and without musical accompaniment, which deals with serious or sad subjects and contains admonitions or reproaches; Gearaar, celebratory and erotic lyrics, which were once sung in the saddle and have short and excited verses. In Southern Somalia there are the Manso, love songs without fixed rules, and the Širib, sentimental or nostalgic poems. Another genre still in vogue are the Buraambur, short poems with accompaniment, composed by women and for women. In the sec. XIX hagiographic works appearon characters of Islam. The best known poets are Raage Ugaas, ML Jadeer, AA Dubbe, S. Axmed. The period of civil strife and external wars (1899-1944) preferably deals with war themes in poetic works, often of propaganda; we remember SMC Xasan (1856-1921), I. Mire (1862-1951), C. Aadan, F. Naddiff, G. Shinni, S. Qamaan, Q. Bulxan, C. Xirsi, C. Dhuux.

However, there is also a more intimate and personal poem, such as the great poem of love by C. Bowndheri (d. 1941) and the verses of S. Carrabey (d. 1950). In the postwar period (1944-69, year of the revolution) new genres appear, such as Heello, short lyric compositions, with accompaniment, which sing love in a hedonistic or ecstatic form and were created, in 1945, by Abdi Deeqsi; they Hees, popular poetry of urban communities, influenced by Europeanized Arabic music, which deals with political issues in a simple and direct way. Both of these genres are widely broadcast on the radio. A new national awareness appears in the lyrics of XA Faarax (b. 1928), C. Qarshe (b. 1924) and I. Xirsi (b. 1942). Theater is also affirmed which, born in the 1930s in an unwritten form and as pure popular entertainment, is charged with social cues and adapts to Western scenic schemes, while maintaining the alliterative lines of the poetic tradition. The main representative is HS Moumin (b. 1930). Among the poets of this period, the most famous is CX Xirsi (1913-1976), author of vibrant lyrics against social injustices. The seventies present themselves as a ‘ era of transition from an oral literature to a written production, with new genres, derived from Western models, such as the novel, in which FMJ Cawl (b.1937) and SJ Axmed are distinguished, or the novella (Y. Axmed, MD Afrax, AF Cali, CS Xuseen), which express new conceptions of life, and the historical-political theater of AF Cali (b.1947) and C. Xirsi (1913-1976) and others, and the African cultural heritage to which you intend to renounce. Literature in European languages ​​is underdeveloped. Noteworthy are the works of the poet W. Syaad (b. 1930), whose lyrics are written in French and English, and of MS Samantar (b. 1928) who writes in Italian and French.

According to allunitconverters, the major novelist is however 1937 and SJ Axmed, or the novella (Y. Axmed, MD Afrax, AF Cali, CS Xuseen), which express new conceptions of life, and the historical-political theater of AF Cali (b.1947) and C. Xirsi ( 1913-1976) and others, and the African cultural heritage which is not intended to renounce. Literature in European languages ​​is underdeveloped. Noteworthy are the works of the poet W. Syaad (b. 1930), whose lyrics are written in French and English, and of MS Samantar (b. 1928) who writes in Italian and French. The major novelist is however 1937) and SJ Axmed, or the novella (Y. Axmed, MD Afrax, AF Cali, CS Xuseen), which express new conceptions of life, and the historical-political theater of AF Cali (b.1947) and C. Xirsi ( 1913-1976) and others, and the African cultural heritage which is not intended to renounce. Literature in European languages ​​is underdeveloped. Noteworthy are the works of the poet W. Syaad (b. 1930), whose lyrics are written in French and English, and of MS Samantar (b. 1928) who writes in Italian and French. The major novelist is however Literature in European languages ​​is underdeveloped. Noteworthy are the works of the poet W. Syaad (b. 1930), whose lyrics are written in French and English, and of MS Samantar (b. 1928) who writes in Italian and French. The major novelist is however Literature in European languages ​​is underdeveloped. Noteworthy are the works of the poet W. Syaad (b. 1930), whose lyrics are written in French and English, and of MS Samantar (b. 1928) who writes in Italian and French. The major novelist is however Nuruddin Farah (b.1945), an internationally renowned English-language writer who offers a powerful and incisive vision of his country’s life and problems.

Somalia Literature

Uganda Literature

Uganda Literature

Most of the population, with the exception of urban dwellers, produce the food they eat. They eat two meals a day, lunch and dinner, and breakfast usually consists of just a cup of tea or porridge. The food is prepared by women and girls, while men and boys over 12 do not enter the kitchen, which is a separate room from the actual home. The most common dishes are the (a kind of mashed bananas), millet bread, cassava (tapioca or cassava), sweet potatoes, chicken or beef stews, lake or river fish. Other dishes include white potatoes, yams, kale, squash, tomatoes, peanuts, goat meat, and milk. Oranges, papayas, lemons and pineapples are grown and consumed. The national drink is waragi, a banana gin. In 2001, the tombs and palace of the Buganda kings of Kasubi, near Kampala, were registered among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. According to 3rjewelry, Uganda is a country located in Africa.

CULTURE: LITERATURE

Of the various local languages, some, such as luo, and a variety of it, acholi, have an exclusively oral literary expression, others, such as nyororo-toro and especially ganda, have written literature. Among the traditional literary expressions, the encomiastic poetry of the Huma is important, shepherd-warriors of the district of Ankole. They are poems in the Runyankoro language, which hyperbolically exalt the heroism of the author himself and the beauty of his cattle and are on the borderline between lyric and drama. Ganda literature found, at the beginning of the century. XX, a written literary expression, including fairy tales, songs, proverbs, descriptions of customs, travel reports, historical chronicles, etc. At the beginning of the century, the historical and ethnographic writings of the minister Sir Apolo Kaggwa (1865-1927) and of JTK Gomotoka Saabalangirs (ca. 1880-1930), of EMK Muliira also author of grammatical and lexical studies, of JS Kasirye and by MB Nsimbi founder and president of the “Luganda Society” and novelist. Since the 1960s, fiction has been in full expansion, with novels and short stories by Binsangawano, J. Kaswa, EK Kisito, YB Lubambula, EMK Muliira and EKN Kawere. The latter is also a poet. In the sixties and seventies the theatrical activity is intense, thanks to J. Bukenya, T. Nakaowa and above all to Byron Kawadwa. But the work that brought English-language Ugandan literature to international attention was Song of Lavino (1967; Canto di Lavino) by JO Okott p’Bitek (1930-1982), a long dramatic monologue in verse which expresses the contrast between African and Western values. The work was taken as a model by J. Buruga and Okello Okuli (b. 1942). The opera is widely represented and counts among the most significant authors Taban Lo Liyong (b. 1938), whose anguished and violent poetry is based on European and black American models. The same foreign influences can be seen, more or less, in R. Ntiru (b.1946), J. Chaplin, M. Kaggwa, J. Ruganda (b.1941), GK Sabiti, J. Ssemuwanga, AS Bukenya (b. 1944), AR Cliff-Lubwa, S. Lubega (b.1945), V. Ngwabe (b.1941), J. Singh (b.1949), T. Wangusa (b.1942) and in the poetesses, quite numerous in Uganda, L. Aciang (b.1933), V. Kakundo, A. Lakwe, P. Rwakyaka, K. Saria, R. Mbowa (b.1943). A separate mention, for their greater originality, deserve J. Nagenda (b. 1938) and Robert Serumaga (1939-1981), both also distinguished in the field of fiction and, the last, of the theater. The narrative, inaugurated in the thirties by the novel The Story of an African Chief by AK Nyabengo, has developed particularly in the last years of the twentieth century. The novel has put Barbara Kimenye in the foreground, whose stories are also of great documentary interest, Elvania Zirimu (b.1938), Bonnie Lubega (b.1930) and Taban Lo Liyong, with stories that lie between folklore and satire social. Other storytellers: J. Nagenda and HS Kimbugwe, attentive to the reality of social life. The same sociological interest is found in the novels of Okello Okuli, Bonnie Lubega and the aforementioned Robert Serumaga. English-language theater has shown a certain vitality, with short comedies, costume or tradition-inspired. We report: Tom Omara (b. 1946), S. Tulya-Muhika, AS Bukenya, Erisa Kironde and J. Ruganda. Non-fiction literature mainly concerns the field of historical studies and literary problems. In the 1980s, literary production suffered from the disastrous socio-economic and political conditions of the country. Only since 1987 has there been a new creative impetus. A reflection of the troubled political life appears in the bitterness, in the pessimism, in the revolt that characterize the dramatic poems of O. Okuli, the lyrics of G. Akello, RC Ntiru, A. Bukenya. But it is above all fiction that denounces social problems and gives voice to the revolt against despotic and bloodthirsty regimes, in the works of GS Ibingira, G. Kalimugogo, P. Nazareth, A. Osinya, D. Sebukima and J. Nagenda. Theater is the liveliest and most original literary genre, with J. Ruganda, E. Zirimu, N. Sentogo and B. Kawada. For the essay we remember H. Kyenga and T. Avirgan for the historical-political themes, and P. Nazareth, AGC Shatto and A. Bukenya for the literary ones. The writer Moses Isegawa (b.1963), with his The Abyssinian Chronicles (2001; African Chronicles), tells the story of a young Ugandan during the stormy years of the civil war and the Amin Dada regime.

Uganda Literature

World Bank Business

World Bank Business

The business

The main purpose of the World Bank is to promote sustainable economic growth in order to reduce poverty in the recipient countries. This is done by offering loans and guarantees, as well as providing support in the form of analysis and advice. The bank is the world’s largest financier of development aid.

Projects supported by the World Bank can focus on, for example, education, health care, road construction, environmental protection or reforms of the financial sector and public administration.

The Bank works closely with the governments of the recipient countries, but also with non-governmental organizations and with other international bodies such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the various UN specialized agencies and regional development banks.

The World Bank’s support for a country is based on an analysis of the causes of poverty in a recipient country. Based on the analysis, the World Bank then, in dialogue with the country’s government, develops a tailor-made assistance program that is described in so-called Country Assistance Strategies (CAS). The help can consist of financial support, advice or technical assistance.

Investments are made on the basis of achieving growth by building competence among representatives of the state and government, creating a functioning rule of law, developing stable financial systems and fighting corruption.

According to six strategic goals developed by Robert Zoellick, World Bank Governor 2007-2012, the work will focus on helping the poorest countries (mainly in Africa), preventing conflicts and supporting reconstruction in failing states, supporting middle-income countries as a majority of the world’s poor live there., safeguard public and public goods (not least the environment), expand cooperation with the Arab world, which is found to be poorly integrated into the world economy, and provide expertise and expertise.

Lending

The World Bank lends money to long-term development projects aimed at fighting poverty and creating growth. The bank is involved in approximately 1,700 projects in developing countries.

Middle-income countries can apply for loans from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which is part of the World Bank. Middle-income countries include countries with a national income per capita between about $ 1,000 and $ 12,000 a year. The recipient country pays interest on the loan, which is repaid within 15 years. The first five years are usually free of charge. Projects must have a good chance of becoming profitable.

The International Development Fund (IDA), which is also part of the World Bank, provides long-term loans to the poorest countries. The loans are given on very favorable terms, which means that they are virtually exempt from interest and have a long repayment period, between 20 and 40 years, of which the first 10 years are amortization-free. However, the projects financed by IDA must also be considered commercially profitable. Thus, IDA’s lending deviates from pure development assistance activities.

Some countries, especially small island states, which have higher incomes may also borrow from IDA as their credit rating is too low for IBRD loans. Other countries have such a low income that they qualify for IDA loans, but still a high enough credit rating to be able to borrow from the IBRD as well. The latter include India, Pakistan and Indonesia. A total of 78 countries qualified for IDA credits in 2009.

To obtain a loan through IDA, a country must develop a credible strategy for combating poverty, a so-called PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper; see also IMF: Progress). At the same time, IDA offers a special loan credit PRSC (Poverty Reduction Support Credit) which is given in parallel with the IMF’s so-called PRGF loan (see IMF: Progress) and which, like the latter, will support various structural and social reforms.

In 2008, the World Bank lent a total of $ 24.7 billion to 298 projects. The IBRD accounted for 13.5 billion, of which a third went to Latin America and the Caribbean and almost as much to countries in Europe and Central Asia. Of the $ 11.2 billion that IDA portioned out, just under a third was grants and the rest loans. Half of IDA’s money went to sub-Saharan Africa and a quarter to southern Asia.

External cooperation

According to commit4fitness, the World Bank works closely with the IMF, not least with regard to the HIPC initiative (see Progress). A 2007 report stated that there is room to strengthen cooperation, not least to better manage crisis situations, coordinate technical assistance and clarify the roles of the two institutions in the work of developing financial sectors. The Bank also works closely with a number of other UN agencies that also work to combat poverty in the world.

In addition to lending from the IBRD and IDA budgets, the World Bank also manages trust funds for assistance to particularly high-priority development needs. These funds are financed outside the World Bank’s own resources, mostly through contributions from about ten countries. The funds include multi-billion initiatives such as HIPC and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFTAM), as well as a wide range of smaller and more specialized projects.

The World Bank contributes to about 170 regional and global partnerships, often with similar purposes. In 2000, the Bank initiated an international collaboration between educational institutes in developing countries, the Global Development Learning Network. Co-financing of specific projects also occurs.

Technical assistance and research

An increasingly important part of the World Bank’s activities is technical assistance. This is given, among other things, in the form of the economic country analyzes that form the basis for designing aid programs for the recipient countries. Often, certain parts of the loans from IBRD and IDA are set aside for counseling, training and other forms of knowledge transfer. Technical assistance is also provided in the form of training in financial management and project analysis for officials from the member states’ public administrations.

The World Bank’s research forms the basis for how its work is designed and how the Bank prioritises the areas to be supported. The bank conducts a number of different research projects in different subject areas and regions. In addition to country analyzes, regional analyzes are produced each year that address various themes, such as regional trade, income distribution and work to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

In addition, the bank issues several reports. One example is the annual World Development Report, which analyzes obstacles to development in the world and provides recommendations for how to bridge them. Another annual report is Poverty Reduction and the World Bank, which examines the effects of the World Bank’s efforts to reduce poverty.

World Bank Business

The 10 longest rivers in the world

The 10 longest rivers in the world

Around 2/3 of the earth’s surface is covered with water. But it is not only the seas and lakes that play an important role. Rivers also occupy a large area of ​​the earth. Find out here which are the longest rivers in the world and what distinguishes them.

10th place: the Amur

The Amur, derived from the Evenk word “Tamur”, which means “Great River”, flows through China and Russia and, with a length of 2,824 kilometers, takes tenth place in the ranking of the largest rivers. The entire length of this river is navigable and travelers can admire the inspiring nature around the coastal mountains of Sichote-Alin. Wild animals such as the Siberian tiger or brown bear can be admired there.

9th place: The Jenissei

This river, which is more than 3,487 kilometers long, flows through Siberia with its entire length and, with its tributary, the great Jenissei, even forms a total length of around 4,092 kilometers.

Place 8: The Ob

Number 8 in the ranking for the longest rivers in the world also flows through Siberia, if only here through Western Siberia. The Ob, which has a length of 3,650 kilometers, has its origin in the Mansi and Khanty languages ​​and is derived from the term “Ac”, which is synonymous with the term “large water”. The peculiarity of this river is that it is covered with ice in its middle lower reaches about 220 days a year.

7th place: The Mississippi

Not only known from many films and songs, the Mississippi has a total length of 3,778 kilometers, making it one of the top ten longest rivers in the world. The river that flows through the United States originates in Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota.

6th place: The Congo

The Congo is not only a name for a city-state in Africa but also the name of one of the longest rivers in the world. With a length of 4,347 kilometers, the Congo is probably the sixth largest river in the world and at the same time the second largest river in Africa.

5th place: The Mekong

The 4,350 km long Mekong River, which means “turbulent river”, crosses six countries in its length in Southeast Asia. The origin of the Mekong is unclear, it is believed to originate in hard-to-reach areas of the Tibetan highlands.

4th place: The Yellow River

The Yellow River, also known as Wade-Giles, is a stream in China and has a total length of 4,845 kilometers. Only the Yangtze River makes it slip into number two in China’s longest rivers.

3rd place: The Yangtze River

With a length of 6,380 kilometers, the Yangtze River is the longest river in the People’s Republic of China and at the same time the longest river in Asia.

The Yangtze River

2nd place: The Amazon

Its total length of 6,448 kilometers makes the Amazon the second largest river in the world. With a water flow of 206,000 m³ / s, the Amazon is one of the richest rivers in the world and extends its water into seven smaller tributaries.

1st place: The Nile

Egypt is not only known for its high-quality tradition and majestic buildings such as the pyramids and the Sphinx. Here, in otherwise barren Egypt, is the longest river in the world. With a length of 6,852 kilometers, the Nile leads the ranking of the top ten longest rivers and is the only river on earth to cross one of the two subtropical dry belts, the Sahara.

 

The 10 most dangerous bridges in the world

The 10 most dangerous bridges in the world

Suspension bridges, motorway bridges, pedestrian bridges – there are many types of bridges, but which bridges are the most dangerous and where can they be found?

10th place – the “Indoboard Bridge” (Indonesia)

This bridge has to be listed among the top ten most dangerous bridges in the world, because as its name suggests, it is more like an indoboard than a trustworthy way of crossing a raging river. A lot of balance is required here every day because this bridge in Indonesia serves as a way to school for many children every day.

Place 9 – The Ghasa Suspension Bridge (Nepal)

This suspension bridge leads over the Jomsom Sadak gorge and connects a small village with the outside world. It is several hundred meters long and is at a dizzying height. Not only do people cross this bridge every day, but shepherds also drive their cattle over it. As a local, you may have gotten used to these circumstances sooner or later, but tourists need a lot of courage to start their way over this narrow bridge.

8th – Qu’eswachaka suspension bridge (Peru)

The Qu’eswachaka Bridge is a rope bridge that is made every year by hand and is made of braided grass and spans the Río Apurímac, so that residents in the area have a connection to the outside world. It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since December 2013 and, due to its unsafe construction, also one of the 10 most dangerous bridges in the world.

7th – Sarawak Bridge (Malaysia)

This bridge, made of bamboo and thin struts, must never be entered by more than two people at the same time, otherwise it would collapse under the weight. On the left and right there is a kind of railing, also made of bamboo, but when you step on the swaying bridge it becomes immediately clear that this would hardly hold up in case of doubt. Fall between the bamboo sticks, inevitably land in the river below and get to know the local animals.

6th place – Kotmale Oya Bridge (Sri Lanka)

Leading through the impenetrable jungle, this bridge also serves to cross a river. The Kotmale is the fourth largest in his country and leads about 70 kilometers through Sri Lanka. If you fall through the holey boards that make up the bridge, you will be swept away by the torrents of the current. So it is a real adventure to cross this river.

5th place – bridge over the Alps (Austria)

There are also some worrying bridges in Europe that only the bravest people can walk on. This building in Austria may only be entered with a helmet, has tensioned ropes on the left and right, which serve as railings and stable wooden boards form the step surface, but these are much too narrow to offer enough space. The awe-inspiring sight of the mountain peaks below and between you will make you rethink this excursion.

4th – Canopy Walkway (Ghana)

This unusual bridge is located in the Kakum National Park in Ghana and consists only of a wooden beam and a network, which should ensure stability on both sides. Nevertheless, the Canopy Walkway does not inspire confidence, especially since you are on this bridge far above the tree tops of the park and can no longer see the other people among you. When you finally reach the end of the bridge, which is located on a tree trunk around which a kind of platform has been built, you will probably think of a climbing park.

3rd place – suspension bridge over the Baliem river (New Guinea)

Unbelievable but true here is the fact that this bridge runs both horizontally and vertically and therefore represents a real challenge for everyone. The wooden boards, some of which are far apart, can sometimes only be crossed by large steps. So be careful: here you have two options for getting to know the river below you.

Place 2 – Hussaini Bridge (Pakistan)

The boards are crooked, the ropes are loose and look like they are about to tear. Either way, you are dependent on the ropes on the left and right to hold on, otherwise it is not possible to cross this many hundred meter long bridge that runs just above the water.

1st place – tightrope walking over the Mekong (China)

This construction is not so much a bridge, but rather a construction made up of many tight ropes. One rope serves as a footboard, the other hangs over your head to cling to. Do not worry, tourists rarely get lost here, rather it serves many children as a way to school in the morning. This fact makes it the most dangerous bridge number 1.

tightrope walking over the Mekong

Zimbabwe Business

Zimbabwe Business

According to abbreviationfinder, ZW is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Zimbabwe.

Zimbabwe’s economy has been relatively developed on an African scale, including modern agriculture, a broadly composed industry and a developed service sector – all of which have, however, suffered damage during the escalating economic crisis since the beginning of the 2000s.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe, formerly called Rhodesia, became independent in 1980. The country soon became a model for the rest of Africa, with a mixed economy with partly strong growth in several sectors, and with large investments also in the social sector. Towards the end of the 1990s, the country experienced a major economic downturn, including increasing debt, falling value of the country’s currency and declining foreign exchange reserves, low investment rates, high inflation and rising unemployment – at the same time as the HIV/AIDS epidemic became seriously noticeable. Several aid donors, as well as the IMF, withheld gifts and loans to Zimbabwe, partly because of the country’s resource-intensive involvement in – The Congo Wars. The political turmoil ahead of the 2000 elections created a poor picture of Zimbabwe abroad, which severely affected the tourism industry. In the same year, large farms were taken forcibly, and production of both food and agricultural goods for export declined sharply, with negative effects on the economy as a whole, which experienced significant negative growth in the first half of the 2000s and hyperinflation from 2005.

Zimbabwe is a resource-rich country with significant mineral deposits and a climate suitable for diverse agriculture – even though only a small part of the land is suitable for efficient agriculture. One of the most successful political changes after independence has been in agriculture, with a policy that has encouraged small farmers to increase production. This has resulted in a substantial profit for sales in normally good years. However, the country has for some time needed to import food as a result of drought, eventually also due to lower production. The broad-based industry was substantially built up during the sanctions against the Rhodesian minority regime in the 1960s and 1970s, but lack of investment after that time has led to depleted means of production and low competitiveness. Major investments have been made in mining, as well as in the service sector. Until the economic crisis, with political unrest, started in the early 2000s, tourism was one of the country’s most important industries.

Since independence, Zimbabwe has received Norwegian aid at a state-by-state level, after Norway has supported the liberation struggle for several years – not least through voluntary organizations. In 2000, like many other countries, the Norwegian government decided to freeze parts of aid to Zimbabwe due to the political situation, with increasing human rights violations. State-by-state assistance stopped in 2002, but some transfers continued through international as well as voluntary organizations.

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

Overall, agriculture is the most important single sector in the Zimbabwean economy, with about two-thirds of the working population being employed there. Agriculture has also played a very important economic role through the production of exports, first and foremost of tobacco, which together with gold has been the country’s most important export item

Zimbabwe’s agricultural sector is more complex, with greater disparities, than in most African countries. This is because Rhodesia was a settler colony, and that the land was divided between white and black groups, the first being allocated a disproportionate share – and the areas most suitable for cultivation as well as animal husbandry. Claims for land distribution were therefore central to the liberation struggle, but have only been met to a small degree after independence, which has led to great land scarcity, overpopulation and depletion of the soil in the most densely inhabited parts of the country. The low rate of land redistribution led to increased political pressure to distribute land belonging to the so-called commercial farms (large farms substantially owned by white farmers), and the moderate redistribution policy, with compensation both by voluntary sale and forced expulsion, from 2000 abandoned in favor of forced acquisition through land occupation. This led to a crisis in this part of agriculture, which traditionally accounts for the bulk of the production traded in the market, both food production and export production. One of the success stories of the Zimbabwean economy after independence is a significant increase in the output of medium-sized black farmers, while the majority of farmers are still referred to marginal areas of slippery soil, low water and low productivity, with production substantially for their own consumption.

In addition to the important export products of tobacco and cotton, the production of maize, wheat and sugar, among other things, is significant for the domestic market, even though Zimbabwe has had good corn for export for good years. Other important products are peanuts (peanuts), soybeans, tea and coffee, the latter also for export. The horticultural sector was strongly developed in the 1990s, as one of the country’s leading growth industries, but has declined as a result of the economic crisis since the beginning of the 2000s. The production of fruits and vegetables, as well as flowers, is one of the most complex and extensive in all of Africa, but Zimbabwe has a competitive disadvantage of long sea transport and expensive air cargo to the US and European markets.

More than 8 percent of land is suitable for agriculture; almost 13 percent are grazing land. The main livestock are cattle and goats, and Zimbabwe is one of the few African countries with access to export meat to the EU. Otherwise, meat is exported especially to South Africa.

Zimbabwe has large forests. Most of the logs go to fuel, charcoal, but some are also used as wood pulp in the industry and for building materials.

In lakes and rivers there is also considerable fishing, especially in Kariba.

Mining and energy

Zimbabwe is rich in minerals, and mining is of great economic importance to the country, although the contribution to gross national income (GNI) has varied greatly in recent years, both as a result of uneven production and fluctuations in international prices. Among the approximately 40 different minerals that are mined, gold has the greatest value, and in some years has accounted for about half of the country’s export value. Zimbabwe opened its own gold refinery in 1989. In the early 2000s, nickel was the second most important mineral, measured in terms of export value. Traditionally important asbestos exports declined significantly from the 1980s as a result of declining international demand. platinum, Copper and cobalt are other important minerals for export, while the recovery of coal great national value, as an energy source, the production of both electricity and oil. It is considered to have considerable potential in several minerals; including platinum and diamonds.

Before independence, Zimbabwe developed significant energy production together with neighboring Zambia, through the containment of the Zambezi River in the artificial lake Kariba and the construction of power installations there. In combination with several other power plants, including the coal-fired heat plant in Hwange, Zimbabwe became self-sufficient in 1987 in electric power, but has still had to import energy to meet domestic demand. Oil is largely imported and transported in a pipeline from Beira in Mozambique to Mutare. Energy deficits, mainly due to currency shortages, contributed to the economic downturn from the late 1990s.

Industry

The industry is relatively well-developed on an African scale, with a wide breadth – from the heavy and chemical industries, through to the processing of agricultural products and minerals, to light consumer goods production. Much of the industry was established as a counter to international trade sanctions implemented against the former Rhodesia in the 1970s, and the country was far from self-sufficient with industrial products. The modest size and low purchasing power of the domestic market, as well as persistent currency shortages and low investment in the productive sector, contributed from the late 1980s to weakening the industry, which was not modernized. Establishing separate zones for export-oriented production contributed to a partial upswing in the 1990s. However, the economic crisis of around 2000 led to further weakening of the industry and many companies were closed down. The industry is mainly located to the major cities, especially Harare and Bulawayo. The most important is the chemical, metal, textile, food and tobacco industries. The industry (together with mining) accounted for 32 percent of GDP, and employed about 5.5 percent of the workforce in 1998. In 2017, the industry accounted for 22 percent of GDP and employed 7 percent of the workforce.

Foreign Trade

Zimbabwe has a deficit in the foreign trade balance for most years, and revenues are vulnerable to fluctuations in the prices of the country’s most important export goods, tobacco and gold. Other important export goods are nickel, ferro alloys, cotton, fruits and vegetables, as well as occasionally corn and sugar. According to Countryaah, major trading partners are South Africa, the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany and the United States. Zimbabwe has been a significant recipient of foreign aid, including from Norway, but several countries have reduced or halted transfers from the late 1990s as a result of political developments in the country.

Transport and Communications

Zimbabwe has a relatively well-developed communications network, although parts of it have fallen into disrepair as a result of the economic crisis. The road and rail network is relatively well developed, with over 90,000 kilometers of public roads connecting all major as well as most smaller cities. The national railway network, at approximately 3500 kilometers (2014), is connected to all neighboring states. The railway takes most of the heavier goods transport, mainly through Botswana to South Africa. Zimbabwe has no ports of its own, but uses Beira and Maputo in Mozambique, Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania and several South African ports.

In the 1980s, among other things, with Norwegian assistance, efforts were made to develop the so-called Beira corridor between Mutare in Zimbabwe and Beira in South Africa, as well as Beira port, to reduce dependence on the apartheid state of South Africa. During the civil war in Mozambique, the railway and pipeline network through the Beira corridor became subject to frequent acts of sabotage. The South African regime also sabotaged Zimbabwe’s foreign trade through South Africa.

There are international airports in Harare and Victoria Falls, and several small airports for domestic traffic.

Zambia Business

Zambia Business

According to Countryaah,  Zambia has significant natural conditions for economic development, both in agriculture and mining, including relatively good access to water – for both irrigation and power generation. Zambia is essentially an agricultural community, but a strong mining sector has contributed to a relatively high degree of industrialization.. The mining operation is based mainly on the country’s large copper reserves, and the mining in the Copper Belt has for decades been an important employer and contributor to the national economy. At the same time, the widespread dependence on copper as the one, dominant export item, made the Zambian economy subject to price fluctuations in the international markets. The price decline of copper from the mid-1970s caused considerable economic problems that spread to the whole of Zambian society. The belief in mining as a driving force for industrialization, especially in the 1960s and 1970s meant that the development of agriculture, which employs the majority of the population, was partly neglected. This in turn has contributed to poor social and economic development in the countryside, and to widespread poverty, although Zambia is normally able to produce its own food consumption. Declining revenues from the mining sector from the late 1970s also contributed to the decline of this sector as a result of declining reinvestments. Zambia went into a deep economic crisis, which was solved, among other things, through economic restructuring, under pressure from The World Bank and the IMF, from the 1980s, and with further liberalization – including privatization of state-owned enterprises – in the 1990s.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, ZA is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Zambia.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Zambia

The economy is further weakened as a result of HIV/ AIDS. Zambia is one of the countries most severely affected by the epidemic, which among other things has led to a weakening of the workforce both in the modern sector and in agriculture, and which has contributed to further pressure on the health system as well as on families and communities.

