countryaah, Sudan is Africa's third largest land area. Although the
northern part of the country is mainly desert, Sudan has
more natural resources, between other large areas of
agricultural assets and significant deposits of more
minerals. However, long-standing conflict of choice has
hindered development and growth, and Sudan is still among
the least developed countries in the world. Large distances,
climatic conditions and partial international isolation that
result from the policy of the current regime have also
contributed to poor conditions for the development of
society and living conditions for the population. In the
Human Development Index, Sudan is ranked 167 out of 189 (UNDP
Oil exports started in 1999, and it quickly became the
most important source of income. As a result, Sudan saw
significant growth in gross domestic product (GDP) from 1999
to 2011, but a large part of its oil revenues disappeared
when South Sudan was self-sustaining in 2011. GDP per capita
was 4100 US dollars in 2017, and this has been extensive
inflation in recent years. In December 2018, protests
erupted in many cities in Sudan as a result of price rises
on commodities such as bread and fuel.
Causes of underdevelopment and stagnation
Particularly in the 1980s and 1990s, the civil wars
between southern and northern Sudan brought drought to
famine and major refugee traumas - both internally displaced
refugees and refugees in neighboring countries. The war
actions spread mostly in the south, so this area was hardest
hit. The civil war also led to the extraction of the oil and
gas deposits, which were first proven in 1977, did not occur
until 1999. One of the causes of the war in the south was
uncertain whether these resources should be controlled and
exploited. The civil war also prevented the completion of
the Jongleik Canal, which would have reduced evaporation of
the Nile water in the Sudd Delta. Water from the Nile is
crucial for irrigated agriculture in both Sudan and Egypt.
A new civil war broke out in Darfur in 2003, and this in
turn created one of the continent's most serious
humanitarian disasters in Sudan.
Because of the civil wars, where the affluent population
no longer had the opportunity to cultivate the land, Sudan
has depended heavily on foreign aid and relief.
All new development aid from the United States lasted
holding back from 1990 in protest against the lack land
democratization and support to organizations like the United
States regards as terrorists. In 1991, Britain also
suspended its aid, and then the EU. The assistance from
Kuwait and Saudi Arabia was also canceled as a result of
Sudan's position in the Gulf War in 1991. Nautical aid,
especially to southern Sudan and later to Darfur, was undone
by the sanctions, but it was difficult to reach with aid
both because of the war and the opposition from the Sudanese
government. The US will lift its sanctions against Sudan
only in 2017.
Agriculture and primary industries
Sudan is essentially an agricultural community, partly
with agriculture, partly with livestock farming, and less
forestry. The employment sector is still around 80 per cent
of the working population (CIA, 2017 estimate), but far more
depend on some agricultural production to survive. Most of
the production takes place at the self-storage level, and
the sector accounts for about 40 per cent of the gross
domestic product (CIA, 2017 estimate).
Sudan's exports are dominated by agricultural products,
with the exception of the period 1999 to 2011 when it was
Agriculture is the most important trade route in Sudan in
terms of both employment and income. The agricultural sector
is geared towards self-storage, but Sudan also exports
cotton, sugar and peanuts.
Around 30 percent of Sudan's land can be used for
agriculture, while 40 percent is pasture and forest. These
cultivated areas are located mainly in the south between the
great rivers Kvitnile, the Blue Nile and Atbarah. Anna
agricultural land is found along the Nile and in the plains
west of the country. Of the total agricultural area of
Sudan, only about 21 percent is cultivated, with varying
productivity. Parts of the cultivable area often lie fallow
for many years, often due to water scarcity.
The most important agricultural products are cotton,
peanuts, sorghum, millet, halibut and sugar cane. It also
grows beans, lentils, mangoes, papaya, banana, sweet potato
and sesame seeds.
Between the major rivers in the south, mechanized farming
is based on large-scale irrigation. Between the Kvitnile and
the Blue Nile to the south-east of Khartoum lies the Gezira
plant, where the water is hosted in canals from dams to a
large cotton district. There is also an extensive cotton
industry here. Sudan has about two million hectares of
irrigated land; about half at Gezira - which is the world's
largest agricultural plant under lease.
Along the Nile, the fertile riverbank is cultivated with
water pumped up from the river. In recent years mechanized
farming has also been created in the desert where one drops
the groundwater and uses it for irrigation.
In the west, the soil is cultivated after the rainy
Control of the Nile's water resources is a matter of
dispute with Egypt, which, like Sudan, is entirely dependent
on the Nile waters for agriculture in particular and the
economy more generally.
Animal Hald with ein nomadis k or semi-nomadic lifestyle
is important for a part of the population, particularly in
dei north physician Delane of the country. The most
important livestock are goats, sheep, camel and cattle.
