Measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Turkey is the
world's 19th largest economy (2019). Turkey participates in
the G20. According to
countryaah, GDP per capita in 2019 was US $ 28,264, which was
higher than in neighboring northwest, Bulgaria, but lower
than neighboring west, Greece. In 2019, unemployment was
11.9 per cent. 21.9 per cent of the population lives below
the poverty line (2015). The country has a mixed economy
with both state and private enterprises. The state still
plays an important role in the industrial sector, banking
Primary industries contribute 6.9 per cent of GDP and
employ 18.3 per cent of the working population (2019).
Turkey has almost all cultural plants that belong to the
temperate and subtropical zone, and the country is
self-sufficient with most common foods. Grain cultivation
dominates most places. Wheat and barley are grown throughout
the country, corn in the Black Sea area and around the
Marmara Sea. Tobacco is cultivated especially along the
north and west coasts. The production of cotton, sugar beets
and tea is also considerable. Turkey has a large production
and export of typical Mediterranean plants such as citrus
fruits, figs, hazelnuts, apples, pears,grapes, raisins and
The livestock is large and breeding of sheep, goats and
poultry is widespread. As sales products, milk and meat
count less than wool, hides and skins. Long-haired mohair
roll from angorage goat is an important export item.
15.4 of the country's area is covered by forest (2016).
Forestry has a relatively limited economic significance.
Much of the mountain forest has so far been untapped due to
lack of transport opportunities.
In 2017, deep sea fishing amounted to 320 280 tonnes,
while freshwater fishing was 31 400 tonnes. Deep sea fishing
is based on taking advantage of the fish migrations from the
Black Sea to the Mediterranean. The fish farming industry
doubled in the period from 2005 to 2017, when production was
273,400 tonnes. 40 percent of this production was trout.
Turkey is one of the largest fish farming nations in the
The industry contributes 32.9 per cent of GDP and employs
27.0 per cent of the working population (2019).
The most widespread industry is the textile industry,
which is also the most important export industry. In
addition, the production of electronic products is a
significant industrial and export sector. Turkey is the
world's 15th largest manufacturer of motor vehicles. There
is also significant production of iron and steel, industrial
chemicals and refined petroleum. Turkey has several
shipyards, which build ships, ferries and fishing vessels
for the domestic market and for export. Other important
industrial sectors are the cement, glass and ceramic and
paper industries. The most important industrial areas are
located in the west, around Istanbul, Bursa and Izmir.
A number of minerals are extracted. Turkey is the world's
largest producer of borax, the world's fourth largest
producer of chromite and the world's eleventh largest
producer of coal. The extraction of coal is substantial in
the Ereğli-Zonguldak area of the Black Sea, of lignite
southeast of Bursa and of iron ore in Cappadocia. Turkey has
high levels of sulfur. Copper, petroleum, bauxite and more
are also extracted. Crude oil is extracted from the
Garzan-Germik field near Diyarbakir in the Euphrates Valley.
The consumption of primary energy in 2016 was 5.7 exa
joule (EJ). 77 per cent of consumption is based on imports.
Per capita consumption was 73.3 gigajoules (GJ), which is
slightly below the average consumption in the world (77.5 GJ).
The country has a few energy reserves of its own, in the
form of crude oil, natural gas and coal, but annual
production is close to consumption. In 2018, the remaining
oil reserves were estimated at 341.6 million barrels. Annual
production is around 2.5 million tonnes (105 PJ). The gas
reserves are estimated at 6.2 billion cubic meters, with an
output in 2016 of 367 million cubic meters (13 PJ).
In 2017, the production of electrical energy was 283
terawatt hours (TWh), which is an increase of over 40 per
cent over the last ten years. Net electricity consumption
per capita is around 2 700 kilowatt hours (kWh).
Of the produced power, 36.8 per cent comes from gas power
plants and 32.5 per cent from coal power plants. Hydropower
is 20.2 per cent and together with wind power (6.3 per
cent), solar power (1 per cent) and geothermal power (1.8
per cent), the total share of electricity based on renewable
energy is 30.1 per cent. Turkey has no nuclear power plants
in operation, but work on the first nuclear reactor at the
new Akkuyu power plant is underway and is expected to be
completed in 2023. Three more reactors will be built at this
power plant, which is expected to be fully operational by
Turkey has invested heavily in the development of the
tourism sector and, over the last decades, has seen a steady
increase in visitors from abroad. In 2018, 39.5 million
tourists visited Turkey, compared to 32.4 million in 2017.
The coastal areas of the Black Sea, the Aegean and the
Mediterranean have good opportunities for boat and bath
tourism. It is also a significant health tourism to the
country's many hot springs. Turkey is rich in cultural
monuments from prehistoric times (see Asia Minor) from Greek
and Roman antiquity, from early Christian and Byzantine
times as well as from the Islamic period (Ottoman Empire).
In total, 18 places in the country are listed UNESCO World
Heritage List, see external link.
Transport and Communications
Turkey has been an important link between Europe and the
Levant from the earliest times. Under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk,
who was president from 1922 to 1938, major investments were
made in the development of the railways. The development
included a new network that radiated from the new capital
Ankara to the three coasts and the easternmost provinces.
The country's total rail network amounts to 12,710
kilometers (2018). The main port cities are Istanbul and
Izmir, Samsun, Mersin, Iskenderun and Trabzon. The major
international airports are located at Istanbul (İstanbul
Havalimanı), Ankara (Esenboğa) and Izmir/
Trabzon (Adnan Menderes).
In 2017, Turkey's total exports amounted to USD 166.2
billion, while imports amounted to USD 225.1 billion. With
this, the country had a deficit on the foreign trade balance
of US $ 58.9 billion.
The five largest export markets were in 2017: Germany
(9.6 per cent), the United Kingdom (6.1 per cent), Iraq (5.8
per cent), the United States (5.5 per cent) and Italy (5.4
Important export goods are textiles, food, electronics,
metal products, transport equipment and tobacco.
The five most important markets for imports were in 2017:
China (10.0 per cent), Germany (9.1 per cent), Russia (8.4
per cent), the United States (5.1 per cent) and Italy (4.8
Important goods are machinery, transport equipment,
chemicals, fuel and fertilizers.