The economic development since independence has been significantly influenced by regional political conditions, with wars in neighboring Angola, DR Congo (Zaire), Mozambique, Namibia and Zimbabwe, as well as the fight against apartheid in South Africa. Zambia joined the international boycott of the illegal regime in Rhodesia, 1965, and failed (until 1978) to export its goods through the country to shipping ports in South Africa. In the second half of the 1970s, the war in Angola caused the rail link to Lobito, and the port there, to be broken – and Zambia became dependent on connections eastward, through Tanzania. Zambia also welcomed a large number of refugees from neighboring countries.

Zambia is one of the countries Norway has had the longest, continuous development cooperation with at bilateral, state level – with status as a priority partner country from 1967. Zambia has for many years been the largest single recipients of Norwegian aid, through both direct cooperation and through multinational organizations.. Support for road development, water supply and agricultural development were early key sectors of cooperation; from the late 1990s, institutional development became dominant, with particular support for the development of governance and education, as well as natural resource and wildlife management. A number of Norwegian NGOs are involved in aid work in Zambia.

Tourism is a growing industry, and Zambia, together with Zimbabwe, including the Victoria Falls, manages as its main attraction.

Mining, energy

Zambia is rich in metals and minerals, and copper, cobalt, coal, lead, zinc, manganese, silver, iron, limestone and gemstones are extracted. The economic importance of the sector has dropped to a peak in the early 1970s, and accounted for less than 10% of GDP in the early 2000s., and employed approx. 10% of the working population. Industrial mining is run from the early 1900s, with lead, zinc and copper as the first products. The mines were nationalized (51%) in 1971, and in 1973 the government took full control of the two largest mining companies. These were merged in 1982 into Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines; the world’s second largest copper company – which was privatized in the second half of the 1990s: the company was split up and sold; the process was completed in 2000.

Zambia’s most important single metal is copper; Much of the country’s development has been linked to copper exports, which have accounted for over 90% of the country’s export revenues for a long period of time, before declining in the 1990s. The deposits have thinned out and production has decreased, partly due to lack of investment and maintenance. Earnings and profitability have decreased as a result of lower prices and lower productivity, as well as more expensive production. The largest mines are located in a 100 km long zone along the border of the Shaba region of DR Congo, known as the Copperbelt. The second most important metal is cobalt, but its products also vary with the fluctuations in international market prices. The extraction of jewelery stones increased in the 1990s, but a significant proportion of the production is carried out illegally. At Kabwe (Broken Hill), some lead and zinc are still being extracted, and in the eastern part of the country there are large reserves of phosphate. Zambia also has viable deposits of marble, partly of high quality. There are also smaller deposits of gold and silver.

Zambia has good conditions for the production of hydroelectric power. The country is self-sufficient and exports surpluses to Zimbabwe, Angola and DR Congo, as well as from 1998 to South Africa and Tanzania. Main power stations are located at Kafue Gorge, Lake Caribbean and Victoria Falls. Norway has assisted in the development of the country’s power sector. For large parts of the population, charcoal and firewood are still the most important energy sources.

Western Sahara Business

Western Sahara Business

According to abbreviationfinder, WI is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Western Sahara.

Business

The harsh nature of Western Sahara is reflected both in terms of population and nutrition. Western Sahara has an extremely dry climate, and the area is characterized by sand dunes with only a few oases. Agriculture only occurs sparingly. Previously, the economy was dominated by nomadic livestock management (camels, sheep and goats), but nomadic annual migrations have been hampered after the construction of the “shelter” in the northeast.

Potash and iron ore deposits have been made, among others. at Agracha. Western Sahara’s most important asset is the large deposits of phosphate at Bu Craa southeast of El-Aaiún. Some dried fish is exported to the Canary Islands. Western Sahara has navigable routes but no real roads.

Uganda Business

Uganda Business

According to abbreviationfinder, UG is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Uganda.

Business

Uganda is a poor country but over the past 20 years economic growth in the country has been high and the development is also expected to continue to be positive. Behind the optimism lies the government’s stable economic reform policy, a guaranteed inflow of development assistance (including loans from the International Monetary Fund) and a stabilization of the world market price of coffee (the country’s most important export product). The stabilization also contributes to a sharp reduction in the number of public employees. The oil discoveries discovered during the 1990s are expected to be an important source of information in the future.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Uganda

Although export earnings are no longer dependent on coffee alone, agriculture remains the most important industry. The agricultural sector employs about three quarters of the population and contributes one quarter to GDP. Fish and fish products are among the country’s most important export goods. Investments are being made in the development of tourism, mainly ecotourism, and during the 00s the number of tourists has increased significantly.

Agriculture

Uganda’s business sector is completely dominated by smallholder-based agriculture, which employs about 3/4 of the labor force. The length of the dry season determines the conditions for agriculture. In the middle parts of Uganda, which has only one month with less than 50 mm of rainfall, the cultivation of the milk path dominates as food crops and coffee and tea as barley crops. In addition, cotton, tobacco and cut flowers are grown for export. Most of the coffee is grown on Lake Victoria and Mount Elgon. In the northern and southern parts, with a 3–4 month dry period, fingerhirs are grown as food crops and cotton as salads. In the driest areas of the northeast, nomadic livestock management occurs, sometimes combined with cultivation of sorghum.

Mineral

Uganda’s most important mineral deposits are copper, tin, gold, cobalt and iron. The important copper production in Kilembe in western Uganda ceased in 1979 and the Jinja smelting plant expired. However, the rising world market price of copper led to the production being started in 1988. Cobalt and sulfuric acid have been extracted at Kilembe since 1954. The World Bank has recommended the production of phosphate fertilizers from apatite and other phosphate minerals. Oil and natural gas have been found in the western parts of Uganda. Wood and charcoal account for about 90 percent of the country’s energy consumption. The remaining 10 percent is extracted from imported oil or natural gas and electricity, which comes from the hydroelectric power plant in Owens Fall in the Nile.

Industry

The majority of the manufacturing industry is agricultural-based (cotton, coffee, tea, sugar cane and tobacco processing). The brewery industry is also relatively extensive, and among other industries is noted the manufacture of cement, soap, plastics, steel and other metals as well as salt extraction. The industry, which suffers from a shortage of trained manpower and spare parts, uses only about 30 percent of its capacity. Regular power failure is the biggest problem. Virtually all industry is concentrated in Kampala. In the early 1990s, a privatization of industry began, and now most of the industrial companies are privately owned.

Foreign trade

Uganda has a negative trade balance. Coffee, tea, fish, gold and cut flowers are the country’s dominant export goods. Exports of timber were halted in 1991 by environmental considerations. Imports consist mainly of capital goods, such as machinery, means of transport and oil. According to Countryaah, the most important exporting countries are Kenya, Congo (Kinshasa) and Rwanda. Import comes mainly from China, India and the United Arab Emirates.

Tunisia Business

Tunisia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, TS is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Tunisia.

Tunisia is one of the most economically developed countries in Africa, with steady economic growth over a long period of time, but with relatively modest natural resources. The growth is based on political stability and a relatively high level of education, as well as an expanded infrastructure and a complex business sector with a significant industrial base. Liberalization of the economy after an economic crisis in the early 1980s contributed to financial stability and growth, which in turn made the country more attractive to foreign investment.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Tunisia

The crisis came, among other things, as a result of excessive dependence on oil revenues, aid and money transfers from Tunisians abroad. Liberalization, including privatization and deregulation, led to renewed growth, but also to increased unemployment and poverty. Proximity to European markets and trade agreements with the EU has also contributed to growth, as has the focus on tourism, which has contributed to increased employment and currency income. High unemployment, especially among young people, is a major political, social and economic challenge. Tunisia has relatively modest natural resources, and oil deposits are far less than in neighboring Algeria and Libya. From being the country’s main source of income, exports of oil from the mid-1980s declined; bypassed by textiles and agricultural products. Recovery increased in the 1990s, but domestic consumption has also increased, with limited export surplus. The deposits of calcium phosphate are significant, and Tunisia is the world’s fourth largest producer of the mineral.

Tunisia has a considerable degree of industrial travel, but a lack of raw materials and power, as well as a small national market, are an obstacle to economic development. The textile industry has a central position, also for export. The country has a viable agriculture and a large service industry, where tourism plays an important role. Production of dates, fruits and olives is important for the country’s exports.

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

Tunisia has partly good natural conditions for agriculture, and the agricultural sector is important for the country’s economy, both for employment and export earnings. In 2002, the sector accounted for approx. 12% of GNI and employed approx. 22% of the working population. Around two-thirds of the country’s land is suitable for agriculture; well a third is cultivated, other areas are used for animal husbandry. The former French colonial properties from the colonial period were nationalized, and in the 1960s an attempt was made to transform them into cooperatives. This failed, and agriculture was partly run on large, modern and partly on small, traditionally run farms.

Particularly wheat, barley, olives, citrus fruits, figs, dates, tomatoes and grapes are grown. Wine and grains are the most important products in the fertile valleys and plains of the north. In northeast Tunisia with the Cap Bon Peninsula, citrus fruits and vegetables are grown, and along the east coast olive oil is grown; dates are grown in the oases in the south. The crops vary widely, depending on the rainfall; only a small proportion of the animal area is irrigated artificially. A larger water development program was initiated in the 1980s, with the construction of several ponds for irrigation and flood control. The groundwater reserves are already heavily exploited, with fear of continued water shortages. Several agricultural products are exported, especially to the EU. Of particular importance is olive oil, of which Tunisia is the world’s fourth largest producer; olive oil accounts for about 50% of agricultural exports, and approx. 5% of total exports.

Only around 4% of Tunisia is forested, but some forestry is used, essentially for fuel.

The fishing industry has been subject to increased efforts by the authorities, and an important export commodity. In particular, fishing has been conducted mainly on the east coast, but overfishing in the Gulf of Gabes has led to increased activity further north. The main fish species are sardines. The fishing industry is centered around Sfax.

Mining and energy

Tunisia has high deposits of calcium phosphate in the central parts of the country and is the world’s fourth largest producer. Until the 1980s, most of the extraction was exported without machining, after which local utilization was initiated, especially in the production of mineral fertilizers. Iron ore is extracted from two mines, the largest of which is at Jerissa; production has been declining since independence. Lead is mined in the north, zinc in the northwest.

Oil was found in the al-Bormah field, all the way south in the country, in 1964, and the second field, at Douleb further north, came into production in 1968, two more in 1972. Major offshore discoveries have also been made in the Gulf of Gabes; with higher prices, several smaller fields were later put into operation. A territorial discrepancy with Libya in the Gulf of Gabes was appended in 1982. In the 1970s and until the mid-1980s, oil became Tunisia’s major source of export revenue. In 2003, the country’s proven oil reserves were estimated at 500 million barrels; production reached a peak of 5.6 million tonnes in 1980. The country also has deposits of natural gas, estimated at approx. 100 000 m 3. Until 1995, production came essentially from the al-Bormah field; then also from offshore deposits. A gas pipeline from Algeria to Italy passes through Tunisia; a cable from Libya to Tunisia is planned. Tunisia was a member of OAPEC, 1982–86.

Tunisia’s production of electrical energy is essentially based on heat power plants that use natural gas as an energy source. Installed capacity in 2016 was 4.8 GW. An effort is now being made to supplement fossil energy with other energy sources such as solar and wind energy. In 2016, renewable energy contributed about 5 percent of power generation. The country is also in talks with Russia to build a nuclear power plant. The need to increase power generation is great. Between 1990 and 2016, the consumption of electrical energy increased by 4.5 percent per year.

Industry

Tunisia has a broadly composed industrial sector, which is largely based on the processing of the country’s minerals, especially phosphate and oil, and agricultural products. Heavy industry has been developed at Menzel-Bourguiba, with steel production, chemical industry in Tunis and Sfax – otherwise cellulose, sugar and other food industries, as well as a variety of consumer goods. Associated with the oil business is a refinery at Bizerte. Textile production is the most important part of the industry, accounting for over 40% of total exports, and employs over a quarter of a million workers. A lot of footwear and leather goods are also produced for export. From the 1980s, several large companies, among others. cement factories, privatized. Since the 1990s, considerable investments have been made in, among other things, metallurgical and mechanical industry, and it is focused on the development of the technology sector.

Foreign Trade

Tunisia has a deficit on the trade balance with foreign countries, which is partly covered by tourism revenues, partly by loans and subsidies, especially from the EU, and money transfers from Tunisians abroad. France is the largest aid provider. According to Countryaah, petroleum and petroleum products were the most important export goods until the mid-1980s, followed by textiles and clothing. Other export products are phosphate, olive oil, wine and fruit etc. The main trading market for both export and import is the EU, especially France, Germany and Italy. Tunisia signed a free trade agreement with the EU in 1995, and in 1998 signed a new, comprehensive trade agreement with the EU. Tunisia also participates in economic regional cooperation in Maghreb, through l’Union du Maghreb Arabe, established in 1989.

Transport and Communications

Tunisia has a relatively well-developed transport system, with widespread road networks and railways, from the colonial era, which has subsequently been modernized and upgraded. The road network consists of around 22 490 km of road, most of which with a fixed tire. The railway network is 2190 km and connects all the major cities in the northern part of the country. Main port cities are Tunis and on the east coast of Sousse, Sfax and Gabès. La Skhirra (at the Gulf of Gabes) is the shipping port for petroleum from Algeria. The most important of several international airports is Tunis-Carthage.

Togo Business

Togo Business

According to abbreviationfinder, TG is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Togo.

Business

At independence, Togo had a well-developed economy for the region. However, the dependence on a few export goods has made the country’s economy vulnerable to changes in world market prices. The country’s most important natural resource is phosphate, which together with cotton and the re-export of imported goods account for most of the export income.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Togo

After some worrying years around the turn of the millennium, as the country’s economy shrunk, Togo has had relatively good economic growth.

After stopping aid to the country in 2005 due to a lack of democracy, the EU from 2007 has resumed its support for Togo. The country has also initiated cooperation with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which has called for political and economic reforms. In 2010-11, large parts of the country’s foreign debt were written off as a result of the economic reform work carried out.

Agriculture, primarily small-scale, small-scale farming, accounts for about half of export revenue and employs just over 65 percent of the labor force. Poor access to irrigation and fertilizers are limiting factors for agricultural production. Drought strikes hard for years in agriculture, but otherwise Togo is self-sufficient with food. However, rice and wheat must be imported. The most important food crops are cassava, jams, corn, rice, beans and millet. The most important sales crop is cotton, but cocoa and coffee are also grown for export.

According to countryaah, Togo is one of the world’s 20 largest phosphate producers, and although production has declined since it was most extensive, phosphate is still an important export commodity. However, with the current recovery rate, the most high-quality mineral deposits are expected to be exhausted within 30 years. Togo also has large but smaller phosphate-rich deposits that may have a significant impact on the country’s economy. However, these are more difficult and expensive to extract and the government’s plans for large plants for the production of phosphoric acid and fertilizers have been delayed.

Limestone for cement production is also being mined in the country. Some extraction of iron, gold and diamonds also occurs. In addition, there are deposits of manganese, bauxite, marble and zinc.

The energy situation in Togo is problematic and the country is dependent on imports of oil and petroleum products as well as electricity. The latter is mainly imported from Ghana and Ivory Coast in the form of hydropower generated electricity, but due to dry periods the supply is uncertain. An electricity plant that tripled the country’s production capacity was inaugurated in Lomé in 2010 and financed with the help of money from the United States. However, the majority of the population is still dependent on firewood and charcoal for their energy supply, with deforestation and land degradation as a result.

The industrial sector is small and relatively undeveloped. Cement manufacturing is a large and growing industry and the import of raw materials is necessary to meet the needs. In addition, processing of agricultural products such as coffee and cotton are the most important activities. The authorities have tried to stimulate the industrial sector by leasing and selling out state-owned companies and by establishing an economic free zone at Lomé.

Since the 1970s, the trade balance has been negative and the import value is usually twice the export value. The most important export goods are cotton, phosphate, coffee and cocoa. In addition, export of imported capital products (re-export) is important for the country. Imports mainly comprise industrial goods, machinery, transport equipment, petroleum products and foodstuffs. The most important exporting countries are India, Lebanon, China and Niger as well as neighboring countries Burkina Faso and Benin. About 40 percent of imports come from China. Other important trading partners are the Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom.

In 2014, the railway network covered 600 km and the road network 11 600 km, of which 1,800 were located. The capital of Lomé has a port that is important to the region, which serves as a transit port for Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali, among others. International Airport is located in Tokoin just outside Lomé.

Tourism and gastronomy

Early tourism was an important part of the country’s economy, but many years of political turmoil have meant that the tourism industry has fallen sharply. However, during the late 00s, there has been a certain increase in the number of visitors; In 2012, the country was visited by 270,000 tourists.

Lomé is one of the French-speaking African metropolises, where the metropolis and some of West Africa’s best beaches compete for tourists’ interest. There are beach and congress hotels and restaurants with both French and Togolese cuisine. In the central business district is a colorful street mill; the block around the party headquarters at Place de l’Independence testifies to the architectural ideals of North Korean builders. There is also a well-organized museum, which gives a picture of traditional tools and household utensils and their use. Another side of popular culture meets at the Marché des Féticheurs, the marketplace where you sell ingredients for voodoo: monkey shells and dried snakes, night-cut skins and fetish dolls.

The beach continues east with lagoons and palm groves to Aného, ​​the old capital that has preserved buildings from the beginning of the last century and where you can see fishing in traditional forms. About 30 km from Lome lies Lake Togo, a popular destination for the Togolese, with the country’s historic center Togoville. To the north of the long-narrow country, a rolling landscape of green hills meets, and in central Togo there is the national park Fazao-Malfakassa with several stately waterfalls (during the summer months). The markets in inland cities, e.g. Kara in the north, has beautiful woven textiles and wood carvings.

Manioc, corn, jams and millet are the basic food and constitute the ingredients in the porridge or stew that accompanies most other dishes. Peanuts and other nuts are often included in the recipes, for example in peanut soup or stew on dried fish, beans and ground nuts in tomato sauce. Dried fish is also eaten as a heavily seasoned stir, such as avocado. Ginger for fresh fish such as sea bass or stuffed mullus is common. Meats that are not fully roasted usually turn into pots with dried beans or haricots. In the country, a popular mill beer is brewed.

Tanzania Business

Tanzania Business

According to abbreviationfinder, TZ is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Tanzania.

Business

The business sector is dominated by the agricultural sector. Since then, Tanzania’s economy has been characterized by lower than planned growth rates, balance of payments problems and reduced foreign exchange reserves. In the years 1967-74, a village training program (the Uyama program) was implemented, which from a general welfare point of view is considered to have contributed to improved conditions for the population but due to inefficient management, lack of input goods and low agricultural productivity was not successful from an economic point of view. By the early 1980s, the financial problems had reached such a level that new development projects were stopped.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Tanzania

In 1982, a three-year structural adjustment program was introduced, which was followed by further adjustment programs in 1986 and 1990. The objectives of these have not been fully met, but the growth in the economy has improved. During the 1990s, the rate of privatization increased; for example, railways, ports, airlines and electricity companies were privatized. Despite some financial success since the mid-1990s, problems remain with inadequate infrastructure and severe corruption.

In real terms, GDP is estimated to have increased by an average of 0.3 percent per year from 1980 to 2000. During the 1990s, growth accelerated and averaged over 7 percent throughout the decade.

Agriculture

Although only 10 percent of the country’s area is cultivated, about 80 percent of the economically active population derives its agricultural income. Less than half of agricultural production is estimated to come from agricultural sales. The main barley crops are coffee, cotton, cloves (from Zanzibar), tobacco, tea, cashew nuts, sisa and seagrass.

Coffee is the most important export crop and is mainly produced by small farmers in the Kilimanjaro region. Cotton and tea production increased during the 1980s, and in the 1990s large investments were made in tea production to increase productivity and increase the area cultivated. Due to increased competition, the introduction of replacement products, fluctuating world market prices and inefficient government procurement and transport organizations, production development has been negative for some of the country’s other export crops.

The main food crops are maize, cassava, millet, rice, wheat and bananas. Due to rainfall fluctuations, food production during the late 1980s dropped sharply from the good growing seasons 1985–87. Similarly, the country was hit hard by dry periods and floods during the 1990s, when the country received extensive food assistance. After some good harvest years in the early 00s, the country is not expected to have any food shortages since 2002.

Forestry

About 38 percent of the country’s area is covered by forest. With the exception of some planted forest areas in northeastern Tanzania, the existing forests have limited economic potential. About 20 million m 3 are harvested annually, and of this volume, firewood makes up about 90 percent. Felling of forests without efficient replanting has in some areas resulted in increasing soil degradation. The state is therefore trying to encourage replanting through various development and soil conservation projects. In recent decades, large forest plantations have also been made at Sao Hill in the Southern Highlands.

Fishing

Despite great potential, sea fishing in Tanzania is limited. Most of the fishing is freshwater fishing and is conducted in the Victoria, Tanganyika and Malawi lakes as well as in rivers and ponds. Fishing is an important complement to the diet, but limited storage and transport facilities hamper consumption.

Mineral

Mining of diamonds, gold, salt, semi-precious stones, nickel, iron, phosphorus, coal, plaster, kaolin and tin occurs. With the help of foreign investment, the mining industry grew by about 16 percent in 1997-2001. Since then, the mining industry has grown the fastest of all industries. Gold mining accounts for nearly half of the country’s commodity exports. By contrast, the previously so significant diamond mining has diminished in importance. Furthermore, one of the world’s largest ruby ​​mines is located in Longido, and in 1967 the Arusha region discovered a blue semi-precious stone, tanzanite, which has since been extracted to a greater extent. Coal is mined at the Songwe-Kiwira mine in the southwestern part of the country. However, due to its low quality, there have been problems with deposition for the broken coal.

Energy

The majority of the population uses firewood and charcoal for their energy needs. The energy sector is otherwise mainly focused on generating electricity. More than 70 percent of the electricity generated in the country comes from hydropower plants. Significant ones are found at the Kidatu and Mtera ponds in the Ruaha River as well as in the Kihansi and Pangani rivers

Industry

Tanzania’s industrial sector is largely focused on the processing of domestic raw materials and import subsidies. The sector has been characterized by very low capacity utilization since the 1970s. The reasons are cited for increased energy prices and lack of foreign currency for raw materials, machinery and spare parts. The industry has also been affected by frequent interruptions in the water and electricity supply. The main industries are the food, textile, brewery and tobacco industries. There are also assembly plants for vehicles in the country, such as Scania trucks.

As construction has increased in the country, cement production has become more important. Cement factories are located in Mbeya, Tanga and at Waso Hill, north of Dar es-Salaam. After a long period of cement shortage in the country, with Danish and Swedish assistance, cement production has been on its feet. In recent years, Tanzania’s industrial policy has aimed to support the manufacturing sector to increase export potential and reduce dependence on the agricultural sector.

Foreign trade

Tanzania’s exports are dominated by raw materials, but industrial products have become increasingly important. The most important export goods are gold, coffee, cashew nuts, cotton, industrial goods, tobacco, cloves and tea. Imports are dominated by consumables, transport and transport equipment, industrial raw materials and crude oil.

According to Countryaah, the most important exporting countries are India, South Africa and Kenya, while India, China, South Africa and Kenya are the most important importing countries. Tanzania’s foreign trade is sensitive to variations in world market prices for the country’s main export goods. Despite rising gold prices during the 1990s, the country has a constant trade deficit.

Tourism and gastronomy

In Tanzania there are a number of outstanding national parks and game reserves. For example, the seasonal migrations of the huge antelope herds in the Serengeti area are a great experience. Another interesting conservation area in northern Tanzania is the Ngorongoro crater landscape (lions, elephants, rhinos). The ascent of Kilimanjaro can attract well-trained visitors. In these regions you can also see the caves where remains of man’s oldest predecessor were found (the Olduva Gorge); The finds can be found at the National Museum in Dar es-Salaam.

Tanzania also has a lot to offer for the culturally interested. Dar es-Salaam has preserved a small town charm, which is lacking in other African big cities. There are monumental buildings from the German and British times, a city center of two and three-story houses from the turn of the century and the interwar period with mosques, churches and small restaurants as well as an interesting fish market. Arts and crafts (wood carving, bone work – ivory is forbidden – textiles and braided sawn goods) can be purchased in several specialty markets. From Dar es-Salaam, boats depart for Zanzibar, where you ascend ashore in the so-called stone town with narrow winding alleys, houses with beautifully carved gates and stately buildings along the sea. Much of the old settlement dates from the decades after Zanzibar became the Arab sea kingdom of Oman’s capital in 1832. The old Sultan’s Palace is now a landmark museum. From the city you can make excursions to the spice plantations (cloves etc.), to East Africa’s oldest mosque in Kizimkazi in the south, to the sandy beach in the east or to the Jozani forest, where you can see the rare red colobus monkeys. In the countryside there are also picturesque ruins of the Sultan’s palace.

The food in Tanzania carries an unmistakable tropical touch: fruit (pineapple, papaya, banana and coconut) is widely used and the spices, especially cloves, are dominant. The influence of India and the Arabian Peninsula has provided a rich variety of recipes that are rare in Africa.

Rice is common, but ugali, corn porridge, is the basis of everyday food. It is often eaten with mchicha, a mango-like, hardy and inexpensive vegetable to be cooked into a pot of beef, bell pepper, chilli, garlic and onion: na nyama. Ndizi nyama is the term for meat stew with bananas and coconut. Mtori is soup on flour bananas and beef, supuya papai is papaya soup. Kabichi, a cabbage stew with cumin and cloves, is another typical dish. The many curries are often mild because they are cooked with coconut milk (eg samaki wa nazi, fish curry). Along the coast there are delicious fresh seafood, further into the country has duck, served with flour bananas or perhaps with maharaga ya nazi, beans cooked in coconut milk, become a paradise. Freshwater fish are also an important part of the nutritional supplement. It is preferably cooked with coconut milk. Tanzanian honey is excellent and is often confused with fresh fruit as dessert. An inheritance from the German colonial era is the excellent light beer. From Doloma in the highlands comes local wine (“Bowani wine”) which holds high class.

Sudan Business

Sudan Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SU is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Sudan.

Sudan is Africa’s third largest land area. Although the northern part of the country is mainly desert, Sudan has more natural resources, between other large areas of agricultural assets and significant deposits of more minerals. However, long-standing conflict of choice has hindered development and growth, and Sudan is still among the least developed countries in the world. Large distances, climatic conditions and partial international isolation that result from the policy of the current regime have also contributed to poor conditions for the development of society and living conditions for the population. In the Human Development Index, Sudan is ranked 167 out of 189 (UNDP 2018).

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Sudan

Oil exports started in 1999, and it quickly became the most important source of income. As a result, Sudan saw significant growth in gross domestic product (GDP) from 1999 to 2011, but a large part of its oil revenues disappeared when South Sudan was self-sustaining in 2011. GDP per capita was 4100 US dollars in 2017, and this has been extensive inflation in recent years. In December 2018, protests erupted in many cities in Sudan as a result of price rises on commodities such as bread and fuel.

Causes of underdevelopment and stagnation

Particularly in the 1980s and 1990s, the civil wars between southern and northern Sudan brought drought to famine and major refugee traumas – both internally displaced refugees and refugees in neighboring countries. The war actions spread mostly in the south, so this area was hardest hit. The civil war also led to the extraction of the oil and gas deposits, which were first proven in 1977, did not occur until 1999. One of the causes of the war in the south was uncertain whether these resources should be controlled and exploited. The civil war also prevented the completion of the Jongleik Canal, which would have reduced evaporation of the Nile water in the Sudd Delta. Water from the Nile is crucial for irrigated agriculture in both Sudan and Egypt.

A new civil war broke out in Darfur in 2003, and this in turn created one of the continent’s most serious humanitarian disasters in Sudan.

Aid

Because of the civil wars, where the affluent population no longer had the opportunity to cultivate the land, Sudan has depended heavily on foreign aid and relief.

All new development aid from the United States lasted holding back from 1990 in protest against the lack land democratization and support to organizations like the United States regards as terrorists. In 1991, Britain also suspended its aid, and then the EU. The assistance from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia was also canceled as a result of Sudan’s position in the Gulf War in 1991. Nautical aid, especially to southern Sudan and later to Darfur, was undone by the sanctions, but it was difficult to reach with aid both because of the war and the opposition from the Sudanese government. The US will lift its sanctions against Sudan only in 2017.

Agriculture and primary industries

Sudan is essentially an agricultural community, partly with agriculture, partly with livestock farming, and less forestry. The employment sector is still around 80 percent of the working population (CIA, 2017 estimate), but far more depend on some agricultural production to survive. Most of the production takes place at the self-storage level, and the sector accounts for about 40 percent of the gross domestic product (CIA, 2017 estimate).

Sudan’s exports are dominated by agricultural products, with the exception of the period 1999 to 2011 when it was oil exports.

Agriculture

Agriculture is the most important trade route in Sudan in terms of both employment and income. The agricultural sector is geared towards self-storage, but Sudan also exports cotton, sugar and peanuts.

Around 30 percent of Sudan’s land can be used for agriculture, while 40 percent is pasture and forest. These cultivated areas are located mainly in the south between the great rivers Kvitnile, the Blue Nile and Atbarah. Anna agricultural land is found along the Nile and in the plains west of the country. Of the total agricultural area of ​​Sudan, only about 21 percent is cultivated, with varying productivity. Parts of the cultivable area often lie fallow for many years, often due to water scarcity.

The most important agricultural products are cotton, peanuts, sorghum, millet, halibut and sugar cane. It also grows beans, lentils, mangoes, papaya, banana, sweet potato and sesame seeds.

Between the major rivers in the south, mechanized farming is based on large-scale irrigation. Between the Kvitnile and the Blue Nile to the south-east of Khartoum lies the Gezira plant, where the water is hosted in canals from dams to a large cotton district. There is also an extensive cotton industry here. Sudan has about two million hectares of irrigated land; about half at Gezira – which is the world’s largest agricultural plant under lease.