Exports of live animals - especially to Egypt, Saudi Arabia
and other Arab countries - have traditionally been an
important source of income. About 25 per cent of the land
area benefits from grazing. In addition to the nomadane,
many small farmers also have several pets.
Sudan has about 80 percent of the total occurrence in the
world of Arabic rubber. In Sudan, this is mainly produced
from the Acacia senegal tree, and Arabic rubber is the only
forestry product in Sudan that provides significant export
revenue. About twelve percent of the land area is classified
as forest. Almost all productive forest is state owned, and
most of the harvest goes to fuel.
Sudan has only a short coastal strip in the east, and
fishing in the Red Sea is not particularly developed. Inland
has fished from both the Nile and Nasser Lake a certain
significance, and it is in particular Nile perch as host
Mining and energy
The development of the petroleum sector was given high
priority in the second half of the 1990s with investors from
China, Malaysia and C anada. The oil field that was once in
production was Heglig and Unity, both of which lie in a
contentious border area with today's South Sudan. To export
the oil, a 1610 kilometer long oil pipeline was built from
the oil field in southern Kordofan to the new shipping
terminal Marsa Bashayir south of Port Sudan on the Red Sea.
Former President Omar al-Bashir opened the export terminal
on May 31, 1999, and the first oil tanker left the port with
600,000 barrels of oil on August 27, the same year. Oil
exports led to Sudan's first trade surplus in 1999.
In 2006, Sudan had proven oil reserves of about 560
million barrels, while the country's energy ministry
estimated that they would collect reserves for about five
billion barrels. Oil exploration has been confined to
several areas in southern Sudan and present-day South Sudan,
but it is expected that major precursors will also be found
in the northwestern part of Sudan and on the Red Sea in the
east. Daily oil production in 2005 averaged 363,000 barrels,
with oil accounting for about 70 percent of total export
Sudan has rich mineral deposits, but they are to a
limited extent extracted commercially. Inadequate
infrastructure and lack of investment have prevented the
utilization of precursors of other iron ore, manganese,
silver, chrome, plaster and marble. Sudan also has rich gold
foundations, dating back to the Bronze Age.
In 2016, Sudan had an installed capacity for generating
3227 MW of electrical energy, approximately equally
distributed between heat and hydropower plants. The country
has five hydropower plants with a total output of 1593 MW.
The largest power plant is the Merowe plant, which has an
installed output of 1250 MW. The power plant is located at
the Nile, 350 kilometers north of the capital Khartoum. The
development of the power plant was very contentious since
around 60,000 people had to relocate. Plans to build a new
300 MW hydroelectric plant further north on the Nile,
referred to as the Kajbar plant, have also met with
protesters in the capital.
In Sudan, lack of electricity has long been a barrier to
economic development. In recent years, the consumption of
electrical energy has increased from 1.28 TWh in 1990 to
12.6 TWh in 2016, which represents an annual growth of over
nine per cent. Despite this growth, 35 per cent of Sudan's
population still has access to electric power (figures from
Sudan's industrial sector is underdeveloped, and is
essentially agricultural-based, primarily cotton
cultivation, which started on a large-scale already in 1926.
Sudan has the world's largest cotton weaving mill as its
premier industrial complex. Sugar refining is another
The industry is also largely dominated by the processing
of food and drink. With the oil boom in the first decade of
the 2000s, both Coca-Cola and Pepsi opened new and larger
factories in Sudan, and a Turkish company opened a large
trading center in Khartoum.
The country also produces between other cement and
artificial fertilizers, as well as consumables for
substitute import, for judged soap, vegetable oil and shoes.
An oil refinery north of Khartoum was opened in 2000, and it
meets Sudan's need for petroleum products.
Four free trade zones were created in 1992 in an attempt
to attract investment, and one free trade zone on the Red
Sea was established in 1999.
Sudan has large trade deficits abroad; and the country
relies on foreign aid, which for a period has kept our back
from many donor-based political conditions.
Sudan's main export goods are oil, cotton, peanuts,
arabic rubber and live animals, as well as hides. Imports
include other machinery, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals and foodstuffs. The most important trading
partners are China, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab
The transport network in Sudan is poorly developed and
represents a serious obstacle to economic development. It is
about 48,000 kilometers by road, of which 3160 kilometers
are included as main roads. Large parts of vegans in the
south are useless doctors in the rainy season. Atbara is a
hub for railways from the port city of Port Sudan on the Red
Sea, from Wadi Halfa on Lake Nasser in the north and from
Khartoum and the area further south. The total track length
is 4784 kilometers, as well as 1400 kilometers which serve
the cotton plantations in al-Gezira. The Nile is an
important link between the north and the south, and a total
of approximately 4,000 kilometers of navigable rivers are
found, of which 1723 kilometers are the property for
full-year traffic. The most important port cities are Port
Sudan and Suakin. Khartoum has an international airport.