Along the Nile, the fertile riverbank is cultivated with water pumped up from the river. In recent years mechanized farming has also been created in the desert where one drops the groundwater and uses it for irrigation.

In the west, the soil is cultivated after the rainy season.

Control of the Nile’s water resources is a matter of dispute with Egypt, which, like Sudan, is entirely dependent on the Nile waters for agriculture in particular and the economy more generally.

Nomadism

Animal Hald with ein nomadis k or semi-nomadic lifestyle is important for a part of the population, particularly in dei north physician Delane of the country. The most important livestock are goats, sheep, camel and cattle. Exports of live animals – especially to Egypt, Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries – have traditionally been an important source of income. About 25 percent of the land area benefits from grazing. In addition to the nomadane, many small farmers also have several pets.

Forestry

Sudan has about 80 percent of the total occurrence in the world of Arabic rubber. In Sudan, this is mainly produced from the Acacia senegal tree, and Arabic rubber is the only forestry product in Sudan that provides significant export revenue. About twelve percent of the land area is classified as forest. Almost all productive forest is state owned, and most of the harvest goes to fuel.

Fishing

Sudan has only a short coastal strip in the east, and fishing in the Red Sea is not particularly developed. Inland has fished from both the Nile and Nasser Lake a certain significance, and it is in particular Nile perch as host fished.

Mining and energy

The development of the petroleum sector was given high priority in the second half of the 1990s with investors from China, Malaysia and C anada. The oil field that was once in production was Heglig and Unity, both of which lie in a contentious border area with today’s South Sudan. To export the oil, a 1610 kilometer long oil pipeline was built from the oil field in southern Kordofan to the new shipping terminal Marsa Bashayir south of Port Sudan on the Red Sea. Former President Omar al-Bashir opened the export terminal on May 31, 1999, and the first oil tanker left the port with 600,000 barrels of oil on August 27, the same year. Oil exports led to Sudan’s first trade surplus in 1999.

In 2006, Sudan had proven oil reserves of about 560 million barrels, while the country’s energy ministry estimated that they would collect reserves for about five billion barrels. Oil exploration has been confined to several areas in southern Sudan and present-day South Sudan, but it is expected that major precursors will also be found in the northwestern part of Sudan and on the Red Sea in the east. Daily oil production in 2005 averaged 363,000 barrels, with oil accounting for about 70 percent of total export value.

Sudan has rich mineral deposits, but they are to a limited extent extracted commercially. Inadequate infrastructure and lack of investment have prevented the utilization of precursors of other iron ore, manganese, silver, chrome, plaster and marble. Sudan also has rich gold foundations, dating back to the Bronze Age.

In 2016, Sudan had an installed capacity for generating 3227 MW of electrical energy, approximately equally distributed between heat and hydropower plants. The country has five hydropower plants with a total output of 1593 MW. The largest power plant is the Merowe plant, which has an installed output of 1250 MW. The power plant is located at the Nile, 350 kilometers north of the capital Khartoum. The development of the power plant was very contentious since around 60,000 people had to relocate. Plans to build a new 300 MW hydroelectric plant further north on the Nile, referred to as the Kajbar plant, have also met with protesters in the capital.

In Sudan, lack of electricity has long been a barrier to economic development. In recent years, the consumption of electrical energy has increased from 1.28 TWh in 1990 to 12.6 TWh in 2016, which represents an annual growth of over nine percent. Despite this growth, 35 percent of Sudan’s population still has access to electric power (figures from 2018).

Industry

Sudan’s industrial sector is underdeveloped, and is essentially agricultural-based, primarily cotton cultivation, which started on a large-scale already in 1926. Sudan has the world’s largest cotton weaving mill as its premier industrial complex. Sugar refining is another important industry.

The industry is also largely dominated by the processing of food and drink. With the oil boom in the first decade of the 2000s, both Coca-Cola and Pepsi opened new and larger factories in Sudan, and a Turkish company opened a large trading center in Khartoum.

The country also produces between other cement and artificial fertilizers, as well as consumables for substitute import, for judged soap, vegetable oil and shoes. An oil refinery north of Khartoum was opened in 2000, and it meets Sudan’s need for petroleum products.

Four free trade zones were created in 1992 in an attempt to attract investment, and one free trade zone on the Red Sea was established in 1999.

Foreign Trade

Sudan has large trade deficits abroad; and the country relies on foreign aid, which for a period has kept our back from many donor-based political conditions.

Sudan’s main export goods are oil, cotton, peanuts, arabic rubber and live animals, as well as hides. Imports include other machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals and foodstuffs. According to Countryaah, the most important trading partners are China, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

Transportation

The transport network in Sudan is poorly developed and represents a serious obstacle to economic development. It is about 48,000 kilometers by road, of which 3160 kilometers are included as main roads. Large parts of vegans in the south are useless doctors in the rainy season. Atbara is a hub for railways from the port city of Port Sudan on the Red Sea, from Wadi Halfa on Lake Nasser in the north and from Khartoum and the area further south. The total track length is 4784 kilometers, as well as 1400 kilometers which serve the cotton plantations in al-Gezira. The Nile is an important link between the north and the south, and a total of approximately 4,000 kilometers of navigable rivers are found, of which 1723 kilometers are the property for full-year traffic. The most important port cities are Port Sudan and Suakin. Khartoum has an international airport.

South Africa Business

South Africa Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SF is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of South Africa.

Business

South Africa’s economy is characterized by extreme differences between the white population-controlled, mainly urban-based modern sector and the traditional African sector. The modern sector was built around the country’s mineral deposits from the late 1800s. The manufacturing industry developed from the 1920s and has passed commercial agriculture in importance. With extensive and varied natural resources, good communications, a well-developed infrastructure and a sophisticated banking and financial system, the South African business community has features in common with high-income countries. The modern economy is mainly concentrated in four centers: Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Durban and Pretoria/Johannesburg.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of South Africa

Economic development was particularly rapid during the 1960s, but with the exception of the shorter upswing, a prolonged recession began in the early 1970s. The underlying factors were several, including the international oil price rises, South Africa’s isolation as a result of its apartheid policy, rising costs for maintaining the apartheid system and the management of Namibia, and declining investment and increasing capital outflow.

The economic stagnation led to new thinking towards the end of the 1980s, with liberalization and privatization as a prominent feature. Economic growth regained momentum after the end of the apartheid system and the first free elections in 1994, mainly with the help of foreign investment. During the late 1990s, the country again experienced an economic decline. As a result of falling world market prices for minerals, mainly gold, many mines had to be closed and as a result unemployment rose sharply. This also affected several of South Africa’s neighboring countries, as many of the miners dismissed were guest workers. During the 1990s, the country’s economy developed positively and the country received falling inflation, budget surpluses and financial stability, but they are still struggling with high unemployment and the promised privatization has encountered strong protests. Furthermore, the rapidly growing tourism industry has become an increasingly important element of the economy.

South Africa is hard hit by the global financial crisis in 2008 as the country went into recession, but thanks to a growing manufacturing industry and the boom in the construction industry ahead of the hosting of the 2010 Soccer World Cup, the country managed to recover fairly quickly.

Agriculture

Agriculture is characterized by far-reaching dualism. The land laws of 1913 and 1936 divided 87 percent of the country’s land, including its best agricultural land, for white settlement and 13 percent for the African majority. The laws were reformed in 1991, and the ANC-led government that took office in 1994 has had comprehensive land reform as one of the key points of its reconstruction and development program. However, the reform has encountered several protests and implementation is slow.

Despite the importance of the mining industry, South Africa is very much an agricultural country. Changing topography and varying climate zones enable the cultivation of virtually all crops, fruits and vegetables, and through specialization, mechanization and extensive investments, a competitive agriculture has been developed. However, with irregular rainfall and in the absence of major rivers and lakes for irrigation, recurrent dry periods are a difficult problem.

The main crop is maize, which is the staple food of the African population and is grown on about 40 percent of the area cultivated. Other important crops are wheat and sugar cane. Fruits and vegetables are grown throughout the country for domestic consumption and exports. The winery concentrated in the Western Cape Province has recently become a significant export industry. Livestock and sheep breeding are also important.

Forestry

After unrestrained logging of South Africa’s forests, the state took over large areas for forest management and planting of imported conifers during the 1930s. Somewhat later, private interests began to invest in forestry, mainly for the cultivation of fast-growing pine, eucalyptus and acacia. The country has thus become self-sufficient in terms of the needs of the mining and construction industry, and since 1985 paper and pulp has been exported.

Fishing

Although South Africa has one of the richest fishing waters in the world, the fishing industry is little developed. Since the mid-1990s, more than 500,000 tonnes have been caught per year; In 2007, the catch was 680,000 tonnes. About 90 percent of the catch is taken in the nutrient-rich waters around Cape Town and along the Atlantic coast, where anchovy, sardine, herring, hake and seaweed have the greatest commercial value. They are used for domestic consumption, in the form of fishmeal or as food fish. Lobsters are also fished here, of which about 75 percent are exported.

Mineral

South Africa’s diverse and extensive mineral resources put the country’s other natural resources in the shade. The ore is found in a wide belt from the west coast through the Free State Province to Transvaal, where the most important mines are concentrated in the Witwatersrand area. South and east of this belt, South Africa has coal reserves that are among the world’s largest.

In 2010, the mining industry’s share of GDP was 9 percent, and in the same year it accounted for just over 2 percent of employment. However, a large part of the labor force consists of contract workers from neighboring countries, mainly Lesotho, Mozambique and Swaziland.

South Africa is the world’s largest producer of gold, and the country is estimated to have almost half of the world’s known gold reserves. However, since 1970, when production exceeded 1,000 tonnes, the richest deposits have been exhausted, the gold content of the ore has become ever lower and the deposits have become increasingly expensive to mine. As a result, production has declined since the late 1990s. At several gold mines, silver and uranium are extracted as important by-products. South Africa is the world’s leading producer of light and heavy platinum metals, which, in addition to gold, coal and diamonds, account for a significant share of the country’s export revenue.

Iron mining developed rapidly in the 1970s, since the export port of Saldanha Bay was completed. In 2010, production amounted to 55 million tonnes, of which about 81 percent goes on exports.

South Africa has more than 70 percent of the world’s known chromium ore reserves, the world’s largest manganese deposits, and about 30 percent of the world’s vanadium reserves. These metals are mainly used in the country’s steel industry but also export. A number of other metals are mined. This includes copper, lead, tin, zinc and titanium, but also industrial minerals and rocks such as asbestos, flux, quartz, granite and marble.

Energy

South Africa is the country in Africa that has the largest electricity consumption. This is despite the fact that only 70 percent of the population has access to electricity. The electricity demand is mainly covered by coal and hydroelectric power stations, but the country also has a nuclear power plant. In 2009, the country’s coal production reached 250 million tonnes. A large part of the production goes to the state-owned electricity company Eskom, which accounts for over 90 percent of electricity generation. In 2007, the country was hit by major problems in the electricity supply and both private individuals and companies had daily interruptions in the supply. The following year, the mining industry was forced to stop production for a few days due to power outages. The event highlighted the country’s shortcomings with too low capacity and poorly maintained infrastructure.

South Africa imports large quantities of oil to meet its oil needs. The country’s only nuclear power plant was built in 1976 at Koeberg 30 km north of Cape Town. It has a capacity of 1,800 MW.

Industry

South Africa has a broad industrial base, based on the country’s rich natural resources. Like the economy in general, the South African industry is characterized by cartel formation and a high degree of monopolization.

During the 1960s, the industry expanded greatly, and the sector’s contribution to GDP increased by an average of 10 percent per year. The latter half of the 1980s saw a decline in the industry as a result of international sanctions, low domestic demand, rising production costs and declining investments. When the country was opened to the outside world in the 1990s, the industry was restructured to be able to act on the international market.

Today’s industry is dominated by the automotive industry (passenger and truck assembly industries) and the steel and aluminum industries. Many industries have been developed in connection with the mining industry, such as explosives, chemical and machinery. Furthermore, there are a large number of food and textile industries that primarily produce the domestic market.

Over 50 percent of industrial production is concentrated in the Gauteng province. Other significant industrial areas are Cape Town with suburbs, Durban – Pinetown – Pietermaritzburg and Port Elizabeth – Uitenhage.

Foreign trade

Between 1973 and 1994, South Africa’s foreign trade was subject to international restrictions, which posed major problems for the trade-dependent economy. South Africa’s main export product is gold; the country is the world’s largest gold exporter. Other prominent export products are a range of base metals and minerals, including iron and steel, coal, manganese, chromium and titanium. Diamonds and platinum are also exported.

Except during periods of extreme drought, South Africa is a net exporter of food, with fruits, vegetables, sugar, wool and wine as prominent products. South Africa’s imports are dominated by workshop products. Chemical products and oil are also important import products. According to Countryaah, the most important trading partners are Germany, China, the USA and Japan. An increasing share of South Africa’s exports also goes to other African countries.

Tourism and gastronomy

Tourism is an important and growing part of South Africa’s business community. The country’s democratization has meant a lot to tourism, and especially after the first free elections in 1994, the number of foreign visitors has steadily increased. In 2012, the country was visited by just over 9 million, of which two thirds came from the rest of Africa and the remainder came mainly from the UK, USA, Germany and the Netherlands. South Africa’s pleasant climate, beautiful scenery and exciting wildlife make tourism expected to increase further.

The biggest destinations are the big cities, especially Cape Town, and the wild and well-equipped nature reserves, where Kruger National Park is a common destination.

The many peoples, the great distances, the good pastures and the fertile soil have provided a very varied kitchen. Maize meal (maize) and stews or pots of mostly dried meat are the everyday food of those who lived farthest in the country, but today the many influences flow together so that Dutch, British, French, Indian, Chinese and Malay are as indigenous as the original.

The meat – sheep, lamb, ostrich, ox and antelope – must previously be able to be preserved and transported, and even today, dishes such as biltong (dried, salted and spiced meat), stew (meat stew with vegetables cooked for a very long time) and bobotie (meat stew) with curry, fruit and rice) on this procedure, as well as the common sausage (boerwors). Fruit is used in conjunction with meat, for example in sosaties (lamb skewers with apricots). Devices with names like milk teri (vanilla pudding), sweet cookies (spicy cakes), soutribbetjies (salted sheep ribs) and greased chicken(chicken in chili sauce) is reminiscent of Dutch colonization; the many recipes for pickled and dried fish that remain in the inland are reminiscent of the knowledge of the Malays in conservation. The Scots who settled in binnieland (inland) preserved fruits and berries (mulberries, apricots, figs, gooseberries, apples, citrus, nectarines), also it is a living tradition. Along the coasts are fresh fish and seafood, which are also happy to be served in combination with fruit.

International, often French, Swedish and Italian, restaurateurs have established themselves in the larger cities to scoop out the cornucopia of exquisite ingredients offered by the country. The South African grant is precisely the use of fruit in surprisingly European combinations; also the noticeable widening in the range of meat varieties (ostrich, antelope) in recent years has been influenced by South Africa’s great success in international gastronomy.

Somalia Business

Somalia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SO is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Somalia.

Somalia’s economic development has suffered in the absence of political stability since the 1990s. Several years of civil war led to major material destruction, leading to the cessation of state structures. Somalia as state formation went a long way in dissolution, and two regions – Puntland and Somaliland – erupted, declaring themselves as independent states, with their own finances. Even after the civil war, in the 2000s, there has been a lack of stability and security, partly as a result of the activities of the al-Shabaab terror group. The security situation is somewhat better in Puntland and Somaliland than in other parts of Somalia.

The absence of public security and state institutions has made reconstruction difficult after the war. Somalia is a relatively resource-poor country, which largely depends on agriculture – and above all livestock farming. This makes the country vulnerable to climate change, with both drought and floods.

According to countryaah, There are deposits of several minerals, but most of them will not be economically profitable to recover. However, possible deposits of oil in the Indian Ocean could make Somalia a significant petroleum exporter. The fish stocks are also not large and contribute little to the economy.

Somalia had some industry before the war, which is to a small extent rebuilt. A consequence of war and poverty is that a large number of Somalis have fled the country. This has tapped Somalia for competence, but at the same time has led to the transfer of currency from exile Somalis to the homeland. These make a significant contribution to Somalia’s national economy, and enable, among other things, the necessary import of goods, and not least capital for investment in business activities. Another significant source of income is assistance (development assistance).

Several years of war and the absence of government institutions have meant that economic statistics have been, and are still partly, deficient. Somalia’s economy is largely dominated by the so-called informal sector, which makes the overview of economic development even more difficult.

It is estimated that over half of Somalia’s population lives in poverty. Unemployment, especially among young people, is high: About two out of three young people are not formally employed. A priority in the national development plan is to foster economic growth and create more jobs; the latter also with regard to the many Somali refugees who are in neighboring Kenya and who will eventually return home.

Historical development

During the colonial period Somalia was part of a French, British and Italian part. The last two were united in the new Republic of Somalia in 1960. Part of the colonial government invested heavily in modern infrastructure, as well as in agriculture, including plantation operations, and in industry.

In the 1970s, the military junta that seized power in 1969, led by Siad Barre, introduced a socialist- oriented policy. It included, among other things, nationalization of banks and other financial activities as well as industrial enterprises and plantations. Agricultural cooperatives and state-owned industrial companies and trading companies were established. This economic policy contributed little to the development of the Somali community, and practically all remaining business in the modern sector ceased to exist as a result of the war in the early 1990s. Among other things, what was left of industrial enterprises ceased and machinery was dismantled and sold as scrap metal.

Agriculture and fishing

Somalia is located in one of Africa’s most drought-prone areas, and the country has experienced several severe droughts and famines. Drought is particularly severe when the country’s most important trade route is agriculture, and a large portion of the population lives a semi-nomadic life with animal husbandry, others of self-storage farming.

It is estimated that about three-fifths of Somalia’s economy is agricultural-based, and up to three-quarters of the population has livestock – with camels, goats, sheep and cattle – as their main source of income. Live animals, as well as meat and hides, have been, and continue to be, Somalia’s most important export products. Exports are mainly to the countries of the Arabian Peninsula. After the war, this business has picked up, and animals (and meat) from Somalia have partly out-competed exports from Australia to these markets.

Agriculture consists partly of production of goods for own use, or of a national market, and partly of specialized production for export. Bananas are the main export product of agriculture. This market-oriented production, which also includes sugar cane, rice, cotton as well as fruits and vegetables, takes place substantially on plantations along the Juba and Shebelle rivers, and is based on extensive irrigation. Small farmers along the rivers use artificial irrigation on a smaller scale to produce a variety of food crops for the local market.

Approximately 45 percent of the total area is considered to be grazing land, and is sought by the nomadic tribes according to season and precipitation conditions. Most of the livestock production takes place in natural households where productivity has traditionally been low. Foreign interests, especially from the United Arab Emirates, have acquired agricultural land in Somalia.

Fish does not constitute a significant part of the Somali diet, and the country’s fisheries, which have a modest scope, have been substantially export-oriented. Many years of overfishing have limited the catch and economic value of this sector. Tuna and mackerel are the most important fish species, and the catch is to some extent canned in Somalia. Shellfish are also caught for export. Traditionally, a lot of shark has been fished. Somali fishermen operate small boats. Licenses have been sold overseas, and vessels from both Asia and Europe operate offshore in the north (Puntland).

Mining and energy

Somalia has limited mineral resources, but may have very large oil deposits. Mineral deposits have little commercial value, with the exception of plaster deposits at Berbera, which is among the largest in the world. Occurrences of lime, gold, silver, nickel, copper, zinc, lead, manganese and iron ore have been detected. Somalia also has large deposits of uranium. Some salt is extracted from the sea.

Somalia has deposits of oil and natural gas, and for several years the resources have been mapped, both in the north of the country (Puntland and Somaliland), and in the marine areas in the south, down to the Kenya border. Based on new seismic surveys, it has been estimated that there may be deposits of up to 90-100 billion barrels of oil. If this proves correct and recovery is possible, Somalia could become one of the world’s largest oil producers. To date, the political and economic situation has hindered mapping and recovery. The Somali state has established its own oil company, and in 2019 passed a petroleum law that allows for exploration and recovery. Puntland has previously passed its own petroleum law. Several blocks in the Indian Ocean, with estimated deposits of 30 billion barrels, has been posted. Some of these are completely south of Somalia’s territorial waters, including an area of ​​Somalia and Kenya disputed. This has led to a diplomatic conflict between the two countries.

Somalia was included in the Norwegian development program Oil for Development in 2018, managed by Norad. Smaller oil companies with Norwegian ownership interests or listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange have been active in exploration for oil in Somalia.

Inadequate electricity supply is a continuing challenge. Somalia has a smaller number of power plants in Mogadishu, Hargeisa and Kismaayo.

Industry

Somalia’s limited industrial sector was severely affected by the war and is to a small extent rebuilt. The sector, which was mainly, and still is, concentrated around Mogadishu and Kismaayo, consists primarily of the food industry, as well as the production of leather goods and textiles.

Foreign Trade

Somalia mainly exports food (meat and fruit), but at the same time is dependent on importing food, not least grain.

Export revenues do not cover import expenses. The balance of trade deficit is covered by foreign aid and by transfers from Somalis abroad. The war led to the collapse of the established economic structures and the development of unofficial channels, including for the transfer of money from Somalis in exile. This is done through the so-called hawala networks, and has become a significant economic activity. Three major state banks are in operation, and the stock exchange is located in Mogadishu.

Transport and Communications

Somalia’s road network is deficient and there is no railway in the country. The poorly developed transport infrastructure is an obstacle to the development of the country. In the 2000s, however, a modern telecommunications structure has been developed, with a number of private mobile and internet operators. Several small airlines have also been established.

There are larger ports in Kismaayo, Berbera (in Somaliland), Marka and Mogadishu. Mogadishu has an international airport.

Sierra Leone Business

Sierra Leone Business

Sierra Leone is an independent republic within the Commonwealth since 1961, constituted by the union of the territories subjected to the colony regime (Freetown and surroundings) and of the protectorate (internal regions) by Great Britain, which gradually granted autonomy and the transfer of powers to local representatives up to complete independence.

The population was 3,002,426 residents at the 1974 census and is increasing at a slower rate than in other West African countries (annual growth coefficient: 2%). The relatively high population density is on average almost 41 residents per km 2 on the 71,740 km 2 of territory, but in the province of the capital it exceeds 350. The capital, Freetown, has 214,500 residents (1974), and only five other cities slightly exceed 10,000 residents; the urban population amounts to just over 10% of the total.

Agriculture has a relatively limited importance in SL; subsistence crops by far prevail, among which rice is of great importance (more than 5.8 million q in 1976), barely sufficient to meet the needs. Production of corn, sorghum, cassava is developing, while millet is stationary. There are numerous agricultural products destined for export; among the main ones are coffee, cocoa (respectively 50,000 and 60,000 q in 1976) and palm oil. Negligible productions give the breeding and fishing. On the other hand, the weight of mineral resources is considerable. The SL ranks fifth-sixth in the world ranking of both industrial and precious diamond producers (1.7 million carats in 1975). Also relevant is the extraction of iron ores with a good metal content (60%) which is around 1.5 million t of Fe content. Other metals are extracted, including rare and precious ones: bauxite, chromite, platinum, rutile; the excavation of gold minerals, once significant, was almost abandoned due to the exhaustion of the deposits. Industry, if we exclude the primary processing of agricultural and mining products, is scarcely present; chemical plants, cement factories and the only oil refinery are almost all located around the capital. primary processing of agricultural and mining products, is scarcely present; chemical plants, cement factories and the only oil refinery are almost all located around the capital. primary processing of agricultural and mining products, is scarcely present; chemical plants, cement factories and the only oil refinery are almost all located around the capital.

The communications network consists of more than 7000 km of roads and about 600 km of railways, supplemented by the possibility of navigating the lower rivers for a total of 800 km. Freetown has a relatively important port which, in 1975-76, received a traffic of 1.6 mil. of t; Pepel is the main port of embarkation for minerals. The most intense commercial relations take place with Great Britain; the trade balance shows a constant deficit. The annual per capita income is very low: US $ 148 in 1971.

Business

According to countryaah, Sierra Leone’s economy is based primarily on agriculture and mining. Although the country is rich in natural resources, it is still one of the world’s poorest. A large part of the population lives on self-sustaining agriculture and work in the informal sector. The civil war in 1991–2002 was devastating for the country, including the economy, but growth has since been good. However, this has not benefited the growing population to any great extent. Contributing to the poor economic result is civil war, import costs and administrative inefficiency.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, SL is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Sierra Leone.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Sierra Leone

Agriculture

Agriculture is largely undeveloped and focused on self-sufficiency. The technological level is low and the use of sweat dominates. State-determined prices for agricultural products and high taxation of export crops have contributed to the lack of agricultural development. Less than 10 percent of farmers grow export crops (coffee, cocoa and palm trees). The most important consumption crop is rice, which is grown by 75 percent of the farmers. However, production is not enough for the country’s needs, and about 25 percent of consumption is imported.

Natural Resources

The mining industry is the second most important commodity-producing sector and the most important source of export revenue. The most important minerals are diamonds, iron ore, bauxite and rutile. The sector was severely affected by the civil war in 1991–2002 and was also hit with financial, technical and administrative problems. Production has fluctuated strongly, and periodically large parts of the industry have ceased. Smuggling of gold and diamonds is significant. Sierra Leone is, after Australia, one of the world’s largest exporters of rutile. The country also has a large unexploited resource in the fish-rich waters off the country’s Atlantic coast. Commercial fishing ceased almost entirely during the Civil War. After the war, however, the importance of the industry has increased and fish is now an important export commodity. Foreign vessels’ predatory fishing affects both the fish stocks and the country’s economy in the form of lost income.

Industry

During the 1960s, a subsidized industry was built around import-substitution industries, such as breweries, mills and cigarette manufacturing. Lack of foreign currency, water and electricity as well as increased costs for imported inputs led to a decline in the 1980s, and during the civil war in 1991–2002 the industry was largely wasted. The most important industries are the production of palm oil, the brewing industry, the processing of agricultural products and the manufacture of textiles and furniture.

Foreign trade

Since 1970, Sierra Leone has a near-permanent trade deficit. The most important export goods are diamonds, rutile, cocoa, coffee and fish. The main import goods are food, machinery, transport and fuel. The most important trading partners are China, Ivory Coast, Belgium and the United States.

Seychelles Business

Seychelles Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SC is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Seychelles.

Seychelles is an archipelago far from the mainland, with the restrictions on economic development this entails, especially in terms of being self-sufficient, both with food and industrial products. Nevertheless, the country has one of the world’s highest average incomes, and a high standard of living with social services and low poverty. The economy is to a large extent based on the revenues from tourism, secondly from fishing and sales of tuna.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Seychelles

The country pursues a strictly regulated tourism policy so as not to attract too many visitors relative to the population, but estimates that they can accommodate up to 200,000 tourists a year – most in the upper part of the market. Tourism accounts for almost 10% of GNI, and around one-third of foreign exchange revenue. The relative dependence on tourism makes the Seychelles vulnerable to fluctuations in tourist traffic. after the Gulf War 1990-91 and as a result of the terrorist attacks in 2001. Much of the proceeds go out of the country for imports of necessary inputs, not least food and drink. The Seychelles have ambitions to become an important center for financial services; and a large number of foreign companies have registered in the country. A precarious currency shortfall was the basis for a contentious decision to invite foreign nationals to place money on the Seychelles,

No viable deposits of oil or gas have been found around the Seychelles, but the sea is rich in fish. In particular, the significant occurrences of tuna are a significant contribution to the country’s economy; partly from the sale of licenses to foreign trawlers, and partly from the canning industry. Agriculture has traditionally been the most important industry, but after the opening of an international airport in 1971 tourism has taken over. More than 70% of the working population is employed in service industries.

Mining, energy

The Seychelles have no known mineral deposits, except guano, which are exported. Exploration has been carried out for oil, i.e. with Norwegian assistance, without any proven occurrences. It is also considered to extract coral stones for export for use in cement production. Production of electricity is from petroleum.

Agriculture and fishing

The cultivable area of ​​Seychelles is limited to approx. 6,000 hectares, with partly poor soil and lack of water. The country is dependent on food imports, and it will be difficult to self-supply anything else with fish, as well as some fruits and vegetables. Agriculture’s share of gross domestic product (GDP) has in recent years been in sharp decline, as tourism has become the dominant industry. Coconuts, cinnamon, tea, vanilla, cassava, patches, bananas and sweet potatoes are grown, of which the first four are exported.

An economic zone of 200 nautical miles was introduced in 1978, and fishing has increased in importance since the 1980s. Some canned tuna and shrimp are exported, while lobster is fished for local consumption. The country is self-sufficient with fish, even with one of the world’s highest per capita consumption. Foreign fishing fleets fishing under license within the country’s economic zone are also important sources of income.

Industry

The Seychelles have little industry, most of which is the processing of raw materials, including coconut oil and canned tuna and fruit, as well as food business. Otherwise, some small businesses produce steel products, furniture, soap and plastic products

Foreign Trade

The Seychelles have a negative balance of trade with foreign countries, but revenues from the tourism industry as their main currency source. According to Countryaah, the main export products are petroleum products (re-export), fish and fish products (canned tuna), cinnamon, flowers and tea. Machinery and transport equipment, food and animals, petroleum products, chemicals, various finished products and raw materials are imported.

Transport and Communications

The road network is well developed at Mahé, which also has an international airport. Total road network is approx. 450 km road. Boat connection between Mauritius and the outer islands. Other ferry connection between several of the islands in the north.

Senegal Business

Senegal Business

According to abbreviationfinder, SG is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Senegal.

From the colonial era, Senegal has held a leading position in French-speaking Africa and in West Africa. This has also resulted in financial consequences. Among other things, Senegal has a wider industrial base than most African countries, and Dakar is a trade center with train and road links east of the Sahel region, as well as an intellectual and cultural center. Industry and service industry, including a significant tourism industry, plays a relatively greater role in Senegal than most African countries.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Senegal

Equally, agriculture is central, especially with regard to agriculture. employment, with about 3/4 of the economically active population. Traditionally, agriculture has accounted for the bulk of export revenue, essentially from one product of peanuts. Senegalese agriculture, and thus the economy, was radically changed under French colonial rule, with a strong focus on the production and export of unprocessed peanuts. As a result, the country became heavily dependent on this one item, and thus on price fluctuations in the world market. At the end of the 20th century, dependence on peanut exports was reduced, and production has varied greatly. At the same time, other sectors have accounted for the largest earnings of currency; especially tourism, fisheries and phosphate exports. Foreign aid is also an important source of income.

Liberalization of a previously state-dominated economy has been carried out in particular from the mid-1980s, including the winding-up of state-owned companies and monopolies. through privatization, and facilitating increased private investment and initiative. Economic growth has been hampered by several periods of drought and depletion of the earth, as well as by increased prices of imported fuel. Senegal has experienced a strong urbanization, especially to Dakar.

Mining and energy

Senegal has limited mineral deposits, and only a few of those detected are exploited commercially. The extraction of calcium and aluminum phosphate at Thiés by Dakar is the dominant mining activity, but although exports are of great economic importance as a currency earner, it accounts for only approx. 1% of GNI. Salt is also extracted and there are deposits of gold, iron ore and titanium. Outside the coast, smaller deposits of oil and gas have been found, which must partly be exploited in collaboration with Guinea-Bissau.

Senegal produced approximately 4.5 TWh of electrical energy as of 2016. About 45 percent of the population as a whole has access to electricity, but in rural areas the degree of electrification is only 17 percent.

Agriculture, fishing

Senegal is traditionally an agricultural country, and the sector is still important for employment, while the impact on GDP has been diminishing. While approx. 3 / 4of the working population still employed in agriculture, the sector accounts for around 15% of GNI. Main crops are peanuts, cotton, millet, sorghum, rice and maize, the first of which is a significant export product. The area for and crop from peanut production has declined in recent years, partly as a result of conscious policies to reduce the dominance of this one product, and partly as a result of weaker markets and lower prices. Agriculture is affected by periods of drought, and by a constant shortage of water in large parts of the country. While most of the country is in Africa’s arid Sahel belt, there are good growth conditions along the rivers, as well as in southern Casamance Province. Cotton production is utilized in a significant tech industry.

The waters west of Senegal are rich in fish, and the fisheries contribute to both employment and increased foreign exchange income. to the EU. From the mid-1980s, fish has become Senegal’s foremost export commodity. Although much of the fishing is done in the traditional way, the modern part of the fishery has grown. About. 45,000 craftsmen account for 60-70% of the catch.

Industry

Senegal has a relatively developed industrial sector, substantially located in and near Dakar. In 2002, the industrial sector accounted for 14% of GDP and is dominated by the domestic light industry, but with significant exports from the extensive textile industry. Much of the industry processes raw materials from agriculture and fisheries. There is also extensive production of building materials, including cement. Oil refinery can be found at M´Bao, near Dakar.

Foreign Trade

Senegal has a negative trade balance with foreign countries, and is dependent on foreign budget balance assistance. Major export items are fish (fresh and processed), petroleum products, peanuts and peanut products, phosphates, chemicals and textiles. According to Countryaah, France is the main trading partner. Incidentally Nigeria, Thailand and Mali.

Transport and Communications

Senegal has a well-developed road network of just over 14,500 km all year round. About. 922 km of railway including connection between Dakar and Bamako (Mali’s capital) and to Saint-Louis on the north coast. Dakar is one of West Africa’s most important port cities and has the region’s largest deep harbor. The port of Dakar also serves the Gambia, Mali and Mauritania. International airport at Dakar.

Sao Tome and Principe Business

Sao Tome and Principe Business

According to abbreviationfinder, ST is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Sao Tome and Principe.

Business

São Tomé and Príncipe’s economic growth does not keep pace with the increase in population. Following the independence of Portugal in 1975, the cocoa plantations were nationalized, with declining productivity as a result of, among other things, about 3,000 Portuguese plantation owners, administrators left the country. Labor market turmoil, drought, soil depletion, plant diseases have contributed to the deteriorating economy. In the second half of the 00s, however, annual growth averaged over 5 percent.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Sao Tome and Principe

Economy

Inflation rate 5.70%
Unemployment rate 12.2%
Gross domestic product (GDP) $ 686,000,000
GDP growth rate 3.90%
GDP per capita $ 3,200
GDP by sector
Agriculture 11.80%
Industry 14.80%
Service 73.40%
State budget
Revenue 42.96 million
Expenditure 59.61 million
Proportion of the population below the national poverty line 66.2%
Distribution of household income
Top 10% k. A.
Lower 10% k. A.
Industrial production growth rate 4.50%
Investment volume 34.5% of GDP
National debt 88.40% of GDP
Foreign exchange reserves $ 64,000,000
Tourism 2011
Number of visitors 12,000
Revenue $ 56,200,000

The most dominant agricultural crop is cocoa, which is also the country’s most important export product. Since the plantations for barley crops (in addition to cocoa are also grown coffee, coconuts and oil palm trees) occupy most of the arable land, the country must import most of its food needs.

The industry is undeveloped, and besides agriculture, fishing is an important source of income. As the country’s own fishing fleet is small, a large part of the state budget is financed through the sale of fishing rights to foreign fishing fleets. Oil has been found in the sea off the coast of São Tomé, but no recovery has yet begun. However, licensing money from foreign oil companies is already a significant source of income.

According to Countryaah, the most important trading partner is Portugal, which also accounts for most of the country’s extensive assistance.

SÃO TOMÉ AND PRÍNCIPE

The surface of this small African state, located off the coast of Gabon, is 964 km 2, of which 836 belong to the island of São Tomé and 128 to that of Príncipe. The population (124,000 residents In 1991), made up mostly of mestizos and blacks, partly from Mozambique and Angola, generally lives in the agricultural villages of the plantations or in small commercial centers such as Santo António, on the island of Prince. The capital, São Tomé, located on the north-eastern coast of the homonymous island, is a town of about 35,000 residents. (1984 estimate).

The economy is still largely based on plantation agriculture (in particular, cocoa), although a process of crop transformation was initiated in the aftermath of independence both to reduce the country’s dependence on cocoa production (i whose prices during the 1980s recorded a certain decline on the international market), and to try to achieve food self-sufficiency (the country still imports 90% of the foodstuffs needed to live). Another important economic activity is fishing (3583 t of catch in 1991), while livestock breeding is modest and industry is almost non-existent.

There are very few communication routes, limited to 380 km of roads and poor air and sea connections. The capital is the main port and air center of the archipelago, connected with Cameroon, Angola and Gabon. Foreign trade, which for years has been suffering from a heavy deficit, takes place above all with Portugal (34% of imports) and with Germany (32% of exports); other partners are the Netherlands and Belgium. Exports consist of cocoa, followed by copra and coconuts, while imports consist of food and fuel

Rwanda Business

Rwanda Business

According to abbreviationfinder, RW is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Rwanda.

Rwanda is a traditional agricultural community, with over 90% of the population engaged in agriculture and cattle farming. The country has few mineral resources, and agricultural products account for the majority of the country’s exports. Rwanda’s geographical location far from the sea, with subsequent costly goods transport, has been a negative factor in the country’s economic development. Furthermore, the war and genocide of the 1990s led to the demolition of Rwanda’s social and economic infrastructure, and all normal economic life stopped for an extended period, including most of organized agriculture and virtually all industrial activity. At the same time, the entire administrative apparatus disintegrated and the financial system stopped, while fugitive government forces robbed and destroyed much on their way to Congo. A large proportion of the country’s educated elite were either killed or fled. A large part of the cattle, which mainly belonged to the Tutsis, were slaughtered; At the same time, many Tutsi migrants returned from neighboring countries with their cattle.

After the war, the new government, with foreign aid, launched a rehabilitation and reconciliation program. It inherited a foreign debt of approx. $ 1 billion, including worked to fund the military spending of the allocated regime. The international community has made significant contributions to the reconstruction of Rwanda, and the economic development of the late 1990s was positive. At the beginning of 2000, the government presented a 20-year development plan with the goal of increasing GNI per capita from $ 250 to $ 5,000 by 2020.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Rwanda

Agriculture, fishing and fishing

Rwanda’s economy is dominated by the agricultural sector, which employs over 90% of the population and traditionally provides the largest share of the gross domestic product: normally approx. 50%, but somewhat lower after the war. The sector also accounts for up to 60% of the export value. Of the total land area, 40% is cultivated land, 18% is pasture and 10% is forest. Almost all production is for self-storage, with little room for production of higher value goods, for export.

Rwanda is well suited for agriculture, but high population density has led to it being extensively operated, with hard pressure on available soil and little use of mineral fertilizers and limited access to water – and with declining yield per unit area as a result. The most important food crops are cooking bananas, then sweet potatoes, cassava, potatoes, sorghum, rice, maize and beans. Until 2000, coffee’s main agricultural product in terms of value of GDP and export value (up to 80% of total exports revenue); then tea became the main export product. The income from both coffee and tea has varied greatly, both because of. crop size and world market prices. Long-horned cattle have traditionally played an important role in Rwandan livestock farming, but underwent a crisis following the genocide, when much of the cattle was also slaughtered.

Forestry is operated only on a smaller scale and almost all harvesting goes directly to fuel.

Fishing and catching is on a small scale, either in Lake Kivu or in the rivers, but the catch has been rising, thanks to increased fishing efforts. Hunting is especially important for the two people.

Mining, energy

Rwanda has few mineral resources, and mining has relatively little significance in the country’s economy. Cashew rides (tin) and some tungsten are extracted and exported. There are also minor deposits of beryll, colombo-tantalite, gold and sapphires. In the second half of the 1990s, Rwanda’s mineral exports, including diamonds, increased and were not recovered in the country. In 2001, a panel of experts set up by the UN recommended a boycott of Rwandan minerals, accusing the country of illegally exploiting the mineral deposits in neighboring Congo, under cover of its military presence there.

The energy supply is based on hydroelectric power. Rwanda imports about half of its electricity consumption, but at the same time has considerable potential for development – with production also for export. Natural gas deposits have been found below Lake Kivu at the border with Congo (formerly Zaïre), estimated at approx. 60 000 million m 3, half of which belong to Rwanda. Limited recovery took place in the 1990s, but the local market is too small for a larger commercial exploitation of the resource. Plans for the establishment of gas power plants, in collaboration with Burundi and Congo, were presented in 2003.

Industry

The industry is underdeveloped and consists mainly of processing of agricultural products and other food production. The industry, including two textile factories, a cement factory and other small businesses, stopped practically entirely as a result of the war and a lack of investment for subsequent reconstruction.

Foreign Trade

Rwanda normally has a deficit on the trade balance with abroad, a situation which was further aggravated by the war. The price of the country’s most important export goods, tea and coffee, as well as of imported petroleum products, strongly affects the trade balance. According to Countryaah, tea and coffee are the dominant export goods.

Transport and Communications

The road network of approx. 12,000 km is relatively dense and of good standard, with main road connections to Burundi, Congo, Tanzania and Uganda – and from there to Kenya. About. 80% of Rwanda’s foreign trade goes through Uganda and Kenya, substantially to the port of Mombasa. Rwanda does not have a railway, but a possible development, linked to Burundi, Tanzania and Uganda, has been discussed. Some shipping takes place on Lake Kivus. Kigali International Airport.

Republic of the Congo Business

Republic of the Congo Business

According to abbreviationfinder, CG is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Republic of the Congo.

Business

Due to the country’s central position in French Equatorial Africa, the transport and service sectors and the administrative sector in the business sector came to be more developed than in other countries at the corresponding economic level. After independence, however, the importance of these sectors decreased. The initial economic policy after independence emphasized the role of the state in the economy, but allowed private companies to act in the forest, mining and transport sectors.

In the late 1970s, the socialist elements of the economy were reduced, and in 1989, as a result of increased economic problems, economic policy became even more liberal. In 1994, the country introduced a structural adjustment program aimed at further liberalization and privatization of the economy. According to countryaah, the Congolese economy is almost entirely dependent on oil; the country is one of Africa’s ten largest oil producers. However, revenue is unevenly distributed and corruption is extensive. The country has been drawn with huge external debt, which has, however, been partially written off several times. Many years of political unrest, especially the civil war 1997-99, have also had a negative impact on the economy.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Republic of the Congo

Agriculture

Less than 1 percent of the land is cultivated land, and another 29 percent is used for extensive grazing. Congo’s food production does not meet the need. From the beginning of the 1970s, the agricultural sector was negatively affected by partly being overridden and partly subject to poor planning. The sector has also been adversely affected by a relatively large move from the countryside to the cities. However, during the 1990s, the state began to invest more in agriculture. With the exception of oil palms, sugar and tobacco, which are grown in plantation form, agricultural production is mainly carried out on small family farms. The most important food crops are cassava and corn. The most important barley crops, which, however, make a very small contribution to export revenue, are sugar and tobacco and to a lesser extent cocoa, coffee, peanuts and oil palm products.

Forestry

The forest, which covers more than half of the country’s area, is one of Congo’s most important natural resources. Until 1973, timber was Congo’s main export commodity. Harvesting began in the coastal area and has continued along the inland railroad. Until 1987, the purchase and sale of timber was controlled by a state monopoly; however, private (usually foreign) companies accounted for 95 percent of the harvest. During the 1990s, timber exports declined as a result of criticism against harvesting in rainforests. During the 00s, production has again increased while the government has taken measures to reduce illegal harvesting and increase replanting as well as domestic timber processing.

Fishing

Fishing is of little importance to Congo’s economy. It is conducted in the Atlantic and Congo rivers as well as in smaller rivers and rivers. Some commercial sea fishing has been developed (mainly by tuna), but most of the fishing is conducted for self-catering and for the local market.

Mineral

Until the early 1970s, mineral extraction played little role for the Congo’s economy, but during the 1970s and 1980s the significance increased through several major oil discoveries. In the mid-1990s, the sector accounted for about 90 percent of the value of the country’s exports. In 1972, the Émerau field on the continental shelf was put into production, in 1977 mining began on the Loango field and in 1980 production started on the Likouala River in eastern Congo. The latter field is estimated to comprise about 40 million tonnes of oil. Additional deposits on the continental shelf and on land were then put into operation during the 1980s. Large deposits of natural gas are also located outside Pointe-Noire. In addition to oil, limited quantities of lead, zinc, gold and copper are extracted. Undiscovered deposits of high quality iron ore, phosphate and bauxite have not yet been found in the country.

Energy

Most of the country’s energy supply comes from the two hydroelectric power plants Bouenza, west of Brazzaville, and Djoué, northwest of Brazzaville. There are also far-reaching plans for a new power plant at Ingafallen, which at completion will be the world’s largest. The production and distribution of electricity is controlled by the state. As the majority of households lack electricity, firewood is still the most important source of energy.

Industry

The industrial sector in Congo is well developed, but apart from the oil industry it has little economic significance. The industry, which is mainly focused on the processing of agricultural and forestry products and on the production of simpler consumer goods, is mainly located in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire and Nkayi. In addition, there are sawmills and production of building materials such as cement. In 1982, an oil refinery was opened in Pointe-Noire with an annual capacity of 1 million tonnes. The majority of the major industries were previously state-owned. However, through an agreement with the International Monetary Fund, ownership has largely been transferred into private hands.

Foreign trade

During the 1960s and 1970s, Congo experienced a large trade deficit. Through the development of the oil sector since the late 1970s, this has turned into a surplus. In the mid-00s, oil revenues accounted for about 90 percent of total export revenues. The second largest export product was timber with 7 percent. Imports are dominated by machinery and food. China, Angola and Gabon are Congo’s most important export markets. Imports come mainly from France, China and Belgium.

Nigeria Business

Nigeria Business

According to abbreviationfinder, NI is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Nigeria.

Business and Economics

Nigeria has experienced strong economic growth throughout the 2000s. The country is, with its large population and rich natural resources, mainly in the form of oil and natural gas resources, together with the continent’s largest economy in South Africa. In addition to commodity exports, the purchasing power of the growing middle class and the demand for goods and services have an increasing impact on economic growth, for example, the rapidly growing Internet and mobile phone market has been favorable for the country’s economy.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Nigeria

With a rapidly growing population, the country has great economic potential. In order to realize this, one must expand and improve the country’s infrastructure. On the one hand, transport opportunities must be improved (roads, railways, ports and airports), and on the other hand, electricity generation and electricity distribution must also be greatly improved. Today, the country has the capacity to produce a maximum of 5,900 MW (megawatts) of electricity to 177 million residents, the corresponding figure for South Africa is 44,000 MW to 53 million residents and Brazil 119,000 MW to 195 million residents. The low and very uncertain supply of electricity is a major problem for the country’s economic development. Furthermore, Nigeria also has to deal with the widespread corruption that exists in the country (see human rights).

In recent years, the industry has been affected by disruptions in oil production as a result of unrest in the Niger Delta.

Despite this, oil and petroleum products still account for more than 90 percent of the country’s export earnings. However, the oil industry has few links to the country’s other economy and creates few domestic jobs. The importance of the manufacturing industry has grown somewhat, but the sector accounts for just over 5 percent of GDP.

While the country has a growing middle class and economic growth, about 85 percent of the population is still living in poverty (below US $ 2 per day). Primarily, it is the northern and eastern parts of the country that have not benefited from economic growth, which has become a breeding ground for a great dissatisfaction with the country’s leadership. This discontent has manifested itself in riots and acts of violence by groups such as Boko Haram, which in some cases has led foreign investors to wait to invest in the country. Similarly, the growing problem of piracy off the coast of Nigeria has contributed to the uncertainty about the country’s ability to maintain security in the country.

At Nigeria’s independence in 1960, the economy was dominated by agriculture. The country was self-sufficient in food and had significant agricultural exports.

The extraction of crude oil began in the late 1950s, and the oil then increasingly impacted the country’s economy. Following the sharp rise in world oil prices in 1973, major investments in industry and infrastructure began. By the mid-1970s, Nigeria was considered a leading economy in Africa and was the continent’s largest oil exporter.

The fall in oil prices in the 1980s dramatically reduced export revenues and the inability to complete development projects. The industry suffered from a lack of spare parts and imported raw materials. The military regimes that ruled the country during most of the 1980s and 1990s sought to overcome the economic problems, including by expanding the export base, reducing imports and privatizing business. Foreign investors were discouraged due to widespread corruption and the government’s inability to limit government spending. The economic sanctions directed at Nigeria because of the political situation in the country also hampered the development.

Since the return to civilian government in 1999, much of the country’s external debt has been written off, inflation has fallen and economic growth has accelerated. At the same time, Nigeria’s economy still has problems with a large informal sector, smuggling of petroleum products, repeated interruptions in electricity supply, deficiencies in infrastructure and national conflicts. The fact that the oil accounts for almost the entire export value also makes the country vulnerable to falling world market prices and to cyclical fluctuations especially in the US, which buys large parts of Nigerian oil and is thus the country’s most important trading partner.

For information on GDP and other business statistics, see Landsfakta.

Agriculture

About 1/3 of Nigeria’s area is estimated to be cultivable and the country as a whole has good conditions for agriculture.

At the time of independence in 1960, Nigeria had significant agricultural exports. However, with the rapid expansion of the oil industry in the 1970s, development in agriculture was neglected. Food production did not increase at the same rate as the population, and during a twenty-year period from the mid-1960s, Nigeria transitioned from being self-sufficient in food to becoming heavily dependent on imports.

Nigeria is still regarded as an agricultural country where about half of the population is employed in agriculture.

Traditional small farmers with primitive technology, as well as burning and extensive land under trees still dominate agriculture. The fact that all land is owned by the state and only leased to the farmers also slows down the development as tenants are less likely to make large investments than owners.

In the rainy and humid southern part of the country, jams and cassava (cassava) are the most important food crops, while millet and sorghum are most important in the north, where the climate is drier. In addition, rice, maize and vegetables are grown. Nigeria used to be an important cocoa exporter but deregulation in the late 1980s led to poorer quality control and export of substandard products, which damaged export markets. However, cocoa is still the only crop that contributes in any significant way to export earnings. Other forage crops are peanuts, palm oil, rubber and cotton. Livestock breeding is concentrated in the northern parts of the country, which are free from the tsetse fly. The country must import meat to meet demand.

Forestry

Almost 10 percent of Nigeria’s land area is covered by forest, most of which consists of a rainforest belt that runs across the southern part of the country. Commercial logging is small in scope and timber exports are insignificant. Most of the felling (more than 90 percent) is used for firewood, which is the most important source of energy for households. Growing need for grazing and cultivable land also contributes to forest deforestation, which is a serious problem in especially the northern parts of the country as well as in the Niger Delta mangrove forests. Nigeria is one of the countries where forest areas are declining at the fastest pace and by 2010 the forest stock had halved by 20 years.

Fishing

With its long stretch of coast, the great Niger Delta and several large rivers, including Niger and Benue, Nigeria has good fishing conditions, but fishing is still conducted mainly on a small scale.

During the 2000s, the importance of fish farming has grown sharply; In 2000–12 production increased tenfold. Of the approximately 857,000 tonnes landed in 2011, fish farms accounted for 25 percent. Continued expansion of the industry is made more difficult by the fact that the coastal waters are heavily polluted by oil spills and by the harvesting in the mangrove swamp. High investment costs in the form of boats and equipment are another inhibitory factor.

Mineral

The oil industry has a huge impact on Nigeria’s economy. The country has been extracting oil in the Niger Delta since 1958, and there are also large oil deposits further out at sea. Nigeria is the largest oil exporter in Africa; oil, natural gas and petroleum products account for about 95 percent of export earnings. The country’s oil is one of the cleanest in the world and thus also the most expensive.

Nigeria also has rich natural gas deposits and its economic significance has grown during the 21st century; In 2012, Nigeria was the world’s fourth largest exporter of LNG (liquefied natural gas).

However, the lack of necessary infrastructure will allow large quantities of natural gas to burn above the oil wells.

Oil production varies greatly due to unrest in the Niger Delta. The oil industry is also associated with serious corruption, and the revenues from the oil recovery will not benefit the local population to any great extent. In addition, the extensive environmental degradation, including in the form of oil spills caused by poorly maintained and leaking pipelines, has caused protests. Sabotage against, for example, pipelines is common, and kidnapping of foreign oil workers has also occurred. In addition, large quantities of oil are stolen, mainly exported illegally abroad.

Despite the great importance of the oil industry, it has limited connection with the country’s economic life in general and creates relatively few domestic jobs. All of the deposits are owned by the state and most of the extraction is carried out by foreign companies such as Shell, ExxonMobil Corporation and Chevron Corporation in joint venture projects with the state Nigerian company Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC).

Although the country is one of the world’s largest crude oil producers, Nigeria imports most of the refined petroleum products, such as gasoline, consumed in the country. The country’s four refineries operate well below their full capacity. Fuel subsidies, which cost the state huge sums each year, attract many to smuggle fuel to neighboring countries where prices are higher, leading to shortages in the home country. The government has tried several times to abolish fuel subsidies, but violent protests have forced it to back down.

Nigeria also has other major mineral resources, but the mining industry is severely neglected and mining is still to a limited extent. In the country there are large deposits of coal, iron, bauxite, gold, limestone, phosphates, lead, zinc and uranium.

Energy

Although the country is one of the world’s largest producers of oil and natural gas, and also has large coal deposits and good conditions for extracting water energy, Nigeria is one of the countries in the world that generates the least electricity per capita. The expansion of production capacity and distribution networks has neither followed the population growth nor the demand for other reasons. This has led to just over half the population still lacking access to electricity. Even for those connected to the outdated and unreliable electricity grid, access to electricity is uncertain.

Long power outages, both planned and unplanned, are very common, something that also affects the industry. The use of private generators for house needs is therefore common. However, for the majority of the population, especially in the countryside, firewood is still the most important source of energy for heating and cooking; over 80 percent of all energy consumed in the country comes from so-called traditional biomass such as wood, charcoal and dried animal waste.

Gas and oil-fired power plants account for almost 80 percent of the electricity produced, while the rest comes from water energy. However, the government plans to build several new hydropower plants, including in cooperation with China. The companies in the state energy group Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) were sold to private players in 2013.

Industry

The industrial sector, outside the oil and natural gas industry, has a fairly wide production, mainly focused on the domestic market. The manufacturing industry is mostly focused on textiles, beverages, cigarettes, shoes, detergents and cement. In addition, there are tire and artificial manure production as well as car assembly and pharmaceutical industry.

A large part of the industrial activity takes place in the informal sector, which means that it is neither visible in statistics nor taxed.

The industry is still heavily import-dependent and is hampered by, among other things, the backlog of infrastructure and the lack of electricity. As in many other African countries, the textile industry is subject to fierce competition from China, for example.

With the increase in income after the oil crisis in 1973, an extensive industrialization program was started, but the fall in prices in the 1980s greatly reduced industrial production. The large investments in large-scale industries, such as steel industry and petrochemical industry facilities, made since the 1970s have not produced the desired results and production is well below actual capacity. The manufacturing industry is largely located in Lagos and its environs, but Kano, Kaduna and Ibadan are also important industrial cities. Port Harcourt and Warri are central locations for the oil industry.

Foreign trade

Foreign trade is largely determined by the world oil market. Oil exports account for almost the entire export value and thanks to this Nigeria has a positive trade balance. The second largest export product is LNG (liquefied natural gas), which has grown in importance during the 2000s; In 2012, Nigeria was the world’s fourth largest exporter of LNG. Nigeria also exports cocoa beans and rubber, but its economic importance is small. Exports are mainly to India, the United States and Spain. Extensive smuggling to neighboring countries means that the actual value of exports cannot be determined. No official trade exchange with other countries in the region is to any great extent.

According to Countryaah, most of the imports consist of machinery, chemical products, transport equipment, industrial goods and food. In addition, the country’s manufacturing industry is heavily dependent on imports of raw materials and components. Imports come mainly from China, Belgium and the Netherlands.

Tourism and gastronomy

Nigeria is not a real tourist country but most visitors are usually businessmen or academics. Hotels of international standard are found mainly in major cities such as Lagos and Abuja. Several of the largest resorts have museums, including Benin bronzes and masks, ruled palaces and a marketplace with a selection of local products. The National Museum in Lagos is particularly interesting, but also the museums in Ife, Benin City and Ibadan are worth a visit. The palace and architecture of the older Kano district attracts some visitors.

In the highlands Jos is situated in a beautiful landscape with a national park. In northeastern Nigeria, Sukur’s cultural landscape is listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. It consists of terraced farms and very old settlements. Smaller national parks are also near Lagos and Benin City. Most large animals, except elephants and hippos, are missing in Nigeria, however monkeys and birds can be seen.

The unusually diverse population has given Nigeria a kitchen that is multi-faceted and rich in recipes. As always in Africa, vegetable food dominates. The base porridge is cooked on cassava, corn or cooking bananas and is often served to a bean pan (for example with tomatoes, wake ewa) or to pepper sauce with corn (egbo). Risotto with seafood is common, as is a soup that includes both fresh and dried and smoked fish (asaro). Akara is ground black-eyed beans that are seasoned with chili pepper and onion and then formed into buns and deep fried, sometimes shrimp is added. Goat meat is included in many dishes. When there is no fun for a party, it occurs in egusi, a spicy soup that also holds shrimp. This mixture of meat and fish or seafood in the same dish is not uncommon in the country.

Niger Business

Niger Business

According to abbreviationfinder, NG is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Niger.

Niger is a relatively resource-poor desert country, measured by social and economic indicators, among the world’s least developed countries. With a small modern sector, agriculture is the dominant sector, especially in terms of employment. Cattle are the most important export commodity for uranium – which is still Niger’s main source of income, despite falling demand and prices. Failure in revenue from uranium exports from the mid-1980s was a major cause of the economic crisis, which in turn contributed to the political turmoil throughout much of the 1990s – when the government was unable to pay its employees for periods. The economic situation was further aggravated in the second half of the 1990s by sanctions and the suspension of assistance from several partners.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Niger

The modernization process initiated in the 1970s, based on large revenues from exports of uranium, stopped in the 1980s, after which there was no economic basis for continuing it, although there was a certain upswing from the late 1990s. the years. Then new economic reform programs were implemented, including a program for the privatization of state business. Niger’s economy is closely linked to neighboring Nigeria, not least through so-called informal connections – essentially smuggling, especially of petroleum(from Nigeria) and cattle (from Niger). A significant portion, an estimated 70%, of Niger’s economic activity is found in the informal sector, significantly related to illegal and unregistered trade with neighboring countries, especially Nigeria. The strong relations with Nigeria make the economic situation in Niger dependent on the political and economic situation in the neighboring country, which is the region’s great power.

Agriculture and fishing

Niger is essentially an agricultural country, although most of it is desert and semi-desert, and unsuitable for agriculture. The sector is of crucial importance for the countryside, and in 2003 employed close to 90% of the working population, accounting for approx. 40% of GNI.

About 20% of those employed in agriculture are nomads, who run extensive animal husbandry – cattle, sheep, goats and camels. Live cattle are the second most important export product, after uranium; much of the export is done illegally, mostly to Nigeria. The arable land is found essentially in a belt south of the country. Corn, millet, sorghum, rice and corn are grown. In addition, cassava, onions, vegetables, sugar cane and fruit are grown. Peanuts (peanuts) were an important export product for a long time, but production dropped from the mid-1960s. Cotton production is also of economic importance, but with varying crops.

An obstacle to agricultural development is a lack of input goods, especially credit and fertilizers, as well as access to markets. Agriculture has been severely affected by drought for several periods, sometimes by large numbers of grasshoppers eating crops. Both were the case in 2004, which contributed to food shortages and the humanitarian crisis in 2005.

Mining and energy

Due to the significant deposits of uranium, mining plays a significant role in Niger’s economy; the country was the world’s third largest uranium producer in the early 2000s. The extraction started at Arlit in 1971, reaching a peak in 1981, before demand fell through the 1980s – and with that revenue. Exports of uranium have accounted for up to approx. 80% of Nigerian currency earnings. Falling world prices have at times created problems for the country’s economy, and in 2003 Niger was indirectly accused of illegally exporting uranium to several countries. Iraq.

Alongside uranium, small amounts of tin and some phosphate are extracted. gold, coal, iron ore and plaster. Petroleum deposits have been detected in the southwest, and production is about 20,000 barrels per day, which is expected to grow in the coming years.

The production of electric power is essentially from heat power plants, but is not sufficient to meet demand, and Niger imports power from Nigeria, but its supply is often unstable. There is potential for the development of hydropower plants on the Niger River.

Industry

Niger has a poorly developed industrial sector, and the sector is hampered by several conditions, notably a small – and low – purchasing – local market, as well as transport distance from ports in neighboring countries, and competition from the far more industrialized neighbor Nigeria. The industry is mainly based on the processing of agricultural raw materials, and is of no great national economic importance.

Foreign Trade

With its strong dependence on revenue from uranium exports, Niger has been vulnerable to both demand and price. From the mid-1980s, revenues have fallen, and Niger’s dependence on foreign aid has increased accordingly.

According to Countryaah, main export products are uranium, cattle, hides and skins and textiles. Main import goods are food, machinery, petroleum products, vehicles, chemical products.

France and Nigeria are the largest trading partners; France and the EU are the largest aid providers.

Transport and Communications

Niger is a large country, and communication is essentially on the road, and to some extent on the Niger River. The country does not have railways. Connection to rail and on to the coast must be via Parkou (in Benin), Ouagadougou (in Burkina Faso) or Kano (in Nigeria). The road network is poorly developed, and in 2000 consisted of approx. 14,000 km of classified roads. The Niger River is navigable for a length of approx. 300 km. Development of the Cain Discovery in Nigeria (1969) improved the connection to the Delta ports on the Guinea coast. There are international airports in Niamey, Agadez and Zinder.

Namibia Business

Namibia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, NA is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Namibia.

Business

Through Namibian colonial history, the country’s economy has largely come to have a strong export orientation, with a focus on mineral extraction and large-scale agricultural production. However, the economy is weakly integrated; About 90 percent of total production is exported, while 90 per cent of consumption is imported. There are also very large economic differences between the white minority and the African population. Diamond exports have historically played a major role.

During the first half of the 1980s, Namibia suffered a deep economic recession with falling demand and prices for the most important export products. From the mid-1980s, the economy was characterized by growth, which leveled out around the turn of the century, but which gained momentum during the 00s. However, the global financial crisis of 2008–09 hit hard on the mining industry, mainly diamond exports.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Namibia

Agriculture

The agricultural sector consists of livestock farming households in the middle and southern parts and self-sustaining agriculture in the northern parts of the country. In addition, there are approximately 4,000 larger commercial farms (ranches), which are owned almost exclusively by whites. The land reform, based on voluntary sales and fragmentation of large goods, which the government has been pursuing since 1990 is very slow. This is mainly because the large farms are profitable and mean a lot to the country’s agricultural production. Due to the country’s special ecological conditions, commercial agriculture is more than 90 percent focused on livestock and sheep farming. In the southern parts, breeding of caracal sheep is especially important.

Commercial cereal production on a larger scale is conducted only in the areas around Tsumeb and in connection with the irrigation project at Hardap in central Namibia. The most important commercial agricultural products are meat and hides from caracal sheep. The most important self-sustaining crops are beans, potatoes and corn. The agricultural sector’s contribution to GDP has increased despite the negative impact of armed conflict, drought and overworking on the sector.

Fishing

Namibia’s fishing waters are among the richest in the world. The fishing industry is about as important to the economy as agriculture, together they are Namibia’s second most important export sectors, after the mining industry. Most of the catch is processed in the country by domestic companies. After independence, the previous problems with overfishing from foreign fishing fleets have been addressed.

Mineral

Namibia is the world’s largest producer of jewelry diamonds. The most famous diamond mine is in Oranjemund, from which almost 98 percent of the diamonds are jewelery quality. Since 1991, diamonds have also been mined at Elizabeth Bay and south along the coast. Diamonds mined at sea now account for a majority of total production.

The uranium, although relatively low-grade, is mined in, among other things, the Rössing mine, the world’s largest mining mine for uranium extraction. Namibia is also a major producer of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper. In addition to already used mineral deposits, the country is attempting to diversify the mining sector by extracting previously unused mineral deposits; Namibia’s reserves of tin and lithium are among the world’s largest. Furthermore, there are large deposits of natural gas on the continental shelf outside Lüderitz. In 2011, large oil deposits were discovered offshore in the south.

Industry

The industrial sector in Namibia is very small and mainly focuses on the processing and processing of food, including meat and fish for export. Traditionally, the country has been dependent on South Africa for manufacturing products. This and the limited local market, fluctuations in the fishing and livestock industry, high energy and transport costs, and a lack of educated business leaders have had a negative impact on industrial development. However, some industrial investments have been made; Among other things, the processing of natural resources in the country is increasing, especially diamond grinding. In 2011, Africa’s largest cement factory in Namibia was inaugurated in 2011.

Foreign trade

According to Countryaah, Namibia’s exports are dominated by primary products, especially in the mining sector, but fish and beef are also exported. A large part of the exports goes to South Africa, but also to Botswana and Switzerland. Imports are dominated by, among other things, food and machinery, which come mainly from South Africa. Namibia is a member of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU).

Mozambique Business

Mozambique Business

According to abbreviationfinder, MZ is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Mozambique.

Business

Mozambique’s economy has since been severely affected by civil war and natural disasters, as well as by a shortage of educated labor and foreign currency. This has led, among other things, to a large debt burden and trade deficit.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Mozambique

The economic problems led Mozambique, with the support of the International Monetary Fund, to introduce an economic re-adjustment program in 1987 with the aim of increasing the efficiency of the economy through liberalization and privatization. For a large part of the population, the re-adjustment program initially caused considerable financial strain. From a national perspective, the program seemed to have the intended effects, and the late 1990s were characterized by increasing economic growth. The peace agreement that set the stage for the civil war in 1994 was not least important in this trend.

In 2000, the positive development of a major flood disaster, which devastated large parts of the infrastructure and hit the agricultural sector, was severely broken. Aid efforts from the outside world and foreign investment led the country to recover, and for over a decade Mozambique experienced strong economic growth. However, Mozambique is still one of the world’s poorest countries.

Agriculture

Agriculture is Mozambique’s most important industry in terms of employment. However, the consequences of civil war and drought cause agricultural production to fluctuate widely. The main forage crops are cotton, sugar and cashew nuts. The most important food crop is cassava, but corn, bananas, rice and coconuts are also grown for self-catering. However, the country is not self-sufficient with food. It depends, among other things, on infrastructure deficiencies, which prevent transport from the fertile northern parts of the country.

Agricultural policy after independence was characterized by an investment in a collective village-oriented agriculture. In 1976, more than 1,500 villages and several agricultural cooperatives and state-owned large farms had been formed. Most state agriculture, however, has proven to be uneconomical, and the need to increase production from smallholder farmers has meant increased cutting and privatization of state agriculture and increased support for smallholder farmers.

The flood disaster of 2000, which left some 1 million people homeless, hit the agricultural sector hard.

Forestry

The forest industry has developed along the railroad from Harare in Zimbabwe to Beira and in the rainier Zambéziia district. Exports from the forest industry mainly consist of sawn timber and timber for the construction industry and are mainly directed to South Africa. The majority of felling is used as firewood.

Fishing

Fishing has become increasingly important for Mozambique’s economy. Not least, shrimp fishing is very important, and shrimp are among the country’s most important export goods. Mozambique has worked with South Africa since the early 1980s to develop the fishing industry. The country has also signed development agreements with Italy and Japan. Several countries in the EU have purchased fishing rights in the country.

Mineral

Mozambique has large mineral deposits, but the extraction was limited for a long time as a result of the civil war. Coal is mined at Moatize near Tete, iron at Cassinga and a larger yet untapped deposit at Namapa. Gold deposits are found in the drainage area of ​​the Revue and Chua rivers and bauxite deposits near Tete. Mozambique also has large deposits of tantalum, but only a limited amount is exported. New deposits of manganese, graphite, platinum, nickel, uranium, asbestos, iron, diamonds and natural gas have also been reported.

In 2000, the operation of the large Mozal aluminum smelter began just outside Maputo. The smelter is the largest foreign investment made in Mozambique and was financed by South African and Japanese companies as well as with loans from the World Bank.

Energy

Mozambique’s commercial energy supply comes mainly from the hydroelectric power plant at the Cabora Bassa dam and a coal power station in Maputo. As a result of an agreement from the 1980s, almost all electricity produced is exported cheaply to South Africa, but through several large power plant projects and plans to renovate the power grid, a larger proportion will stay in the country, while Mozambique will be able to become a major electricity exporter to several countries. However, for the majority of the population, firewood is still the most important source of energy. In parallel, investments are being made in the extraction of natural gas, coal and oil. A 1,000 km long gas pipeline extends from the Pande and Temane gas fields in the province of Inhambane to South Africa.

Industry

Although the state encourages the spread of industry to Beira and its northern parts, nearly half of Mozambique’s industrial companies are located in Maputo or its vicinity. However, during the early 1980s, the industrial base expanded somewhat through the growth of, among other things, the textile industry and the brewery industry.

The industrial sector, like many other sectors, was adversely affected by the fact that many educated Portuguese left the country at independence, the lack of raw materials and spare parts, and transport disruptions due to the civil war. After the end of the war, the industrial sector was privatized. The aluminum smelter Mozal, which accounts for much of the country’s exports, is of great importance.

Foreign trade

Mozambique’s trade and current account balance is characterized by large deficits. The civil war was one cause (including reduced exports and tourism and costs of importing military equipment). Other factors include occasional falling world market prices for important export goods as well as a reduction in Mozambican labor in the South African mining industry.

According to Countryaah, exports are dominated by aluminum, shrimp, cotton and sugar. Imports are dominated by machine parts, vehicles and fuel. Dominant export markets are India, the Netherlands and South Africa, while South Africa, China and the United Arab Emirates are the most important importing countries. Trade with neighboring countries such as Malawi and Zimbabwe is also extensive.

Morocco Business

Morocco Business

According to abbreviationfinder, MO is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Morocco.

Morocco has a substantial, versatile industrial base, more is still far ahead of an agricultural country, and its economy is vulnerable to, among other things, climatic and other factors affecting agricultural production. Low production results in loss of export revenue, and at the same time means that food must be imported.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Morocco

Despite increasing urbanization, in 2019, 37 percent of Morocco’s population lived in the countryside. In 2014, 39 percent were employed in agriculture, a sector which in 2017 accounted for 14 percent of GDP. Particularly in cities, unemployment is a significant economic and social problem. In the early 2000s, about 20 percent of the urban population was unemployed, about 10 percent of the population nationwide, and around 350,000 young people enter the labor market each year without creating new jobs at the same pace. Combined with widespread poverty and lack of housing and other infrastructure, this has led to social tension, as well as significant legal and illegal emigration, especially to the EU. The transfer of money from emigrants to Morocco represents a significant supply of foreign currency.

Morocco is still economically very dependent on the revenue from phosphate extraction, the country became the world’s largest exporter of phosphate at the end of the 1990s. Morocco also has other mineral deposits, but only minor discoveries of oil and gas have been made, and the country relies on importing energy. Since 1975, Morocco has claimed the former Spanish colony of Western Sahara, and has in fact incorporated it into the kingdom. The increasing utilization of natural resources in Western Sahara, especially iron ore and fish, is highly controversial in legal and political terms, and a number of companies have withdrawn from oil exploration there.

In addition to the export of phosphate and agricultural products, as well as emigration, the revenue from the tourism industry is an important source of income. After a period of growth in the 1980s, there was a decline in the 1990s, after which the sector is again focused on development. The number of visitors reached a peak of 3.3 million in 1992, after which it dropped drastically, again reaching 2 million in 1998.

Economic liberalization

Since the mid-1980s, Morocco, in consultation with the World Bank and the IMF, has implemented economic liberalization, including extensive privatization of state-owned enterprises. This policy has also aimed to attract foreign investors, including to gain access to the EU market, which has to some extent succeeded. From the 1990s, Morocco has entered into several major trade agreements, both regionally and with the EU, as well as with several individual countries, especially the United States.

Morocco, together with Algeria, Libya, Mauritania and Tunisia in 1989 formed the Union du Maghreb Arab Region (UMA) to promote trade and cooperation, but political contradictions, especially between Morocco and Algeria, as well as the civil war in Algeria, contributed to difficulties in collaboration.

A 1996 economic agreement with the EU, which came into force in 2000, replaces a 1976 cooperation agreement and allows for progressively better access for Moroccan goods to the EU market. This is Morocco’s by far the most important single market, but several EU countries, not least Spain, have opposed too extensive access for Moroccan goods, which will compete with their own. The 1996 Accession Agreement also sets political requirements, including respect for human rights, which Morocco has not always complied with, as well as joint efforts to reduce illegal migration.

In 2004, Morocco and the United States signed a free trade agreement, which is the first in the United States with an African country and the first in the Middle East Free Trade Area initiative.

Mining and energy

Morocco has significant mineral deposits, several of which are extracted commercially, but the sector has experienced a decline since the 1980s. Of the greatest economic importance are the phosphate reserves, which are estimated to constitute about two-thirds of the world’s total deposits. Proven reserves at the beginning of the 2000s were 10.6 billion tonnes; probable reserves were 57.2 billion tonnes. The largest deposits are found at Khouribga, Youssoufia and Ben Guerir (near Khouribga), and the phosphate is shipped via Casablanca, Safi and the new port of Jorf-Lasfar. Production also takes place in occupied Western Sahara. In 1997, it was reported that Morocco took the position of the world’s largest exporter of phosphate, with about one-third of the total export volume.

Coal, barite, lead, zinc, copper, iron ore, salt, cobalt and silver are also mined. Coal production dropped sharply in the 1990s, and Morocco has had to import, especially from South Africa, to supply its coal-fired thermal power plants. Some oil and gas is produced from the Essaouira basin and some gas from the Gharb basin, but far from sufficient to meet domestic demand, and Morocco is the largest energy importer in North Africa.

In 2018, proven reserves were 684,000 barrels of crude oil and 1,444 billion cubic meters of natural gas, but exploration is ongoing. Among other things, in 2004, Norsk Hydro signed an exploration agreement for the offshore field Safi. It is believed that there are significant occurrences in occupied Western Sahara, but a number of companies have withdrawn from exploration there, as a result of international protests. Morocco is a transit center for gas exports from Algeria to Spain and Portugal. The Maghreb-Europe pipeline, across the Strait of Gibraltar, was opened in 1996. Morocco will also recover gas from Algeria, to a gas plant in Tangier.

In recent years, Morocco has seen a strong growth in the consumption of electrical energy, and has undertaken a significant rural electrification. In 2013, expanded production capacity reached 7.9 GW, against 4.5 GW in 2002. Production in 2016 was 32 TWh, of which 26 TWh was based on fossil energy use. The share of renewable energy was 22 per cent, where hydropower contributed 2 TWh and solar and wind energy contributed a total of 5 TWh.

In 1996, a rural electrification program was launched. At that time, only 18 percent of rural areas were electrified. In 2011 it was reported that the percentage had increased to 97.4 percent, but it is unclear whether the percentage applies to households or villages. Many households in remote areas are connected to local electricity supply plants where the production of electrical energy is done using solar cells.

The country’s electricity grid is gradually integrated, both with other countries in North Africa and with Spain. The first transmission network between Africa and Europe was opened in 1998. An agreement with the United States from 2001 opened to establish a 2 MW nuclear reactor at Rabat, which will be used for research purposes. In order to ensure access to fresh water, a preliminary study has been carried out in collaboration with China with a view to using a 10 MWt nuclear reactor for desalination of seawater. Such a plant should be able to produce 8,000 cubic meters of fresh water per day.

Agriculture

Morocco is still a long way from being an agricultural country, with 39 percent of the population employed in agriculture, which in 2017 accounted for 14 percent of GDP. Just over 20 percent of the land area is cultivated and 30-40 percent is meadow and pasture. Agriculture is strongly focused on grain cultivation, but the grain crops only in good years cover the country’s own needs, and the crops vary greatly; for example, grain production in 1995 was only 1.6 million tonnes, and then reached 10 million tonnes the following year. Cereal production consists mainly of wheat, barley and maize.

Morocco is also a major exporter of food products, especially of citrus fruits and vegetables, essential to the EU. Otherwise, sugar beets are grown to reduce imports, and a number of other products, including spice plants. There are large variations in the mode of operation; a minority operates by very modern methods on large farms. These are mainly located on the coastal plains (al-Rharb, Sous) and at Fès and Marrakech. Here, export production of citrus fruits, early vegetables and cotton is conducted of high quality. This is also where artificial irrigation is most prevalent. The majority operate according to traditional methods and have relatively low returns. Only 1 percent of the farms have more than 50 hectares available, the most common size is less than 3 hectares. Various programs have been launched to entice farmers in the Riffjellene to switch to cultivating products other than marijuana.

Animal husbandry is substantial, and despite the low yields in many places, Morocco is almost self-sufficient with meat. Some Berber tribes in the Middle Atlas are still semi-nomads, and follow their sheep and goat flocks from summer mountain pastures down to the lowlands in winter.

Forestry and fishing

The forestry sector has little economic importance, apart from the production of cork from the cork oak tree, where Morocco is the world’s fourth largest producer. Alpha grass is used for paper production.

Morocco has developed a significant fishing industry, partly supplied by its own fleet and partly by foreign trawlers, who have been required to supply catches in Morocco through various fishing agreements; the majority are sardines. The main fishing ports are Safi, Casablanca and Agadir. The fishing is operated partly with modern boats and partly with traditional small boats. Sales of licenses to foreign fishing fleets, especially the EU, are an important source of revenue, with fear of overfishing. Morocco has also been licensed to fish in the waters off occupied Western Sahara.

Industry

Morocco has a significant industrial sector, with the production of a wide range of goods, essential for the domestic market. In the 1980s, the authorities focused on industrial development to reduce dependence on commodity exports, create employment and reduce imports. The industry consists partly of the processing of agricultural and mining products, partly of the production of consumer goods, and is particularly concentrated in the Casablanca area and the other coastal towns. In 1996, industrial zones were established in Tangier, Jorf Lasfar and Nouasser, to attract national and foreign private capital.

The most important industrial branches are the production of phosphate products (especially fertilizers), steelworks, petroleum refining, cement production, chemical industry, as well as textiles and foodstuffs, including fish and vegetable canning, as well as mills and sugar refining. Textiles were the most important focus area in industrial investment in the 1980s, but the textile industry was severely hit by new trade regimes and increased competition from China around 2005, when a number of enterprises were closed and jobs were lost. Crafts are a major trade route in some cities.

Foreign Trade

Morocco had rising deficits in foreign trade in the 1980s; a deficit that has persisted, although in some years it is far offset by transfers from Moroccans abroad and income from tourism, among other things. The war in Western Sahara in the 1970s, and the later costs of keeping the territory occupied, have contributed to the financial difficulties that were sought to be met with structural adjustment in the 1980s, including privatization in the 1990s. Morocco receives significant financial support from, among others, Saudi Arabia, the United States and France, and multinational organizations.

According to Countryaah, most important export products by value are phosphate ore and phosphate products, citrus fruits, seafood and textiles. Imports include crude oil, machinery, grain, chemicals and metals. The EU – especially Spain and France – is Morocco’s foremost trading partner. In the early 2000s, approximately 70 percent of the country’s exports went to the EU, while close to 60 percent of the imports came from there. In 2017, approximately 56 percent of Morocco’s exports went to EU countries, while just over 40 percent of imports came from there.

Rapidly rising oil prices around 2005 brought additional burdens on the trade balance for Morocco, which relies heavily on oil imports to meet its energy needs. At the same time, textile production and exports fell as a result of new trade regimes.

Transport and Communications

Morocco has a relatively well-developed transport network. The railways connect Casablanca with Rabat, Fès, Oudja and neighboring Algeria and Tunisia, and with Marrakech and the large phosphate mines at Khouribga and Youssoufia. Plans were made in the 1990s to link occupied Western Sahara to Morocco by rail. A metro in Casablanca was also investigated. In 2003, Morocco and Spain announced plans to realize an old intention to build an underwater rail tunnel between the two countries. The road network comprises 57 300 kilometers (2018).

The main international airports are at Casablanca (Mohammed V), Rabat, Tangier, Marrakech and Agadir; in addition there are about 50 airstrips. Morocco has ten major ports, with Casablanca as the country’s largest port city. Other important port cities are Mohammadia, Jorf-Lasfar and Safi. Tangier is the main port for passenger traffic and has a ferry connection with Gibraltar and Algeciras in Spain.

Mauritius Business

Mauritius Business

According to abbreviationfinder, MU is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Mauritius.

According to reports from the Portuguese who first landed on the island of Mauritius in the 16th century, the island was uninhabited. However, it was immediately sought after by the colonial powers, who subsequently quarreled with military and diplomatic means. In the period 1598-1710 it was occupied by the Dutch who gave it the name Mauritius. They were attracted to the island’s rich ebony forests. In 1721 it was recolonized by the French Bourbons, who named it Ile de France. During the conflicts between France and England over control of India, Mauritius took a crucial strategic role. In addition to trade with India, treaties were concluded with Madagascar and Mozambique in order to use the coasts of these countries for the expansion of sugar cane plantations.

During the French Revolution, Mauritius gained some form of autonomy, but in 1810 it fell into the hands of the English. When Napoleon was finally defeated in 1814, the Paris Treaty formally recognized it as a British colony. It was the British who introduced the cultivation of sugar cane, which until today has been the island’s most important resource.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Mauritius

According to Countryaah, the first decades of the 19th century were marked by a significant increase in sugar production, but in 1835 slavery was abolished, despite fierce opposition from local European sugar plantation owners. The slaves then made up 70% of the island’s population, and the release triggered a widespread labor shortage. The landowners tried to solve the labor problem from this point up to the beginning of the 20th century by introducing 450,000 Indian “contract workers”. Over time, this population group became an important sector of the country’s economic and social structure until today it constitutes the country’s population majority. Despite this, the local culture still has a number of French features.

At the beginning of the 20th century, workers began to strengthen their organizational forms. In 1936, the Indian-dominated trade union movement organized itself into the Labor Party, but its leadership was eradicated through murder, imprisonment or exile. It happened in the wake of a series of strikes and demonstrations that were turned down violently. In the same period, Doctor Seewoosagur Ramgoolam began his political career as leader of the Advance group, and, encouraged by the colony administration, in the late 1940s he succeeded in conquering the leadership of the Mauritius Workers’ Party (MLP).

During World War II, Britain did not have the capacity to guarantee the security of its colonial areas. It opened up stronger demands for autonomy while increasing US political and military influence. Politically, the people of Mauritius managed to force the British government to accept a Mauritanian representative in the British colonial government. In 1957, a new government structure was introduced introducing the Prime Minister’s post. The first general elections took place in 1959 and MLP’s electoral victory in 1961 made Seewoosagur Ramgoolan the country’s first prime minister.

From Mauritius, the British administered the islands of Rodrígues, Cargados-Carajos and the archipelago of Chagos. In 1965, Britain threatened Prime Minister Ramgoolan to accept Chagos and other islands to form the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT), and the United States installed a huge naval and air base on the coral island of Diego García. Diego García’s original population was secretly transferred to Mauritius in 1971, where it would settle in the capital of Port Louis. This sparked a scandal when it was discovered several years later by the United States Congress. Despite this, the island was not returned to Mauritius and its inhabitants were not allowed to return home.

Mauritania Business

Mauritania Business

According to abbreviationfinder, MR is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Mauritania.

Business

Mauritania is a poor country, where primary nutrition dominates. About 50 percent of the labor force is in agriculture and fishing. While agriculture has been hit hard by repeated drought, fishing has been of great economic importance. The development of mining and industry has been hampered by the lack of infrastructure, the lack of skilled labor and limited domestic demand. In most cases, state and semi-state companies, which have controlled the mining and industrial sectors, have been uneconomical and have suffered from a lack of skills and planning.

A program to revitalize and privatize business began in the 1980s, and several state monopolies have been dissolved. Liberalization, new mineral deposits and significant debt write-offs have made Mauritania a good economic growth during the 1990s. In addition to iron, which has long been the most important export commodity, gold, oil and copper are mined in the country.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Mauritania

Agriculture

Agriculture, which accounts for about 50 percent of employment, is undeveloped and focused on self-sufficiency. The arable land, located in the country’s southern parts along the Senegal River, comprises only 0.4 percent of the country’s area. Primarily, rice, millet, sorghum and, in the oases, dates. Nomadic livestock management, mainly with sheep and goats, is more important than arable farming and provides almost half of the rural population. Recurring drought with the resulting desertification has hit this nourishment hard.

As a result of the dry periods, yields vary greatly in agriculture and livestock management. Even in good years, Mauritania is not self-sufficient, and dependence on food aid is significant. Comprehensive programs to improve rural water supply have increased the proportion of rural people who have access to clean water from just over 30 percent in 1995 to just under half in 2008.

Natural Resources

Mauritania is relatively mineral rich, and exports of iron, oil, gold and copper account for a large proportion of GDP. The country is one of Africa’s largest exporters of iron ore, and its plaster deposits are among the largest in the world. In addition, there are deposits of gold, uranium and phosphate.

The waters off the coast of Mauritania are among the world’s richest fish and fish has long been the second most important export commodity. However, the largest revenue comes from the sale of fishing licenses to mainly EU countries. Failure to monitor the fishing waters has led to extensive poaching, with overfishing as a result. However, the government has taken measures against depletion, among other things by reducing the quotas in licenses to EU countries.

Foreign trade

According to Countryaah, Mauritania traditionally has a surplus in the trade balance. Since the extraction of oil, gold and copper started in the 00s, export earnings have increased further. The country’s low industrialization rate makes Mauritania highly import dependent. Imports, which come mainly from Belgium, the United Arab Emirates, USA, consist of consumer goods (especially food), chemical products, petroleum products, machinery and transport. Nearly half of exports go to China. Other important exporting countries are Switzerland and Spain. Smuggling to Senegal and Mali is extensive. Foreign debt is significant despite large depreciation, and Mauritania is heavily dependent on aid.

Tourism and gastronomy

Due to the troubled political situation, Mauritania has a small tourism industry. The country’s strangest sights are still difficult to access, although there is a gradual adjustment to tourism needs.

This applies to the millennial Islamic cities that have so lost the battle against desert sand: Ouadane and Chinguetti in the north, Dhar Tichitt and Oualata in the southeast are still vibrant cities with ancient mosques and beautifully painted residential buildings. Ruins from the same periods are being dug out of the sand. All are listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List.

In contrast to the sand, the area along the Senegal River and the oases in the north and east appear as intensely green. South of Nouadhibou is the Banc d’Arguin National Park, with sea birds, for example.

Modern hotels are found in the cities of Nouakchott and Nouadhibou.

For a long time most of the population was nomadic, which has resulted in a tradition of simple kitchens: grilled meat or pots with goat or mutton, perhaps mixed with rice or millet. Coconut as well as legumes are often used. In the south, millet porridge and bean pan are everyday food. Along the coast, fishing for bands provides different rock, shark, sea bass, sea bream and bonit a completely different diet. Grilled fish is common, as are pots seasoned with, for example, garlic, pepper, cayenne pepper and coconut.

Mali Business

Mali Business

According to abbreviationfinder, ML is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Mali.

Business

Mali’s southern parts, which are crossed by the Niger River, are the country’s most economically important. The economy is strongly agricultural-oriented, which is why developments in recent decades have been negatively affected by recurring dry periods, such as the Sahel drought 1968-74 and the dry period 1982-85. Per capita GDP fell by 0.5 percent per year from 1980 to 1985, while the late 1980s and early 1990s were characterized by strong fluctuations. Since 1995, GDP has grown steadily, with a record growth of 12.1 percent in 2001. The period 2005-10 was the average growth of 5 percent.

Since the beginning of the 1970s, the country has had a trade deficit. This has led to Mali being very indebted. In order to obtain loans from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, the country has been forced to undergo extensive restructuring programs aimed at reducing public spending and privatizing business. Due to debt amortization, the external debt has fallen sharply during the 00s. Mali has great labor migration to the Ivory Coast, among others.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Mali

Agriculture

The agricultural sector is still the most important, although its importance has decreased over the last few decades. About 80 percent of the country’s workforce is employed in agriculture, the majority in self-sustaining agriculture. The sector is dominated by small-scale, relatively simple agriculture with a low degree of mechanization. Agriculture’s contribution to the economy has been negatively impacted by recurring dry periods, low producer prices and immigration from the country to the cities.

The most important food crops are millet and sorghum, which are mainly produced for self-catering. Other important crops are maize and rice. The most important forage crops are cotton and peanuts. Livestock management is also an important element of the agricultural economy. However, the difficult dry periods have greatly reduced the stock of livestock. Fishing, mainly in the Niger River, plays an important role in self-management.

Natural resources and energy

Mali is Africa’s third largest gold producer since the beginning of the 1990s and gold accounts for 80 percent of the country’s total export earnings. Gold is mined in the western and southern parts of the country. Findings of varying quality of bauxite, copper, iron, nickel and manganese have been made but not yet utilized. Exploration also occurs after oil and tungsten. In smaller quantities, diamonds, uranium, marble at Bafoulabé, phosphate at Gao and limestone at Kayes are extracted. Based on a long tradition, about 5,000 tonnes of salt per year are also extracted from salt mines in the northern part of the country.

80 percent of the country’s electricity generation comes from hydropower, mainly from the Selingué Power Plant in the Sankarani River and the Manantaliverket in the Senegal River. Wood and charcoal are still the most important source of energy for many households.

Industry

Mali has a small-scale manufacturing industry, which is largely focused on the processing of agricultural products and the production of simpler consumer goods. Industrial production is concentrated in the metropolitan area. In the mid-1980s, state-owned companies accounted for more than 75 percent of total turnover in the industrial sector. Inefficiency and high debt have led the country, under pressure from the International Monetary Fund, to undertake extensive privatizations.

Foreign trade

According to Countryaah, Mali’s trade balance has traditionally shown a sharp deficit, but since gold exports took off from 2001, the country has for some years had a positive trade balance. The deficit is to some extent regulated in the balance of payments through aid funds, international loans and transfers from foreign-resident males. The most important export products are besides gold, cotton and live cattle. Imports are dominated by oil, machinery, food, industrial products, chemicals and transport. The most important trading partners are Senegal, Switzerland, China, the United Arab Republic, Burkina Faso and the Ivory Coast.

Tourism and gastronomy

Mali is considered by many to be the most interesting tourist country in West Africa. However, its great potential for tourism is underutilized; the country had about 159,000 visitors in 2015. Most visitors come from France, the United States, Spain or West African neighboring countries.

The capital Bamako is beautifully located at Niger and has a large, tempting market with traditional handicrafts in textiles, leather and wood as well as characteristic West African jewelry. There is also a museum worth seeing. Mali has sub-Saharan Africa’s strangest urban and mosque architecture. It can be studied in the millennial Timbuktu, with mosques from the 1300s and a well-preserved building in sun-dried brick.

The city is on the edge of the Sahara by an old caravan road some mile north of the Niger River; the west of today’s trans-Saharan leads reaches into Gao, with two thousand-year-old mosques, up to the river. In Niger’s inland delta lies Mopti, surrounded by water, with a large fish market and a fine selection of Malian crafts. Perhaps the greatest experience is Djenné on an island in the delta. Neither Djenné’s suggestive cityscape nor the living habits of residents and market visitors seem to have changed much since the city was founded in the 11th century. Both Timbuktu and Djenné are listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage list.

Millet, sorghum, rice, maize and peanuts form the basis of the diet. Chili peppers, garlic and black pepper are common spices, and they flavor the pots cooked by meat (goat, sheep or beef) or fish from the Niger River. Chicken and chicken soup in combination is a common dish, as are pots cooked with crushed goat cheese. Stuffed pigeon appears as a festive dish, as does camel meat with potatoes and fried thighs. Risotto with only vegetarian ingredients is not uncommon; it becomes more popular with lamb or fish. Fully fried fish with peanut sauce and chicken with roasted peanuts complement the image of a kitchen that, after all, is dominated by the starchy porridge of the cereals mentioned above. Despite Islam’s wide spread, there is no alcohol ban; on the contrary, a good local beer is produced.

Malawi Business

Malawi Business

According to Countryaah, Malawi is one of Africa’s least economically developed countries, with widespread poverty and major social and economic problems, due in part to a weak business structure with high import needs in most areas and the consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In 2010, the country was ranked 153 out of 169 countries on the UN index for “human development”. The London-based Legatum Prosperity Index placed Malawi in 118th place in the fall of 2014, down twelve places from the previous year. The index measures, among other things, economic growth, inflation, unemployment, degree of good governance, educational level and health services. According to the World Bank, Malawi’s gross national income was US $ 300 in 2016 – among the lowest in Africa, and just under 0.4 percent of Norway’s GNI that year.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, MW is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Malawi.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Malawi

The country is located on the African continent and has suffered from the colonial period from costly transport linked to its foreign trade. As a result, the established plantation operation does not have the same profitability and scale as in other settler colonies such as Kenya and Rhodesia. At the same time, Malawi has fertile soil and has at times been able to increase exports from agriculture, especially in the 1970s and partly in the 1980s when the country was portrayed as an economic success under the conservative regime of President Hastings Banda. The country’s economy is to a large extent based on rain-dependent and uniform agriculture, vulnerable to both climate fluctuations, loss of labor and price fluctuations on export products. The latter is particularly true of tobacco which alone accounts for over half of total export revenue.

The international financial crisis helped cut tobacco prices from 2010 to 2011, which has tightened the relationship between the country’s authorities and foreign purchasers, who in many cases have been expelled from Malawi after being accused of using the financial crisis as a pretext to offer unreasonably low prices prices of tobacco.

A key feature of Malawian agriculture has been the skewed distribution of land that originated from the colonial era – and furthermore an equally uneven social and economic development among the population. Lake Malawi provides the basis for extensive fishing and tourism. Malawi has several well-known mineral deposits, but few are suitable for commercial recovery. Few export goods contribute to a significant trade deficit that nearly doubled from 2009 to 2010. Significant agricultural performance since 2006 has halved inflation, which has stabilized around eight percent in recent years. The authorities’ main challenge is to strengthen the export volume, which accounts for only about 60 percent of imports, but this is no small task in a situation where the export potential is limited. Especially for the many people who gradually move to the cities, the situation becomes difficult when they cannot feed within the framework of an agricultural economy.

With the introduction of a multiparty system in the early 1990s, the economy has also been reformed – partly through a reduction in the state’s strong ownership and commitment to economic life; much of the economy was directly or indirectly controlled by former President Banda and his associates. Prior to this, in the 1980s, Malawi, following instructions from the World Bank, implemented a so-called structural adjustment program- after an economic crisis in the late 1970s. A new economic strategy was launched from 1999. Malawi has not been directly involved in the wars in the region and pledged links with the Portuguese colonial power in neighboring Mozambique rather than supporting the liberation movement. In the 1980s, the civil war in Mozambique threatened to close Malawi’s main transport route to the outside world, the Nacala railway. In the 1980s and 1990s, Malawi was repeatedly hit by severe drought, and again in 2005.

Malawi relies on foreign aid, which is mainly received through multilateral channels as well as bilaterally, mainly from the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Norway, Japan, Ireland and – increasingly – from China. Iceland and Finland also provide assistance to Malawi, while Denmark towards the end of the 1990s ended a significant and long-standing partnership with the country. Malawi was made the main partner country for Norwegian aid in 1996, and from that time Norway established an embassy in the capital Lilongwe. The concept of “main partner country” has been gradually phased out, and in the state budget for 2015 the term has been replaced by “focus country”. The government has included Malawi among the 12 countries made into so-called focus countries.

Since 2011, various countries’ assistance to Malawi has been significantly reduced as a result of extensive corruption and the misappropriation of public funds, commonly referred to as the “cashgate”. This development, together with the international recession and major devastation in Malawian agriculture as a result of flooding southeast of the country in the New Year 2015, has worsened living conditions for large population groups.

Based on the above, it has been important events for Malawi to enter into financial agreements with three key international organizations in 2015. In March this year, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) resumed its credit to Malawi – with $ 20 million. In May 2015, Malawi and the EU signed a € 560 million aid agreement, linked to the National Indicative Program (NIP), and lasting until 2020. Priority sectors for EU support are good governance, sustainable agriculture and higher education/vocational training. The EU contribution is funded by the member countries of the European Development Fund (EDF), which is earmarked for development cooperation with countries in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific.

The above support has been important, but did not prevent Malawi’s finance minister in September 2016 declaring the country’s financial situation as “catastrophic”. The backdrop that the government’s target for the country’s economic growth to increase from 3.1 percent in 2015 to 5.1 percent in 2016 seems to have failed. Growth for 2016 is hardly above three percent, and the situation becomes dramatic when inflation for the same year is likely to be in the order of 20 percent due to food shortages, increased prices for maize and the effects of El Nino. The authorities are seeking to mitigate the effects of the latter by importing more than one million tonnes of maize from Ukraine, but this in turn will weaken the country’s supply of foreign capital.

In the financially stressed situation, it was of great importance to Malawi that in May 2017, the World Bank, citing economic reforms in the country, announced that in the 2017/18 financial year, the bank will resume its budget support for the country. This type of support has been frozen for four years after extensive corruption was discovered in several ministries (Ref. Cashgate), and the World Bank and several donors, including Norway, have had significant negative consequences for health, agriculture and education. In the first instance, the World Bank’s budget support will be about NOK 680 million, and will mainly benefit agriculture, Malawi’s most important economic sector. The Malawi authorities are hopeful that the bank’s initiative will help the ordinary,

Agriculture, forestry, fishing

Malawi is, above all, an agricultural country and one of the few African countries that are normally self-sufficient in foodstuffs and which have at times had surpluses for exports – in addition to export goods such as tobacco and sugar. Malawi has good natural conditions for agriculture and forestry – as well as for fishing. About a quarter of the country’s land is cultivated or arable land, while about a fifth is used for grazing. About 80 percent of the arable land is divided into small farms, while only a small proportion are large farms (plantations), partly run by Europeans. About 40 percent of GDP is created in agriculture, which employs three out of four within the working population. Over four fifths of production comes from small users. While widespread drought in 2004-2005 contributed to GDP growth of more than two percent, political interventions together with subsidized fertilizers have in recent years contributed to a growth rate in the order of 6–8 percent.

The most important food crops are maize, millet, cassava and beans grown by traditional methods, often without fertilization.

In the highland plantations, especially tea, refined tobacco varieties and some coffee are grown, while other tobacco is mostly grown on small farms in the plains of the central and southern regions. Here cotton and peanuts (peanut) are also grown for sale. Sugarcane is grown, among other things, in the lower lying parts of the Shire valley.

Animal husbandry, especially goat, cattle, pig and sheep, is run in several parts of the country, and the country is self-sufficient with meat and milk. Nevertheless, from a nutritional point of view, there is a desire to increase the population’s consumption of milk. The country’s approximately 10,000 dairy cows (as of 2012), are not able to meet such a target, and increased aid from the US after the change of power in the country in the spring of 2012 was therefore earmarked for increased milk production. By far, the most important commercial product is tobacco, which accounts for about three-quarters of Malawi’s total export revenue. Sugar, tea and coffee are exported; in good years also corn – as well as some cassava, rice, cotton and sunflower seeds. The production of high quality peanuts is another export item, and the focus is on export-oriented production of fruits, vegetables and flowers. Malawi is also affected by drought for years, which not least reduces the crops of the most important corn crop, and the country then relies on food aid from outside.

As a counter to the country’s drought problems, floods and floods at times create major problems for the people of Malawi. Conditions became extreme in January 2015 when the authorities had to declare large parts of the southeastern parts of the country as disaster areas. About 170 people perished in the masses, and according to the UN, 350,000 residents had to leave their homelands and settle in tent camps that were established. The UN also determined that 1.2 million Malaysians were directly and indirectly affected by the agricultural collapse, of which 80 percent of the country’s population is dependent. At the end of 2015, the World Food Program (WFP) provided emergency relief, mainly in the form of food supplies, to nearly three million Malaysians.

In the fall of 2017, the World Bank Board approved a comprehensive aid program for the agricultural sector in Malawi. A total of $ 166 million will be invested in irrigation and other agricultural infrastructure through three phases until 2031. Particular emphasis will be placed on modernization and commercialization of small-scale farming in the potentially fertile Shire area south-east of the country. Besides increased crops, improved food security, improved economy and a more stable water supply, investments in wetland areas and physical infrastructure will promote tourism in the area.

Forestry has been developed from the 1970s, including eucalyptus plantations, but is of little commercial value – and goes largely to fuel, in the form of charcoal. Poor management and often poor security contribute to extensive illegal deforestation.

Fishing is of great nutritional importance and is also important for employment; an estimated 250,000 people are employed in the sector. About half of the large Malawi lake (formerly Nyasa Lake) is currently disposed of by Malawi, where most of the fishing takes place – essentially at the southern end. The Malawian authorities have long wanted to formalize ownership of the entire Lake Malawi, something Tanzania opposes. According to the government of Dar es Salam, half the lake belongs to Tanzania. After the conflict has been muted for a few years, the disagreement was sharpened in the New Year 2013 as the authorities in Malawi made a push to get their territorial claims legally legitimate once and for all. It was agreed that Mozambique’s former president Joaquim Chissano will mediate between the two countries. If this does not lead to agreement, the dispute shall be decided by international judgment. When the disagreement over the delegation of the Malawi lake has flared again, this is partly because the Malawi government in 2012 allowed the British company Surestream Petroleum to conduct an environmental-related feasibility study that could lead to oil and gas exploration in the sea.

In addition, there is considerable fishing in the Malombe and Chilwa lakes as well as in the Shire River. There are over 500 different species of fish in Lake Malawi, but catches both there and in other lakes have declined since the mid-1990s, largely due to overfishing and pollution. Poor years in agriculture increase the pressure on fishery resources as a food source. The commercially most important fish species is tilapia, a fish that resembles bream.

Mining, energy

Malawi, like other countries in central/southern Africa, has deposits of several minerals, but unlike in several neighboring countries, these are not commercially exploited, especially due to the size of the deposits and the location of Malawi, with expensive transport. Occurrences of more than 20 minerals of commercial value have been identified, including coal, bauxite, uranium, phosphates, graphite, vermiculite (clay minerals), gold and gemstones, and asbestos. Of known occurrences, is limestone for use in the production of cement most utilized. The potentially most valuable mineral deposits are the bauxite reserves in the Mulanje area south of the country, but the recovery suffers from, among other things, expensive transport, both domestically and for export.

The Australian mining company Paladin Energy has been involved in the extraction of uranium north in Malawi since 2006. The company transports uranium from open mines in Malawi to its main plant in Namibia, from which uranium is transported to Canada, the United States and buyers in Asia. Paladin Energy has become one of the largest employers in Malawi in the short term, but the company has been given good terms, and as a result, the tax and tax revenues for the Malawian state have fallen short of what many had hoped for. In addition, the uranium business is environmentally contentious. Many fear that uranium dust and runoff will have a negative impact on the valuable Malawi lake, and when northern Malawi in December 2009 was hit by an earthquake, mining was blamed by many for the incident that cost three people’s lives and caused great material damage to communities and the population.

After a period of low uranium prices and corresponding losses for Paladin Energy’s mine north of Malawi, production was replaced by repair work and maintenance in May 2015. The company’s management has announced that future uranium prices will decide if, and when, production will resume. At the same time, rumors have been rejected that the mine will be sold to Chinese interests.

The battle between the economy and the environment is also central when the Malawian authorities recently opened for oil and gas extraction in Lake Malawi, Africa’s third largest lake. Fisheries and ecotourism advocates, along with environmentalists and others, have long warned about the government’s plans for the sea, which are of great importance not only to nearby communities but to Malawi more generally. Both the government and the British oil company Surestream Petroleum, which have received the first licenses, emphasize that any exploration will be based on solid investigations of environmental consequences associated with oil and gas extraction.

The Malawian authorities announced in mid-December 2015 that oil and gas extraction will start in Lake Malawi “in a couple of months.” The sea has been divided into six blocks for oil and gas exploration and since 2011 the government has given blocks to four companies; the British Surestream Petroleum, Sac Oil from South Africa, Pacific Oil Ghana and RAK Gas, a state-owned Cayman Island registered company from the United Arab Emirates. The latter allocation (of two blocks) took place just before the 2014 presidential election, and significant donations from the company to projects under the leadership of then-President Banda have triggered scrutiny of possible corruption.

The growing involvement in Lake Malawi is disputed, but the Ministry of Energy has assured the UN and environmental activists protesting the development that great emphasis will be placed on Malawi’s obligations under international environmental conventions. At the same time, the above mentioned price drop on the country’s uranium deposits, along with Malawi’s urgent need for foreign investment and energy, has split domestic opinion. Many environmental activists have shown increasing understanding of the government’s plans for Lake Malawi.

Another infrastructural limitation for the exploitation of mineral deposits and industrial development is the lack of electrical power. Installed capacity was around 300 MW in the early 2000s, increased to 351 MW as of January 2016, mostly from hydropower, some thermal and some from diesel-powered aggregates, including the north of the country. 75 percent of the production comes from three power stations at the Shire River. Only about nine percent of the population in Malawi is connected to electrical power. Intention agreements have been signed with Mozambique on imports from the Cahora Bassa power plant in Zambezi, but poor political tone between Malawi and Mozambique has over the last couple of years stopped the implementation of energy plans that would benefit both countries greatly.

In the fall of 2016, China has expressed its willingness to assist Malawi in the energy sector as well, and so has the African Development Bank (AfDB). Profitability studies are underway in several Malawian rivers.

Another bright spot for business in Malawi is that in 2011, the country signed a cooperation agreement with a Brazilian company to improve and expand a fallow railway network east of the country. The aim is initially to transport coal from the Moatize mines in the Tete province of Mozambique through Malawi to the coastal town of Nacala in Mozambique. Of the more than 900 kilometers long train line, 136 kilometers pass through Malawi. The work on infrastructure was completed in 2014, and the plan was to approve the operating agreement for the company and start using the train line in early 2015 when other formalities would also be in place.

Transport by sea has also given Malawi problems. The country’s only inland port, at Nsanje in the Shire River, received a grand inauguration in October 2010, but is still not in use. The port is intended to give Malawi a long-awaited connection to the Indian Ocean, while at the same time the port is expected to contribute to increased trade and other economic relations between Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia. The Government of Malawi has relied on support from the SADC, AU, EU and World Bank for the project, which will reduce Malawi’s transport costs abroad by about 60 percent.

But the use of the port requires permission to pass through Mozambican territory, and the authorities of Mozambique, which boycotted the formal inauguration of the port in the fall of 2010, have demanded that an impact assessment be carried out before they may allow boat traffic on the route.

A German consulting company, in collaboration with Afrikabanken, has investigated the economic, environmental and other consequences of planned boat traffic to Nsanje. The passage from the Indian Ocean towards Nsanje was on a smaller scale in use in the 1970s, but was discontinued as a result of the civil war in Mozambique. The consultancy report available late 2015 concluded that excavation of the river as well as the establishment and operation of the necessary infrastructure for some time in the future will require more than USD 100 million annually. In parallel with the investigative work, the authorities in Mozambique have given many signals that they will prioritize the development of the port of Beira rather than spending large funds on the upgrading of the road to Nsanje. Part of their justification has been estimates that show that the river road towards Nsanje in just five of the twelve months of the year can be used for commercial operation.

Industry

Malawi has a small industrial sector, which accounted for around 10 percent of GDP in 2004, and is largely related to agriculture, with further processing of agricultural products such as tea and tobacco. Otherwise, there is some production of consumer goods for the domestic market such as cotton textiles, clothing, wood products, radios and food products. Blantyre and Lilongwe are the most important industrial centers. Many of the state-run industrial enterprises were privatized from the mid-1990s. A separate zone for export-oriented production was established in 1995, but Malawi has not succeeded in attracting investments of importance to the development of the industrial sector. This is partly due to a small domestic market and expensive transport for export.

Foreign Trade

The weak industrial scale, with an overweight on expensive exports of raw materials, together with underdeveloped tourism, contributes to Malawi’s annual large trade deficit vis-à-vis abroad. The country therefore relies on international assistance, above all from the UK and the EU, besides the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).. In recent years, Ireland and Germany have increased their assistance to Malawi, and after the Malawian authorities in 1997 broke off partner cooperation with Taiwan and allowed the People’s Republic to take Taiwan’s place, economic relations with China have greatly increased. China has completed road projects, (loaned) financed a new parliament building as well as a five-star hotel and a new football stadium in the capital. The formal inauguration of the latter took a tragic cut in 2017 when six people were trampled to death on the nation’s national day, July 6. China will finance the coming years, among other things. new airport and a power plant, and here as with the aforementioned projects, it is expected that the investor will mainly employ Chinese workers. Some of the projects are gift-funded, in other cases these are long-term loans and significant debt obligations for Malawi. China’s commitment to Malawi is part of the People’s huge commitment to the continent in recent years. According to the UN organization UNCTAD, in 2015 China became the fourth most important investor country in Africa, after the US, the UK and France, and the extensive investment in Malawi has highlighted the potential China sees in Africa.

In 1996, Malawi became the main partner country for Norwegian development aid, and Norway established an embassy in Lilongwe from the same year. Until the late 1990s, Denmark was an important partner for Malawi.

The most important export items are tobacco, which for many years has accounted for around 75 percent of export revenue, as well as tea and sugar. Findings of uranium north of the country are increasingly providing Malawi tax and export revenue. Imports include goods such as oil and fuel, transport equipment, pharmaceuticals, mineral fertilizers, machinery and finished goods. The EU is Malawi’s largest trading partner, with almost a quarter of exports going to countries within the European Community. At the same time, the EU, including bilateral agreements, is the largest donor of aid to Malawi. In 2013, the assistance amounted to 80 million euros. Expected aid from the EU and its member countries is € 800 million for the years 2014-2020. Other important trading partners are South Africa, China, the United States, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Transport and Communications

Malawi has a rail link with the port cities of Beira and Nacala in Mozambique. These handle most of the country’s foreign trade. In the period 1982–1989, both of these lanes were closed due to sabotage and acts of war in Mozambique. The domestic rail network of 790 kilometers links, among other things, Blantyre and the capital Lilongwe and extends to the border with Zambia in the west. The state railway company was privatized in 1999, with subsequent upgrading of equipment. The road network is relatively well developed, approximately 28,500 kilometers away, with connection to Harare in Zimbabwe and Lusaka in Zambia. A 480 kilometer long main road follows the west bank of Lake Malawi. There is Lilongwe International Airport and three domestic airports; the former international airport in Blantyre is also used for regional departures. The most important port city is Chipoka on Lake Malawi.

Madagascar Business

Madagascar Business

According to abbreviationfinder, MA is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Madagascar.

Business

Madagascar is classified by the World Bank as one of the world’s twelve poorest countries. Per capita GDP fell during the 1980s and 1990s, but in the period 2003–09, a slight upturn in the economy was noticeable. From Andy Rajoelina’s coup takeover of power in 2009 until he surrendered power to the popularly elected president-elect Rajaonarimampianina in 2014, the country was frozen out by the outside world and the economy deteriorated further. After 2014, the country’s economy has slowly recovered, mainly thanks to prospects for renewed financial support from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Madagascar

The economy is strongly oriented towards agriculture and forestry, but during the 00s, the country’s largest export income came from the textile industry.

The downturn in the economy during the late 1900s is due to natural disasters and the introduction of a planned economy. On several occasions during the 1990s, the government initiated structural adjustment programs, which included a significant liberalization of the economy, introduction of economic free trade zones and increased producer prices in agriculture.

and widespread corruption have meant that these have not yet produced a lasting effect. The country has also, on a number of occasions, received portions of its extensive foreign debt written off.

Agriculture

Since the mid-1970s, agricultural growth has not been able to keep pace with population growth. For export crops, quotation rules and low world market prices have posed problems, which has led to an investment in quality rather than an increase in yield. The most important food crop is rice, but even though rice constitutes about 70 percent of total agricultural production, large quantities must be imported. Other important food crops are cassava and bananas. The dominant export crops are coffee, vanilla and cloves; Also of importance are cotton, sugar, cocoa, peanuts, tobacco and sisal. Cyclones and large grasshopper swarms have hit agriculture hard in recent years. Only 10 percent of the arable land is cultivated. Large areas are used instead for livestock farming, but traditionally, animal husbandry is less focused on meat and milk production and more on owning many animals. An agreement to lease 1.3 million hectares of agricultural land to South Korean company Daewoo Logistics led to the fall of President Ravalomanana; his successor Raoelina terminated the agreement.

Forestry

Forestry and forest products are important for the local industry and for the country’s energy supply. However, a lack of control of felling and the absence of replanting programs has led to a sharp reduction in forest area. The illegal logging has increased since 2009.

Fishing

From a supply point of view, small-scale fishing has long been important. However, a more industrialized, export-oriented fishery has slowly developed and, above all, seafood is an important export commodity. License fishing of fishing fleets from Japan and Europe is significant. The total catch in 2009 amounted to approximately 145,000 tonnes

Mineral

Madagascar has large deposits of several minerals, but because these are often located in remote areas, the extraction has been expensive and difficult. The most important mineral from a commercial point of view is chromite and graphite, which are exported. The largest chrome deposit is found at Andriamena, but mining also occurs at Befandriana. Madagascar also has large sapphire deposits but due to illegal mining, extensive exports were halted in 2008. Other minerals found in the country are mica, gold, ilmenite (titanium iron), nickel, cobalt, coal and bauxite.

Energy

In order to reduce the cost of oil imports, Madagascar has invested in the expansion of water energy. In total, there are seven water energy plants in the country, which account for more than 2/3 of the electricity demand. The largest facility is at Andekaleka; it mainly supplies electricity to the capital Antananarivo and the mining facilities in Andriamena. Of Madagascar’s total energy needs, however, about 85 percent is covered by firewood and charcoal.

Industry

The industrial sector has little significance for the country’s economy. However, during the 1990s, the textile industry accounted for the country’s largest export revenue. Most industries are located in the highlands or in the area around the port city of Toamasina. The food industry accounts for about 50 percent of the industry’s production value. Other industries include the brewery, cement industry and soap manufacturing.

Foreign trade

According to Countryaah, Madagascar has for a long time had a chronic trade deficit. During the 1990s, the deficit averaged about 8 percent of GDP, in 2003 the figure was as low as 3.2 percent, but during the 1990s, the deficit increased sharply and has been at 20-30 percent in recent years. The most important export goods are coffee, vanilla, shrimp, sugar and textiles. In 2009, however, Madagascar was excluded from the AGOA agreement, which gives African countries the right to duty-free exports of certain goods to the United States. Imports are dominated by capital goods, oil, machinery and food. The most important trading partners are France, the USA and China.

Libya Business

Libya Business

According to abbreviationfinder, LY is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Libya.

Business

Before oil was discovered in the 1950s, Libya was a poor desert country with agriculture as its main industry. The oil changed Libya, and during the opening year of the 2000s, the country had among the highest GDP per capita in Africa. The civil war in 2011 hit the country hard, and Libya is in a complicated reconstruction process. Before the civil war, oil accounted for about 90 percent of the country’s income, a proportion that is likely to increase as large parts of the economic activity outside the oil sector has ceased as a result of the unrest in the country.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Libya

With al-Khadaffi’s Arab Socialist Revolution in 1969, planning economy and state ownership of production resources were introduced. By the mid-1980s, Libya was Africa’s second largest oil producer; oil accounted for 50 percent of GDP, but employed only 2 percent of the labor force. Oil revenues enabled broad development efforts, but foreign sanctions and fluctuating world market prices slowed the widening of the economic base during the 1980s. However, since the late 1980s, small-scale private business has again been allowed. In the early 1990s, the economy was further opened to private interests, and the government said it wanted to encourage tourism and foreign investment. This was made impossible in 1992 when UN sanctions against the country were tightened. Although the sanctions were eased in 1999 to be completely repealed in 2003, the country failed to attract foreign investment to the extent hoped for. In the early 2000s, Libya benefited from rising oil prices, but the civil war in 2011 and subsequent political chaos as well as falling world market prices for oil have significantly weakened its economy.

Agriculture

According to countryaah, the government of Libya still attaches great importance to agriculture. The goal is to achieve national self-sufficiency in food. Although 1/5 of public investment has gone to the agricultural sector since 1970, this target seems unreachable, and food imports, especially cereals, are significant. About 95 percent of the country’s area is desert and only 1 percent is cultivated. The rest consists of pastures. Precipitation dependent agriculture is possible only in a narrow coastal strip in the north; however, the precipitation amounts vary widely.

The most important crops in agriculture are olives, dates, almonds, fruits and vegetables. Major efforts have been made to expand oasis farming and increase irrigation. Over-use of groundwater in coastal areas has led to rapidly decreasing groundwater levels and saltwater infiltration from the Mediterranean. In 1983–2007, the state built a 2,800 km long network of pipelines to distribute groundwater from the Sahara to other parts of the country. The project was damaged during the civil war.

Mineral

Libya is relatively low in minerals, but in addition to oil and natural gas, sulfur, salt, lime, plaster and iron are extracted. The first major oil discovery was made in 1957, and within ten years Libya had become the world’s fourth largest oil exporter. The proximity to the European market and the high quality (low sulfur content) of the oil contributed strongly to the rapid expansion of the oil industry.

Since 1970, Libya has been applying a voluntary restriction on production so as not to drain resources. The most important production areas are southeast of the Gulf of Syrten and at sea, where the Buri field, 120 km northwest of Tripoli (Tarabulus al-Gharb), is the Mediterranean’s largest offshore facility. A network of pipelines leads the oil to ports and refineries in as-Sidr, Ras Lanuf, Marsa al-Burayqa and az-Zuwaytina on the Gulf of Syrten, and to Tobruk in the northeast. Libya also has large deposits of natural gas.

Industry

Libya’s industry is poorly developed, but development has long been a top priority. Traditionally, operations are mainly based on the processing of agricultural products, but in recent years the petrochemical and building materials (cement) industries have increased in importance. In 2017, the industry contributed 52 percent of GDP (most of it from the oil industry) and employed about 30 percent of the country’s workforce. The civil war and the ensuing turmoil in the country have posed major problems for Libya’s industry, among other things, the large state steel mill in Misrata has had to stop production during periods.

Foreign trade

Since 1961, when oil exports began, Libya has had a significant trade surplus. In 2010, oil accounted for 98 percent of the export value. Imports mainly comprise industrial products, machinery, transport and food, but in recent years the import of wood products and building materials has increased greatly. In 2017, the main exporting countries were Italy, Spain and France and the main importing countries were China, Turkey and Italy.

In 1981, the United States received 27 percent of Libya’s exports, but a trade embargo in 1982 put a stop to US imports of Libyan oil. Libya’s foreign trade has been further cropped when UN sanctions came into force in 1992, as a result of the US, Britain and France accusing Libya of supporting international terrorism. The sanctions were eased in 1999 and lifted in 2003.

Libya’s contemporary history

Libya’s recent history can be divided into two phases: the period under Muammar al-Gaddafi as head of state, and the period after the regime change following the Libya war in 2011. Gaddafi seized power in a military coup in 1969, ruling Libya until 2011, when he was killed during a multinational military action, which followed an uprising during the Arab Spring. The Gaddafi period was characterized by internal political stability, but changing international relations. The time after 2011 has been marked by a state formation in disarray, with rival governments – backed by various foreign states.

While Gaddafi’s Libya was united as one state to a greater extent than ever in its history, political and regional contradictions have subsequently brought the country into a state of civil war, with a power struggle especially between groups in Tripoli in the west and Benghazi in the east, which partly reflects the historical divide between Tripolitania and Kyrenaika.

The regime change led militant Islamists, including the Islamic State (IS), to establish a foothold in Libya. When IS was defeated in Syria and Iraq in 2016–2018, Libya remained a strong base area. While Gaddafi became an advocate for African unity, the development in Libya after the regime change has contributed to destabilization in northern Africa and the Sahel region. During Gaddafi many Africans got work in Libya. The state dissolution has resulted in the country being used by human traffickers in traffic with illegal migrants to Europe.

Liberia Business

Liberia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, LR is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Liberia.

In 1996, the Civil War broke out again with fierce fighting – especially in Monrovia. In September, Ruth Perry assumed the post of Head of State, supported by ECOMOG. The war then affected the country’s basic supplies, and in August the main leaders agreed to a new ceasefire. At the same time, ECOMOG sent several troops to ensure the fulfillment of the agreements signed in 1995.

In November 1996, peacekeepers began disarming the rival factions. According to countryaah, the war had then cost 200,000 dead and hundreds of thousands of refugees.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Liberia

The July 1997 presidential and parliamentary elections were won by Charles Taylor with 75.3% of the vote. A month later, he took over the presidential post. His National Patriotic Front had 21 of the 26 seats in the Senate and 49 of the 64 seats in the House of Representatives.

The President implemented a human rights defense law and appointed a commission to monitor the situation in this area. Still, Amnesty International demanded the establishment of an independent court to investigate the human rights violations that had occurred during the civil war.

In March 1998, the 480,000 Liberian refugees residing in other African countries began registering to voluntarily return home. Nevertheless, the plan ran a serious risk of not being implemented due to lack of donations from donor organizations. The aid also had to reach 220,000 internal refugees in the country.

In June 1999, President Taylor asked Britain to detain the shipments of weapons to Sierra Leone, arguing that the weapons were a threat to peace in West Africa. In return, Sierra Leone denounced that Liberian mercenaries worked for the Leononian rebels. Taylor declared that his country did not support the mercenaries and if taken, they were arrested. At the same time, he denied that his government sent weapons to the rebels in Sierra Leone, although he admitted that their leader, Foday Sankoh, was an old personal friend.

The relationship between the government, the opposition and the media became increasingly tense as a result of the closure of 2 radio stations in March 2000. After closing Veritas station, the government ordered it reopened in March, but at the same time it demanded Star Radio shut down to broadcast statements from North American diplomats and other countries that criticized Taylor’s tenure. 11 opposition parties demanded that the government lift the ban. At the same time, the Liberal Press Association raised a boycott of news of the government’s activities, which had been announced shortly before in response to the “illegal and arbitrary” closure of the 2 radio stations. The association explained the canceled boycott that it aimed to promote “the search for a friendly solution to the tense relationship between the independent media and the government”.

According to reports by Amnesty International, in 2001 many human rights violations took place in Liberia. In March, 40 students demonstrating peacefully against the government on the university campus were thus arrested, tortured and raped by security forces. Many students were forced to go into voluntary exile abroad.

The conflict between the government and the rebellion movement LURD (Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy) led to the displacement of about 30,000 Liberians into inter-refugee camps. The movement was accused by President Taylot of being supported by Guinea and of seeking to take control of the northern part of the country.

Acc. reports from UNHCR, UNHCR and Save the Children have been subjected to sexual abuse by 67 staff from over 40 humanitarian organizations – including UN organizations and both national and international organizations – as well as officials from the refugee camps in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. the governments of the three countries.

At the beginning of 2002, the conflict between the government and the LURD spiked, and as the movement in February began to advance toward the capital, Taylor declared the country in an emergency and intensified human rights violations.

In March 2003, LURD stood just 10 km from Monrovia and demanded that Taylor resign. On June 4, a Sierra Leona court accused Taylor of crimes against humanity and issued an international arrest warrant. The insurgency movement then controlled 2/3 of the country and the number of civilians killed could be counted in hundreds, but Taylor still refused to resign. In July, Nigeria’s President, Olusegun Obansajo offered that Taylor be granted asylum in his country and would not be extradited to Sierra Leone.

Lesotho Business

Lesotho Business

According to abbreviationfinder, LS is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Lesotho.

Business

Lesotho is one of the world’s least developed countries. Although only about 10 percent of the country’s area is suitable for permanent agriculture, the majority of the labor force is employed in this industry. The main food crops are maize, sorghum, wheat, potatoes and beans. Tobacco is the most important export commodity from agriculture. Livestock management also plays an important role and exports of wool and mohair.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Lesotho

The most important industries are diamond mining and the textile industry, but the latter was hit hard by the financial crisis of 2008–09 and has had difficulty coping with competition from Asia. Tourism has become increasingly important from the income and employment point of view and, after transfers from migrant workers, is the second largest source of so-called invisible income. The country’s most important natural resource is water, and projects for hydropower development are underway. Lesotho already produces more electricity than the country disposes of (only a small proportion of households have access to electricity) and electricity is exported to South Africa. In 1988, an agreement was signed with South Africa (Highland Water Scheme), which means that water from rivers in Lesotho is diverted to South Africa.

Foreign trade

According to countryaah, Lesotho has a large deficit in its trade balance. Transfers, mainly from Lesothians in South Africa, have long outweighed the deficit, but since the mid-1990s, South African mines have reduced the workforce and many Lesothians have been forced to return. Imports are dominated by food and live cattle, machinery and transport equipment and petroleum products. Exports are dominated by textile and leather products, water, water energy and diamonds. Dominant trading partners are South Africa and the United States. Membership in the Customs Union SACU (Southern African Customs Union) contributes greatly to the country’s income.

Kenya Business

Kenya Business

According to Countryaah, Kenya is on the east coast of Africa, near the equator. The country’s recent history illustrates how the colonial system has led to an underdeveloped and distorted economy. Production and class relationships have been created that maintain social inequality and economic dependency – even without any formal colonial rule. From a conservative point of view, a “Kenyan wonder” was previously spoken of. The country’s rapid growth in GDP and political stability in the first decade after independence has been highlighted. Until the mid-1990s, Kenya was one of Denmark’s most important recipients of foreign aid.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, KE is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Kenya.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Kenya

History

Pre-colonial Kenya was characterized by small and self-sufficient communities in the interior of the country, while from the beginning of our era the coastal area was drawn into trade with the Arab world and with India. When the Portuguese started their looting around the year 1500, they came across large trading cities under Arab influence – such as the Mombasa. The interior of the country, which was predominantly populated by bantu, had not developed a culture of similar altitude as on the coast and also not organized states. It was not until the 19th century that the Masai people succeeded to establish any form of hegemony over the other peoples, but a few decades later this development was halted after the outbreak of bovine plague. In the 19th century, trade in slaves and ivory from the interior of the country became a lucrative business, not least for the Arab aristocracy of Zanzibar. Formally, Kenya was colonized by Britain in 1895, following an intermezzo with a private colony company. The colonization was a consequence of the Berlin Conference and the subsequent German-British agreement that set the boundaries of the spheres of interest of the two colonial powers. With this agreement, Zanzíbar, Kenya and Uganda were recognized as British.

When the railway to Lake Victoria was completed in 1902, it was decided that European “settlers” should move in – not least after inspiration from Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) and South Africa. While most of Kenya consists of areas with poor soil and insufficient rainfall, fertile upland areas also exist. This land was occupied by European immigrants. Locals were driven into reserves and estates, plantations and ranches were set up. This was especially true of the Kikuyu and Masai people. The authorities saw it as their most important task to secure the supply of African labor and to ensure the profitability of European export agriculture. Through land occupations, forced laws, taxes, pricing policies and a ban on African production of e.g. coffee, the local people’s farming became more difficult. The infrastructure – the facilities for transport, transport, supply of electricity, water and the like – were developed unilaterally in favor of European export agriculture,

The mode of capitalist production was forced on the outside of Kenya through a state-controlled economy, which was defended by the military and police apparatus of the colonial authorities and the European people’s monopoly on political power. Regulatory and coercive measures also required a comprehensive administration at the local level. After 1963, this special form of colonial structure was taken over and adapted to the interests of the African upper class, which, from its position in the political-administrative apparatus, has often acquired large land holdings.

Compared to many other African states, there was also a basis for some industrialization, while foreign banks and trading companies gained a powerful position in the export and import-oriented economy. Kenya was also attractive to foreign companies because it was a hub for the surrounding East African territories. As foreign trade, finance and industrial capital gained a foothold after World War II, the settlers political power weakened. Their local anchoring came into conflict to some extent with the UK and foreign companies’ long-term strategy – much like in Zimbabwe ten years later. Within the white power bloc in Kenya, there were groups that started work early on a “decolonization” that could ensure continued foreign domination. The rebellion in the 1950s sparked this development.

Ivory Coast Business

Ivory Coast Business

According to abbreviationfinder, IV is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Ivory Coast.

Business

During the first 20 years of independence, the Ivory Coast had a very high rate of growth in the economy. In real terms, GDP increased by 11 percent in the years 1960-70 and by 6.7 percent in the years 1970-80. The country’s economy was heavily dependent on coffee, cocoa and timber exports, and therefore also very sensitive to price fluctuations in the world market. Falling world market prices in the early and late 1980s as well as the late 1990s had major negative consequences for the country’s economy.

In order to reduce the unilateral dependence on few export products, in 1991 an economic structural adjustment program was introduced and in 1994 a 50 percent devaluation. This, together with the privatization and deregulation of the banking system, had positive effects on the economy, but the political unrest and the civil war in the early 00s again led to a deterioration of the country’s economy. Some recovery of the economy occurred during the late 00s, but the country still suffers from political unrest and is considered to be severely affected by corruption.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Ivory Coast

Agriculture

According to countryaah, the agricultural sector is the Ivory Coast’s most important economic sector. The most important export products are cocoa, coffee, oil palm products and natural rubber. Ivory Coast is also a major producer of cotton, but unrest in the northern parts of the country has created major problems for growers. Cultivation of cocoa and coffee takes place mainly in the southern and southeastern parts. Ivory Coast has been since 1977/78, when it passed Ghana, the world’s largest producer of cocoa.

Since the 1960s, the production of oil palm products has been extensive, and the aim is to become world-leading in this regard as well. Increased domestic demand, conditional on population growth, led to investments in food production in the 1970s and 1980s. As for the most important food crops maize, cassava and jams, Ivory Coast is self-sufficient. Large investments have been made to increase rice and sugar production.

Forestry

Forestry used to be an important source of export income, but its importance has diminished in recent years. The decrease is mainly due to excessive sutures and deficiencies in the replanting programs. Increased domestic demand has also led to reduced export volumes. However, hardwood is still being exported.

Fishing

Abidjan is Africa’s largest fishing port in terms of catches of tuna. Fish is an important part of the population’s protein intake, but the importance of fish for the country’s economy has decreased. In 2007, the catch volume was 33,000 tonnes, which is one third of what it was in 1990. Most of the catch is landed by foreign ships.

Mineral

The country is rich in gold, diamonds, iron ore, copper, bauxite and nickel, but the utilization rate is low. Only the gold deposits mined by a French mining company in the western parts of the country, and diamonds mined in the northern parts of the country, are used to a greater extent. Of these, diamond production has the greatest impact on the country’s economy, but due to extensive smuggling via neighboring countries Ghana and Mali, the size of production is difficult to assess. There are also plans to exploit the iron ore and nickel deposits.

Energy

Ivory Coast’s energy needs are covered by 65-70 percent of wood burning, oil accounts for about 25 percent and electricity accounts for 5 percent. The country had a fairly large expansion of water genin during the 1980s, but several dry periods caused the development to stop.

In 1977 and 1980 oil discoveries were made off the Ivory Coast, south of Grand Bassam. During the 1980s, small amounts of oil were produced, but production ceased after a few years, mainly because the oil was difficult to recover. Renewed exploitation in 1994 led to new discoveries, and since then production has resumed. Oil and natural gas production has risen sharply since the beginning of the 1990s, and the country is now self-sufficient in oil and natural gas. Ivory Coast also has smaller exports to some neighboring countries.

Industry

To compensate for imports from especially Senegal, the Ivory Coast has since the country became independent in 1960 has had a very dynamic industrial sector.

In the main, the industrial sector consists of the process industry for agricultural products, e.g. for palm oil manufacturing and textile industry. During periods of political turmoil, parts of the industry have been hit hard and many textile factories have been closed due to commodity shortages. The Ivory Coast also has a large oil refinery in Abidjan. The refinery has the capacity both to meet domestic demand and to supply neighboring countries.

Foreign trade

The Ivory Coast has always had a positive trade balance during peacetime. However, falling and fluctuating prices for the most important export crops have, during periods, decreased surplus. Exports are dominated by agricultural products and timber. Imports are dominated by crude oil and refined petroleum products. The most important trading partner is France. Other important trading partners on the import side are Nigeria and China. The main exporting countries are the Netherlands, the United States and France.

Guinea-Bissau Business

Guinea-Bissau Business

According to countryaah, Guinea-Bissau was the first Portuguese colony in Africa to gain independence – even before the António Salazar dictatorship was overthrown. It was the result of the political and military struggle of the PAIGC (Partido Africano da Independencia da Guinée Cabo Verde, African Party of Guinée Cabo Verde Independence). The party was founded by Amílcar Cabral.

After belonging to the empires of Mali and Songhai (see Guinea), the inhabitants of the Geba river valley gained independence, endangered from the late 15th century by the Portuguese in the coastal area and in the 16th century by the Fulanians in Coli Tenguela. In the interior of the country, the Kingdom of Gabú managed to maintain its independence until the 19th century (see Senegal), while the coastal population was subjected to slave trade and abduction to the Cape Verde Islands.

  • According to abbreviationfinder, PU is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Guinea-Bissau.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Guinea-Bissau

Resistance to colonization began as early as the 16th century, when the Portuguese settled in Guinea (“the land of the blacks”), which until then had been inhabited by the Oriundos of the Kingdom of Mali, as well as the groups of fula and mandinga organized in kingdoms in the savannah area. In the 17th century, the first contacts were made between the people of Guinea and the people of Cape Verde, a mandatory intermediate station for slave ships to Brazil.

In the small poor country, agriculture and trade lay in the hands of a private monopoly – Unión Fabril. The indigenous population was forced to work in export production, while the acreage for basic agricultural products was reduced. In the 1950s, child mortality reached as many as 600 deaths out of 1000 births. The country only had 11 doctors and only 1% of the rural population was literate. In the 1960s, only 11% of the population received 7 years of schooling.

It was in these circumstances that Amílcar Cabral in 1954 formed the Association for Sport and Recreation, which two years later was transformed into PAIGC. Cabral urged the people of Guinea and Cape Verde to resist the colonial power – with independence regardless of skin color, race and religion. After three years of unsuccessful attempts to negotiate with the Portuguese, PAIGC began guerrilla war in September 1959. The fighting spread rapidly, and in 1968 the Portuguese controlled only the capital Bissau and the coastal area. The areas PAIGC had liberated elected a National People’s Assembly, and on September 24, 1973 proclaimed the establishment of the Democratic, Anti-imperialist and Anti-colonial Republic of Guinea. It was immediately recognized by the UN.

By February 1973, Cabral had been assassinated by agents of the secret Portuguese police in Conakry, the capital of the Republic of Guinea. He left behind an extensive production of books and studies on the liberation struggle of the African people. He was followed by the leadership of Luiz Cabral, who inserted a government council in the small village of Madina do Boé in the heart of the liberated area.

Guinea-Bissau’s unilateral declaration of independence and the rapid recognition of the UN had dire consequences for the Portuguese colonial structure. The commander-in-chief of the 55,000 soldiers of the colonial forces in Africa, General Antonio Spinola, presented the need for political change in Lisbon. In Bissau arose the Captain Movement, the predecessor of the Armed Forces Movement responsible for the implementation of the coup in Portugal on April 25, 1974. Four months later, Portugal recognized Guinea-Bissau’s independence.

The PAIGC government developed and diversified agriculture, placing the emphasis on the birth of the population. Foreign trade was nationalized, land reform was implemented and a popular literacy campaign was initiated. Foreign policy declared the country alliance freedom, end of colonialism in Africa and unconditional support in the fight against apartheid. Furthermore, emphasis was placed on economic integration with the Cape Verde Islands – with the merging of the two states as a perspective.

Guinea Business

Guinea Business

According to abbreviationfinder, GV is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Guinea.

Business

Despite large mineral deposits and high agricultural potential, economic development since independence in 1958 has been negative, and Guinea is today one of the world’s 25 poorest countries. As a result of the build-up of the mineral sector in the 1970s, GDP increased by 3 percent per year in 1970-80. However, in the years 1980–85 GDP fell by 1.4 percent per year, which among other things is considered to be due to strong state control of the economy. During the 1970s and 1980s, a large informal sector developed in response to state control of the formal economy. In 1984, several reforms were introduced, such as increased privatization, liberalized foreign trade and the removal of price controls. This led to an increase in GDP growth of an average of 4 percent per year 1988–95 and an increase in GDP per capita.

The positive trend continued in the 1990s with annual growth of about 5 percent, but during the 1990s the growth rate dropped and the 2008 coup d’état turned out to have very negative financial consequences. Comprehensive corruption and substandard infrastructure are other problems facing the country.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Guinea

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

Despite the rapid development of the mineral sector, agriculture is still the most important economic sector. Growth during the 1970s and 1980s was low due to low producer prices and strong state control, which has led to extensive smuggling. During the 1980s, approximately 25 percent of the food requirement was imported. Changing ownership conditions and improved infrastructure led to strong growth in agriculture during the early 1990s, but the country still has to import food.

The most important food crops are rice, cassava, sweet potato and corn. The most important forage crops are bananas, pineapple, oil palm products, peanuts and coffee. Livestock management also plays an important role, but also contributes to deforestation and, ultimately, to soil erosion. Previously, 2/3 of the country’s surface area was forest covered, but felling and burning have been extensive and the corresponding figure is now around 25 percent. However, Guinea still has great potential for forestry. The total withdrawal is estimated to be about 12.5 million m 3 per year, the majority of which is used as firewood. Fishing is relatively underdeveloped, but is considered to have great development potential. Every year, 86,000 tonnes are caught, mostly by foreign vessels, mainly from EU countries that bought fishing licenses from Guinea.

Mineral

Mining is one of Guinea’s most important economic sectors. Guinea holds 30 percent of the world’s best-known bauxite deposits and is one of the world’s largest producers. Bauxite accounts for more than half of export revenue. Bauxite production increased in 1972-80 from 2.6 million tonnes to 13.9 million tonnes. After a decline due to reduced aluminum demand in the early 1980s, production increased again and in 2010 amounted to just over 17 million tonnes per year. Bauxite mining began in Fria (present Friguia) in 1930, and aluminum production began in 1960 (in 2010, 597,000 tonnes of aluminum were produced). The largest bauxite mines today are found in Boké in northwestern Guinea. The largest, yet unused deposits are found at Debélé and Tougué.

Diamond production increased in the late 1960s, and 80,000 carats were produced in the early 1970s. However, illegal production and smuggling meant that diamond mining was halted in the late 1970s. Production was resumed in the mid-1980s, and in 2010, 374,000 carats were produced. Gold deposits, which are only partially exploited, can be found at Siguiri in Guinea’s northeast. Large iron deposits have been discovered but have not yet begun to be exploited. In the country there are also unexploited deposits of lead, cobalt, copper, chromium, manganese, nickel, platinum and uranium.

Energy

Guinea lacks known fossil fuel deposits. However, they are looking for oil on the continental shelf. Water energy accounts for most of the total energy production and the potential for water energy expansion is great. About two-thirds of the electricity is consumed by the aluminum smelter in Friguia, while households largely cover their energy needs through wood burning.

Industry

Guinea’s industry is underdeveloped and is primarily focused on importation. The shortage of foreign currency, commodities, skilled labor and technology as well as low domestic demand have also led to low capacity utilization. However, employment in the industrial and service sectors increased from 12 to 30 percent of the economically active 1965-2010. Among other things, there are textile and cement factories as well as the building and food industries.

Foreign trade

According to Countryaah, Guinea’s trading situation has improved since the bauxite extraction started in the early 1970s, and since the second half of the 1990s, the trade balance has usually shown a smaller surplus. Bauxite (aluminum) accounts for more than half of the export value; other export products include gold, coffee and diamonds. Imports are dominated by semi-finished products, capital goods, oil and petroleum products, food and consumer goods. The Netherlands, Ghana and China are important trading partners.

Ghana Business

Ghana Business

According to abbreviationfinder, GH is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Ghana.

1966 Cup against Nkrumah

In 1966, a group of officers did military coup, citing Ghana’s financial problems. Nkrumah, who was on a state visit to China, was deprived of power. He traveled to Guinea and lived in exile there until his death in 1972. Above all, four strong groups were behind the opposition to the Nkrumah regime. First, it was the army, and then the African bourgeoisie, who did not think it was given enough positions as senior officials and who opposed the restrictions imposed by the Nkrumah regime on economic activity. Third, the cocoa goods owners opposed the regime because the CPP supported the small farmers. Finally, Nkrumah came to stand in opposition to the old rulers – the traditional chiefs. The army took advantage of the dissatisfaction. In 1969 elections were held and the army handed over the regime to Kofi Busia, who became the head of a civilian government.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Ghana

Busia came from the opposition to Nkrumah, and his politics were disastrous in the economic sphere. On the one hand, he tried to make friends with the international big capital, and on the other he tried to play on nationalist strings. During his regime, the large multinational corporations withdrew huge funds from Ghana, and despite the high cocoa prices, Ghana’s foreign exchange reserves fell constantly. According to Countryaah, the busier regime also expelled almost all other Africans from the country. Between half and a million people were forced to leave the country. He played on the ethnic contradictions in the country, interfering with democratic rights. A new coup had to come. It came in 1972 and was led by Colonel Ignatius Acheampong, who later became head of state in the country. Acheampong abandoned the last vestiges of the industrialization and development plans left behind by N’Krumah. They were replaced by an agricultural policy that was largely beneficial to the large cocoa farmers. Acheampong managed to survive eight coup attempts, but he had no luck in the economic field. In 1977, inflation in the country was 36%, a huge foreign debt, a devalued currency and hundreds of intellectuals and students sent to prison for their protests against government policy.

1979 Jerry Rawlings commits his first coup

In July 77, the so-called “interlayer rebellion” broke out. It triggered a series of social contractions, which in July 78 ended up forcing Acheampong to retire. He was succeeded by General William Frederick Akuffo, who the opposition claimed merely continued Acheampong’s policy. However, the regime was short-lived. On June 4, 79, Akuffo was overthrown in a coup d’etat led by Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings. He printed elections won by the People’s National Party (PNP), consisting of N’Krumah supporters. The deployment of a transitional government and the return to parliamentary democracy was promised.

On October 1, 79, PNP leader Hilla Limann was appointed president, supported by the Revolutionary Forces Revolutionary Council. The new president quickly abandoned N’Krumah’s political line and decided instead to follow the economic guidelines of the IMF in an attempt to overcome the economic crisis. In order to win the confidence of foreign investors and to offset the fall in revenues on cocoa exports, the government imposed drastic restrictions on imports – including food – but without limiting real workers’ wages. The consequence was a wave of strikes which continued into 80 and 81.

Rawlings continued to enjoy great prestige among the poorest in the community. He began to criticize government policy and its alliances with foreign capital. Inflation rounded 140%, unemployment 25%, which contributed to the unstable situation that culminated on 1 January 82, when Rawlings again took power in a coup. The first task of the officers was the implementation of a campaign against the corruption in the public administration. They promised to implement nothing less than “a revolution for social justice in the country”. Within a few months, they managed to increase tax revenue and drastically reduce the smuggling of cocoa to neighboring countries – known by the term calabule. People’s tribunals were set up to prosecute the irregularities of the former government.

Gambia Business

Gambia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, GA is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Gambia. Even Gambia, like almost all the ‘young’ African countries, has planned its economic development, despite the presence of modest resources and a production structure burdened by the weight of monoculture: the peanut (which has registered a contraction from mid 1990s) alongside subsistence food crops (rice, millet, cassava). The only industries are basically the processing plants linked to the primary sector. In 2008, all primary activities employed almost 4/5 of the workforce but contributed to forming 33% of GDP. Projects for the diffusion of irrigated rice cultivation in the middle valley of the Gambia, started since the 1970s with the technical and financial assistance of foreign countries and international organizations, have resulted in failures, as incompatible with the customs of Gambian rural society. Rice, other commodities and live animals represent about 1/3 of the value of imports. The country is totally dependent on overseas for energy supplies. The service sector has seen a strong expansion due to the development of tourism activities. Before the political changes of 1994, which had a negative impact on the number of visitors, more than 100,000 Europeans per year spent holidays, between November and April, on the beaches of Banjul and its surroundings; visitors have returned above 90,000 since 1998.

The main axis of internal communications is the Gambia (crossed by regular shipping lines), since the roads passable throughout the year (including, that is, the rainy season) have a relatively modest development (about 3742 km, of which 711 km asphalted) and the railways are completely missing. Foreign relations are ensured, on the other hand, from the port of Banjul and from Yundum airport, 33 km from the capital itself.

Business

Gambia’s national economy is also very weak in an African perspective. With few exceptions, the country’s trade balance has shown deficits since the mid-1970s. Since the 1994 coup, the regime has invested in a market-oriented policy with the support of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. Due to the lack of human rights, for example, the United States has chosen to stop the aid money.

Previously, the country’s GDP fluctuated sharply, mainly due to recurring dry periods, but during the 1990s, some stabilization occurred; since 2007, annual growth has been above 5 percent. The main focus of the economy lies on agriculture. Other important elements of the country’s business are tourism and trade, the latter with a large element of re-export to other West African countries, which has, however, declined in recent years.

Agriculture is dominated by peanut cultivation for export, but the yield has varied due to drought and insect infestation. The main supply crop is rice, but Gambia has problems getting domestic cultivated rice on the market, which is why it has been forced to import.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Gambia

Tourism and gastronomy

According to Countryaah, tourism is of great importance to the Gambia economy; In 2013, the number of tourists was approximately 170,000. Swedish stakeholders played an important role in the first build-up phase of Gambia’s tourism and after Britain, Scandinavia still stands for most tourists.

Many touristy Swedes know the Gambia through a Swedish hotel establishment on Cape Saint Mary, a cape in the Atlantic not far west of Banjul. The hotel district there benefits from fine beaches and comfortable bathing water (very flowing). Nearby is a nice small nature reserve (Abuko) with interesting birds, for example several species of kingfisher and heron and shadow bird. The museum, the Anglican cathedral and the block surrounding the presidential palace in Banjul are reminiscent of the British colonial era, however, much of the capital is in decline. A boat trip up the river offers interesting scenery and some historical monuments. The Gambia is also interesting as a starting point for excursions to Senegal.

The population mainly feeds on rice, manioc, sweet potato, peanuts and peanut oil. The cultivated crops are the basis for pots and soups, often enriched with fresh or dried fish. Soup on rice and fish is everyday food, as are pots with cooked fish and peanut sauce or porridge on millet or rice with fish sauce cooked on dried fish. Fresh fish (bream, hake, sea sole) is often filled with onions, parsley and cayenne pepper, roasted in peanut oil on a bed of vegetables, root vegetables and pieces of dried fish and served with steamed rice. Chicken or chicken turn into casserole with peanut paste or with the usual tomato paste. Beef, the second most common source of animal protein, can be e.g. turn into domeda: a spicy meat stew with peanut paste cooked in oil; In general, the food is spicy.

Gabon Business

Gabon Business

According to abbreviationfinder, GA is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Gabon. Gabon, formerly part of French Equatorial Africa, is now an independent republic within the French Community. It has a sup. 267,000 km 2 with 403,700 residents It has a flat coast, while the internal part rises gradually until it reaches the 2,000 m of the Iboundj Mountains, an important hydrographic node. The country, crossed by some notable rivers, such as the Ogoué and the Kwilu, has a very hot and humid climate, with rainfall up to 3,000 mm per year, so it is largely covered by the evergreen rainforest. Libreville (pop. 14,000), the capital, is located on the Gabon estuary, while Port Gentil (pop 17,500) is the port through which large quantities of timber (especially okumé) are exported. Libreville is home to, which controls the sale of timber (approximately 200,000 tons per year). Among the crops we note that of rice (Tchibanga), while the oil palm still grows spontaneously. Gabon also deserves a mention for the production of cocoa, while attempts to encourage the cultivation of tobacco have failed. The lobed urena, a plant whose fiber replaces jute, can be a crop of the future. In the mining field we note first of all the production of gold and diamonds. The use of the large manganese deposits is foreseen, together with those of uranium at Franceville and Moanda, which should however be connected by a railway to the coast. Drilling in progress has identified oil fields in the lower Ogoué. Whaling is practiced off the coast of Gabon

Joined the French Community (September 28, 1958), as a member state, on July 15, 1960 the Gabon, with an agreement signed in Paris, obtained independence (within the French Community), proclaimed in Libreville at midnight between 16 and 17 August 1960. The new republic was admitted to the UN on 20 September 1960.

The scam of the state’s funds and accusations of corruption against the government in the early years of the ’80s led to violent popular protests. The rebellion extended right into the ranks of police. In 1982, it conducted a demonstration calling for wage increases and the withdrawal of French advisers from the country. The protest actions were brutally abolished by the country’s intelligence service, which officially goes by the name of the “Documentation Center”

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Gabon

According to countryaah, the government also campaigned against the National Renewal Movement (MORENA), which consisted of intellectuals, students and nationalist politicians. The movement was accused of stealing 30 tons of weapons in October 1982 when the attacks against the Bongo family’s property and French military installations took off. At least 28 senior members of MORENA were sentenced to 15 years in prison. The French Socialist Party criticized the judgments, which created a tense relationship between Bongo and French President Mitterrand.

However, the episode did not prevent Bongo from visiting France in March 1984. The president’s visit to the French Elysee mansion sparked just as many protests as the French decision to build a nuclear power plant in Gabon.

In late 1989, major upheavals took place in Eastern Europe, coinciding with demands by the opposition in Gabon for greater democratic opening. The demand triggered violent street fights, which in terms of popular participation were far more extensive than the protests MORENA had triggered in the early 1980s. It forced the president to change the constitution, abolish the one-party system in favor of a multi-party system, and ease the press censorship. At the same time, he invited a number of opposition leaders to step into the government.

Immediate social excitement subsided, but in May 1990, President of Gabon’s Progressive Party, Joseph Redjambe, was murdered at a Libreville hotel. He was one of the central leaders of the opposition and the murder triggered a violent reaction against the government. The entire Port-Gentil region was in a state of rebellion for 10 days, Paris had to evacuate 5,000 Frenchmen from the area and the government had to put in the presidential guard to restore order. According to information confirmed by Amnesty International, the riot cost 6 lives and 100 were injured.

After the tranquility was restored, all of the country’s political and social sectors met in June at a national conference where it was decided to hold free presidential elections. The conference was a victory for the opposition. He succeeded in forcing the president to compromise on multi-party elections, but Bongo also won a victory when he succeeded in accelerating the 1992 election – which the opposition had wished – to the end of 1990. That way he could serve the entire the apparatus he had built up during his 20 years in power, while the opposition, which had been suppressed for decades, had poor time to organize. The result, therefore, was that the opposition split into elections. In the September 1990 election, Bongo’s party, Gabon’s Democratic Party (PDG), gained a majority in the National Assembly.

Through 1991, the country was affected by a series of further political and social unrest. In parallel, the economic crisis worsened. The stabilization policy that had been implemented since September 90 – based on IMF guidelines – had not produced results, and did not continue to create high expectations for the population.

Ethiopia Business

Ethiopia Business

According to abbreviationfinder, ET is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Ethiopia.

Business

Ethiopia is considered one of the world’s poorest countries. The majority of the country’s population rely on agriculture and livestock management. To the extent that industrial establishment has taken place, it has mainly been concentrated to the capital with surrounding towns and to Dire Dawa. Despite strong economic growth from 2004 onwards, the country still has one of the lowest GDP per capita in the world.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Ethiopia

Background

Following a traditional, albeit slow and paternalistic, modernization policy during the emperor era, the 1974 revolution meant, at least on paper, a sharp turn for Ethiopia. Communications, industry and financial institutions were nationalized and an embryo for central planning of the Soviet type was established. No actual and efficient production planning seems to have ever been successful, and despite the fact that the industrial sector was favored at the expense of agriculture, investment levels in the industry remained low.

As the economic difficulties increased over time, partly as a result of economic failures, low productivity, reduced Soviet support and, not least, the very large costs of the armed forces, a liberalization program was launched towards the end of the 1980s. It included greater scope for private enterprise and opening up the economy to foreign countries. The war against Eritrea in 1998–2000 brought great financial burdens and the country’s chronic trade deficit increased further. A longer dry season in 2003 also diluted the difficult situation, as did the worst drought in 60 years that hit the area in 2011, and the country is dependent on food assistance.

Agriculture

The majority of the population receives their livelihoods in agriculture, which until 1975 were mainly conducted as small or leased farms. Large regional variations in forms of lease have affected both the nature of self-sufficient farmers and the degree of fragmentation of the properties. Despite efforts in the post-war period to implement more modern methods, arable farming has remained old-fashioned, not least because of the nature of the land distribution. After the fall of the empire, a land reform was implemented in 1975, whereby the land was nationalized and distributed with the right of use to the members of newly formed peasant associations. From 1979-80, a collectivization of the land began, from the mid-1980s, often combined with or preceded by a village education program, where detached farms were merged into newly built settlements.

Almost one-eighth of the country’s total area is considered cultivable. Ethiopia, which is identified as one of the core areas for our cultural plants, offers a variety of natural geographical and ecological environments, which contributes to significant variations in cultivation systems and crops.

The indigenous cereals tef as well as barley and sorghum have traditionally been of great importance but have to some extent been pushed back by increased cultivation of wheat and maize. Other crops include fodder, legumes and oilseeds. A particular cultural zone is the area in the south where the Ethiopian banana (Enseʹte ventricoʹsum) is the dominant crop; From stems and shoots you get fiber, young shoots are cooked and starches can be extracted from the leaves. Otherwise, lowland agriculture is a small-scale agricultural enterprise focused on self-management. Sweat and hake farming is practiced in many places in peripheral and sparsely populated areas, but has increasingly come into conflict with the large farms and with new settlements by immigrant highland farmers.

Livestock management is important in the highlands and eastern parts. An often fragile equilibrium has been maintained between arable farming and animal production; the very extensive stock of cattle, sheep and goats has in many places actively contributed to the wear and tear of the natural environment. The problem was exacerbated by land reform and subsequent efforts to expand the collective sector, showing little understanding of the needs of animal husbandry and its importance to farmers. To the extent that the climate and prevalence of malaria and other parasites allow, several of the lowland population groups (eg, aphas, Somalis and some oromo) have developed a nomadic or seminomadic household. Here, cattle, sheep and goats as well as camels play a significant role. Land use conflicts with the modern agricultural sector have occurred.

The emergence of a modern, economically favored large-scale agriculture began during the last decades of the imperial era. It was concentrated in the central and southern highlands and was based on cereal production or slaughter animal and dairy production. In addition, large-scale cultivation of coffee, sugar, fruit, sesame seeds, cotton and sisal was concentrated in the lowlands and the southeastern highlands. All of these units were nationalized in 1975 and converted into state farms, which have proven to be unproductive despite being favored over private and collective agriculture. Since 1991, Ethiopian small farmers have been given more freedom to make their own financial decisions. The prices of agricultural products doubled in 1991-95, the cultivated land increased by 34 percent and the average harvest per hectare increased by 5 percent. However, the state still owns all land, which makes the lessee less inclined to make investments. Ethiopia is one of the countries thereland grabbing, which means that large areas of agricultural land are leased out to foreign companies, is most relevant.

In addition to coffee and sugar, oilseeds, beans and cut flowers have become important export products in recent years. The khat plant khat in Sweden is also grown on a commercial scale.

Forestry

A large part of the country, mainly the highlands in the west, was previously wooded, but uncontrolled harvesting in the 20th century resulted in the disappearance of the entire forest stock. This has resulted in extensive soil erosion. At the beginning of the 1990s, the share of wooded land was only about 3 percent. Although much of the harvesting is a result of farmers’ hunting for new arable land, agriculture is in the long run negatively affected by erosion and depletion. The need for firewood is also an important cause of deforestation. Forest replanting is now taking place on a large scale and the proportion of wooded land has increased to just over 12 percent.

Mineral

Gold is the only mineral that has any significance for the country’s exports, but potassium carbonate (pot ash), tantalite, lime, salt and marble are also mined. Ethiopia also has oil and natural gas, but both exploration and production are hampered by the fact that most of the deposits are in troubled areas, including the disputed Ogaden.

Energy

Ethiopia has great potential for production of water energy, and a rapid expansion of dams and power plants is ongoing, including major projects in the Omo River and at the Blue Nile, where the so-called Millennium Dam began to be built in 2011. The latter project has met resistance from Egypt, which fears that the volume of water in the Nile will be affected. Environmental and human rights groups have also warned of the consequences for nature and people that the large dam construction is expected to have. Despite oil deposits in the country, Ethiopia is dependent on imports to meet its oil needs. The majority of the population still does not have access to electricity and fires with firewood, charcoal and animal waste. However, the electricity grid is undergoing rapid expansion.

Industry

The textile industry is the most important industrial industry and responds with facilities in, among others, Addis Ababa, Kombolcha, Akaki, Dire Dawam. for about half of industrial employment. The industry has grown strongly during the 2000s and in 2006-11 the industry quadrupled its turnover. During the same period, the textile industry increased its exports to Europe by 500 percent. The food industry and breweries also occupy a central position, as does the production of leather, leather goods and building materials. The engineering industry is conducted on a limited scale, mainly in Addis Ababa, Akaki and Nazret.

The industry mainly produces for domestic consumption, but some processing of local raw materials (mainly from agriculture) for export takes place. Many industrial projects, as well as a significant part of the expansion of energy supply, were previously funded under Soviet and Eastern European development programs, while international aid organizations and Western countries have prioritized agriculture and infrastructure. The industrial sector has been privatized to some extent, but many of the large companies are still state-owned.

Foreign trade

Like industry, Ethiopian foreign trade is dependent on agricultural products. According to Countryaah, coffee has long accounted for more than 50 percent of export revenue, but the crop’s share of exports has halved, while primarily oilseeds have increased in importance. Other export products include khat, hides, skins and live cattle. Over the past few decades, an attempt has been made to expand the export range of processed leather goods, meat, sugar and vegetables. During the 2000s, exports of gold and cut flowers have grown sharply. However, this has not been able to offset the large and growing trade deficit. Imports are dominated by oil and oil products, machinery, transport equipment and other industrial goods, chemical products, food and not least weapons. Main trading partners are China, Sudan, Switzerland, Germany and Saudi Arabia.

Eswatini Business

Eswatini Business

Business

According to countryaah, Swaziland’s economy is relatively developed and diversified, but suffers from significant socio-economic inequalities. The economy is closely linked to South Africa through ownership, trade, finance and currency policy and membership in the Southern African Customs Union (SACU).

  • According to abbreviationfinder, WZ is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Swaziland.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Eswatini

Agriculture and forestry are the most important industries. The majority of the economically active population is active in related industries or self-sustaining farms, where maize and cotton cultivation as well as livestock care are the main activities. The most important crop is sugar cane, which is grown mainly on larger artificial irrigated plantations. Swaziland is also a major producer of citrus fruits and pineapples, which are preserved for export. Forest plantations cover 6 percent of Swaziland’s area and include the Usutu dominated by South African interests, which with 65,000 ha is one of the world’s largest landscaped forests. In 2011, however, the country’s only pulp mill was closed.

The mining industry has declined, and since the country’s diamond deposits began to be mine, only coal and stone have been mined.

The industrial sector is mainly built around food production and processing of agricultural products. The tourism industry is also important. During the 1990s, the trade balance showed an increasing deficit, and so has been the case since 2005 after a period of surplus in the early 00s. Significant income from SACU has declined, as have transfers from the shrinking number of Swaziland miners in South Africa. Swaziland’s main export products are fruit concentrates for beverages, sugars, fresh and canned fruits and cotton yarns and refrigerators. Imports are dominated by machinery, workshop products and fuels. South Africa is the completely dominant trading partner, with 50 percent of exports and over 90 percent of imports.

Economic conditions. – Arable land and woody agricultural crops cover about 10% of the surface, while more than 63% are permanent meadows and pastures.

In the irrigated areas, in 1976 the main harvests were those of sugar cane (over 2 million q of sugar, compared to 860,000 q in 1964), rice (50,000 q, out of 2000 ha; 70,000 q in 1963, on same area) and citrus fruits (750,000 q of oranges, compared to 650,000 q of oranges and mandarins in 1970 and only 90,000 q of oranges, mandarins and grapefruits in 1966).

There was also the production of maize (850,000 q in 1977; 350,000 q, out of 75,000 ha, in 1966), sorghum (30,000 q, out of 4000 ha; 200,000 q, out of 30,000 ha, in 1966), yams (90,000 q), bananas (30,000 q; 10,000 q in 1966), and pineapples. And then again, cotton (11,000 ha, 120,000 q of seed and 60,000 of fiber; 3000 ha, 20,000 q of seed and 10,000 q of fiber in 1963) and tobacco (4300 q).

The zootechnical patrimony is based on 640,000 cattle, 280,000 goats and 37,000 sheep (they were, respectively, 532,000, 222,000 and 43,000, in 1963).

In the mining sector, there is the production of asbestos (39,000 t in 1976, compared to 22,900 in 1958), iron ore (1.23 million t of Fe, in 1976), coal (126,900 t in 1976).); and also small quantities of tin (i t of Sn in 1975; 5 t in 1963) and of gold (10 kg in 1966, compared to 65 kg in 1963). Since 1964 the hematite deposits of Ngwenya near Mbabane have been joined by a 223 km railway to the port of Goba (Mozambique).

The industrial equipment is very limited: sugar refineries, cotton gin, a brewery and a wood pulp factory (141,000 t in 1976).

The external trade (the state part, doganalmente, the Republic of South Africa) had, in the period 1969-75, a significant boost, both in imports (from 38,000,000 to 134.5000000 rand, the rand = 1 018 Italian lire, in 1977) and in exports (from 48 to 132 million rand), the latter based mainly on iron minerals, sugar, asbestos, wood pulp, meat and citrus fruits.

In addition to the section of the aforementioned railway that takes place in the state, there are 160 km of tarred roads, almost 1300 km of main roads with artificial ground and 750 km of minor roads. The main airport is in Matsapa.

 

Eritrea Business

Eritrea Business

According to abbreviationfinder, ER is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Eritrea.

Several centuries before our time, the Semitic cattle herders, who had emigrated from Saudi Arabia to Mesopotamia, arrived on the shores of the Red Sea. The area was subjugated to the Ethiopian kingdom but maintained widespread self-government until the Ottomans occupied the region in the 16th century. During the period between the 17th and 19th centuries, the region was the subject of conflicts between Ethiopians, Ottomans, the king of Tigray, Egypt and Italy. The Wichale Treaty, signed between Italy and Menilek II of Ethiopia in 1890, recognized the Italian’s possessions by the Red Sea. The colony, founded on January 1, 1890, was christened Eritrea, after the Latin name for the Red Sea, Mare Erythraerum.

According to countryaah, Eritrea became the most important base of the Italians during the invasion of Ethiopia in 1896 and in 1935-1936. Italian supremacy continued until 1941, when the area was left to the British.

About 1 million Eritreans lived in the colony and the national unity was reinforced by the fight against the Italians. On December 2, 1950, the United Nations decided that Eritrea should be transformed into a federal state under Ethiopia. The resolution was a rejection of Ethiopia’s demand for an annexation, but did not establish a plan for the transition to independence.

In Eritrea, a National Assembly was elected, which enjoyed some independence until 1962, when Haile Selassie forced a group of Eritreaean MPs to adopt an integration of the country into Ethiopia. This decision was rejected by the nationalists, who immediately began an uprising.

The Eritrean Liberation Front, ELF, was founded in Cairo in 1958 by journalist and trade union leader Idris Mohamed Adem and started the armed resistance struggle in September 1961. In 1966, the organization split due to the influence of a more radical group; of which arose Eritrea’s popular Liberation Front, EPLF. Following Sudan’s mediation attempt in 1974, both groups decided to establish a coordination body and in subsequent years the EPLF took on the task of leading the resistance struggle.

Under Mengistu Haile Mariam’s rule in Ethiopia, the Eritreans did not consider Ethiopia’s affiliation with the Socialist bloc as sufficient justification for the laying down of arms. The war on Ethiopia cost thousands of lives.

An advisory council cooperates with the head of government and the Assembly to promote the progress of Eritrea. In the administration of justice the validity of the various rights in force in the country is recognized. The judicial system, which until then had remained essentially that of the Italian administration, was reformed by the British one with a proclamation of September 1952, then adopted by the Eritrean Assembly, and then modified again with a law of 1953. It, while unifying the courts in a single simplified system, he tried to alter the original spheres of competence as little as possible. The highest organ of the judiciary is the supreme court, with unlimited jurisdiction, divided into three sections, competent to judge in matters of commercial law, in matters concerning the state and municipal administrations, and to judge the head of government for acts harmful to the constitution and the judges for failures committed in the exercise of their functions (uncertain whether he has any competence in ordinary criminal matters); finally, it functions as a court of appeal. Then come the district courts, competent in the first instance in civil and criminal matters, the courts of the “magistrates” (represented by Senior Divisional and Divisional Officials in charge of territorial districts) with limited criminal jurisdiction; the “conciliators” courts with jurisdiction in minor civil matters. In all these courts, as a rule, the court consists of only one judge. However, with the law of May 17, 1956, the traditional jurisdiction was returned to the local civil authorities (district heads and similar) in matters of customary law. The rules of procedure are contained in the various legislative provisions on the subject. In several cases, Italian law still applies (criminal code, commercial code, code of law and civil procedure); but in 1957 the representative of the Ethiopian sovereign invited Eritrea to adopt the recently enacted Ethiopian penal code.

In September 1952, a federal judicial system was also created, which attributed federal jurisdiction to all Ethiopian courts and established a federal high court, residing in Asmara, which alone, effectively, deals with issues concerning the federation and judges on the basis of the laws of the Ethiopia, exhaustively extended to Eritrea or for this issued by the Ethiopian legislative power in federal function. Above this court, on appeal, there is the court of the nügusä ??? nägä ??? st (i.e. the sovereign) which has the name of federal supreme court. The discussion, then, of the other matters falling within the competence of the federation entailed the establishment of specific Ethiopian federal offices or bodies in Eritrea, including the subsidiary of the State Bank of Ethiopia, alone authorized to carry out foreign exchange transactions; military commands and units (the ports of Massawa and Assab are under military jurisdiction); Post Offices, Customs Offices, Crown Representation Offices, etc.

To the legislative power of the federal government the Eritrea participates with representatives in proportion to its population. A number of Eritrean members, equal to that of Ethiopians, make up the imperial Federal Council, nominated by the king, which, in accordance with federal law, must advise on matters of federal interest. The participation of Eritreans is also foreseen, in the federal law, for the executive and judicial power of the federation (moreover, not a few Eritreans, thanks to their experience and preparation, are part of the Ethiopian public administration).

 

Equatorial Guinea Business

Equatorial Guinea Business

According to abbreviationfinder, GQ is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Equatorial Guinea.

Business

According to countryaah, Equatorial Guinea, whose business has traditionally been based on agricultural production, had major economic problems until the mid-1990s. Between 1970 and 1980, the country’s GDP fell by about 6 percent per year, and Equatorial Guinea was one of Africa’s least developed countries. Large deficits in the budget and trade balance meant that the country was highly dependent on foreign aid, mainly from Spain and France, and on foreign loans, mainly from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. In an effort to stabilize the economy, in the early 1980s, the country joined the Central African Cooperation Organization CEEAC and the Central African Customs Union UDEAC. But despite these measures, as well as an investment program 1988–91 and stimulation of private investment, attempts to stimulate the economy failed.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Equatorial Guinea

It was not until the mid-1990s, when significant oil and gas deposits, mainly off the island of Bioko, began to be exploited as the economy began to show positive signs, and oil production quickly changed radically the country’s economic conditions. Since the late 1990s, oil has generated much of Equatorial Guinea’s GDP and export revenues. The country is now one of Africa’s largest oil exporters with an annual economic growth rate of between 40 and 75 percent, and GDP per capita has increased from US $ 530 in 1996 to 10,174 in 2018. Although oil recovery has led to a remarkable improvement in the country’s economic ratios, however, the population has not fully benefited from the increased wealth. The country’s main export products are oil, timber, cocoa and coffee, and the most important import products are equipment for the oil industry, machinery and food. Equatorial Guinea’s most important trading partners are Japan, China and the United States.

Agriculture and forestry

Until the mid-1990s, agriculture and forestry were the backbone of Equatorial Guinea’s economy. They then accounted for about 50 percent of GDP, but as a result of increased oil production, their contribution to GDP has dropped to 9 percent (2016). The most important products are cocoa, coffee, palm oil, bananas and cassava. The most important barley crops are cocoa, which is grown mainly on Bioko, and coffee, which is grown mainly in the mainland part. Cocoa is the country’s foremost agricultural export, but due to uncertain landowner conditions and neglect during Macías Nguema’s regime (1968–79), cocoa production has declined sharply in recent years, despite the fact that the government and the World Bank have tried to rebuild production. The country’s second largest agricultural export is coffee, but coffee production has also declined dramatically since independence.

The country has large forest resources, but transport difficulties and inefficient means of production make it difficult to increase production. Prior to the 1990s, oil exports were the country’s most important export product; It is mainly okoumé and acoga timber exported. The main harvesting areas are located in the mainland, along the coast and the rivers.

Minerals, energy and industry

The country has oil and gas assets both on land and in the form of offshore deposits. In 1992, oil began to be exported on a small scale. During the 1990s, oil production increased, and now Equatorial Guinea is one of Africa’s largest oil producers. The oil is estimated to contribute about 90 percent of the country’s export revenue and has radically changed the country’s economic conditions. So far, however, a large part of the oil revenues have been with oil companies outside the country. In addition to oil, deposits of gold, iron, manganese, tantalum and uranium have also been detected, but the extraction is hampered by the dense vegetation and by the almost total lack of roads.

The country’s energy supply comes mainly from firewood and charcoal. Two smaller hydropower plants are located at Bata and Riaba.

Equatorial Guinea’s manufacturing industry is poorly developed. Before independence, there was a lively light industry around Malabo, but this one, with the exception of some food industry, has almost completely disappeared.

Egypt Business

Egypt Business

According to abbreviationfinder, EG is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Egypt.

6,000 years ago a civilization emerged in the Nile Valley – Nahr-an-Nil – which developed a central state during a continuous battle with the flood. The Egyptian empire built the pyramids and developed a culture that was the origin of the so-called “western civilization”. This community succeeded in feeding a very large population in terms of the limited area that could be utilized. It was a center that had extensive economic, diplomatic and cultural links with the outside world. In the last millennium before our era (BCE), the downturn for society initially led to foreign rulers – pharaohs. They came from the Libyan and Sudanese dynasties. Later it became directly subject to other empires: the Assyrians, the Persians, the Greeks and the Romans.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Egypt

During the period when Egypt was first Greek and since Roman domination, Alexandria (Al-Iskandariyah) was one of the largest cultural centers in the classical world. Its famous library was the largest in the world until it burned during Caesar’s reign. It contains works by the greatest philosophers, scientists and literatures of the time. When the Arabs conquered the country in the year 642, not much was left of the greatness of the past. Like other peoples, the Egyptians adopted the Islamic faith and the Arabic language.

According to Countryaah, during the reign of the Fatimid Caliphs three centuries later, the new capital, Cairo (Al-Qahirah), became one of the most brilliant intellectual centers of the Islamic world. Its university attracted scholars and students of all its own – especially from Muslim Africa.

Between the 10th and 15th centuries, the country’s geographical location made it one of the hubs for trade between Asia and the Mediterranean – including Venice and Genoa. The active trade was in no way disturbed by the presence of European crusaders in Palestine in the 11-13. century and the almost constant war situation.

Economy

Inflation rate 23.50%
Unemployment rate 12.2%
Gross domestic product (GDP) 1,204,000,000,000 USD
GDP growth rate 4.20%
GDP per capita $ 12,700
GDP by sector
Agriculture 11.70%
Industry 34.30%
Service 54.00%
State budget
Revenue 27.01 billion
Expenditure 35.48 billion
Proportion of the population below the national poverty line 25.2%
Distribution of household income
Top 10% 27.6
Lower 10% 3.9
Industrial production growth rate 0.60%
Investment volume 14.7% of GDP
National debt 103.00% of GDP
Foreign exchange reserves $ 34,020,000,000
Tourism 2014
Number of visitors 9,628,000
Revenue $ 7,979,000,000

 

1500-1882 Ottoman Lordship

When the Crusaders first fled, Egypt was conquered by the new advancing power in the Islamic world – the Ottoman Sultanate. It happened in the 16th century. At the same time, however, Egypt entered a period of economic decline. Trade between Europe and the Far East increasingly occurred by sea south of Cape of Good Hope, and this abolished Egypt’s monopoly on this trade.

Until the 19th century, Turkish domination was not much more than nominal. The real power lay in the hands of mameluk chiefs. In 1805, an Albanian military commander, Mohamed Alí, assumed power. He drastically eliminated the Mameluk chiefs and created a centralized state apparatus. He reorganized the army and established a state monopoly on foreign trade in sugar and cotton. Egypt extended its autonomy to the Sultanate of Istanbul, laying the foundations for a modern economy.

Under Mohamed Ali’s successors, dependence on Europe increased. The economic resolution reached such highs that, in order to pay off its debt, the country in 1874 had to sell all its shares in the Suez Canal (As-Sways Canal) to Britain. The canal had been built jointly with the French in 1860-70. The situation got worse, one loan followed another, and in 1879 overseas forced the creation of a Public Debt Box, led by an Egyptian, a French and an English minister. They took over the management of the country’s finances.

1882 European invasion

This degree of interference in the country’s affairs triggered a nationalist reaction, supported by the army. The same year, Jediven Ismail was overthrown and his son Tawfiq was forced to throw foreign ministers at the gate and appoint a national government. However, the imperialist response did not wait: In 1882, an English-French fleet of English soldiers landed in Alexandria and they occupied the country. The British administration integrated Egypt into the capitalist world economy. Agriculture was geared towards exports – especially through cotton production. Strong production growth and economic recovery in the early decades of the 20th century brought huge profits to foreign investors and the small layer of large landowners.

The English occupation of the land was formally “legalized” in 1914, when it was made English Protectorate. At this time, opposition to British rule was led by the Nationalist Party, dominated by radical intellectuals led by Mustafa Kemal and Muhammad Farid. The national uprising in 1919 led to some concessions from the British: Egypt gained formal autonomy in 1922, but it was of such a nature that it was in fact a continuation of the protectorate. The gradual participation of Egyptian capital in economic life was opened. The Nationalist Party was replaced by the Wafd Party, which more clearly represented the interests of the emerging Egyptian citizenship. The following 25 years, the governmental power shifted between Wafd and the royal house, backed by foreign interests.

Djibouti Business

Djibouti Business

According to abbreviationfinder, DJ is the 2 letter abbreviation for the country of Djibouti.

Business

According to countryaah, the economy is mainly based on the transit trade at the international port of the capital and on the service sector associated with it. For example, most of Ethiopia’s exports go via Djibouti. In addition, there is also significant income from French and US military bases.

From the beginning of the 1980s and some way into the 00s, the country’s economic growth did not keep pace with its population growth, which resulted in GDP per capita falling and that dependence on foreign aid, earlier mainly from France but later also from, for example. Kuwait, the US and Saudi Arabia, became more and more evident. In the latter half of the 1990s, annual growth figures averaged up to 5 percent, but dependence on foreign aid remained.

Very little of the land area (about 1 percent) can be cultivated. Primarily, vegetables and dates are produced, and agriculture is able to produce only 3 percent of the food needs. The agricultural sector employs about 75 percent of the workforce. Attempts are made to conduct irrigation using underground sources. More than half of the rural population feed on nomadic livestock management (goats, sheep, camels). Djibouti suffers from periodic drought, and in 1984 the country was hit by severe drought with famine as a result. In 1987, on the contrary, a flood occurred, which destroyed parts of the capital Djibouti and made 150,000 people homeless. Even since the beginning of the 1990s, the country has been hit by drought repeatedly.

The industry (mining, manufacturing and construction industry) is limited to a few small-scale groups, and almost all consumer goods must be imported.

Djibouti has a large trade deficit. Exports mainly consist of livestock, hides, skins and coffee and other products that are re-exported, while imports consist of consumer goods, food and beverages (eg bottled water), oil and machinery. The majority of exports go to Somalia, while the main importing countries are China, Saudi Arabia and India.

HUMAN AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

Located in the Horn of Africa, at the southern entrance to the Red Sea, the Republic of Djibouti borders Eritrea to the north, Ethiopia to the north, west and south and Somalia to the south-east. It consists of a desert territory of volcanic origin, and the climate is dry and warm (average annual amount of precipitation: 97 mm; average annual temperature: 29, 4 ° C). The population (623. 000 residents In 1998) is composed of two ethnic groups: the Issa Somali source (50 %), and the Afar, the Ethiopian origin (40 %), both Muslims and speakers of languages cuscitici.

During the first half of the nineties the GDP, according to an estimate by the International Monetary Fund, marked a decline of 2, 3 % in 1993 and 4, 5 % in 1994, compared with an average annual increase of the population that The World Bank has calculated the order of 30 ‰ in the period 1990-97, due in part to the influx of refugees from neighboring countries, Ethiopia and Somalia. More than half of the population is made up of nomadic farmers and, due to the scarcity of arable land, the country manages to produce just 3% of its food requirement. Industrial activities are also limited to a few small businesses, and nearly all consumer goods have to be imported.

Dependence on foreign countries is very high (90 %) also as regards energy consumption; Attempts are underway to exploit the significant geothermal potential, financed by the World Bank and supported by international cooperation. The country’s revenues essentially consist of the proceeds from trade through the international port of Djibouti, and from the development of the service sector related to this activity, which provide GDP with a contribution of more than 70 %. Therefore the port of Djibouti and the Djibouti-Addìs Abebà railway (subject to frequent interruptions, the last of which was due to a disastrous flood, in November 1994) are subject to substantial investments and modernization works, with the aim of making Djibouti a cornerstone of trade between East Africa and the Arab countries.