Agriculture and industry are the most important trade
routes in Moldova. According to
countryaah, Moldova does not have its own energy
sources and has no significant mineral resources. Much of
the industry depends on agricultural raw materials.
Although strong industrialization was carried out under
the communist regime, agriculture is still a very important
trade route. About 75 per cent of the acreage is cultivated,
and 49 per cent of the employment is in agriculture.
Agriculture and processing of agricultural products account
for about 30 per cent of GDP.
In Soviet times, agriculture became collectivized, and it
gradually became highly mechanized. Soviet agriculture was
based on intensive use of chemical pesticides and
fertilizers, which has created a major pollution problem.
The privatization of the land began in 1991, and accelerated
from 1995. In the first years production went down, which
was also due to major natural disasters (drought, flood).
The main agricultural products are wheat, maize, sugar
beets, sunflower, tobacco, vegetables, fruit and wine. The
largest grain districts are in the north. The livestock is
also considerable (cattle, pigs, sheep). Sheep keeping is
especially important in the south. Moldova is especially
known as wine country.
The most important industry is the food industry. Other
industries of importance are the mechanical, building,
textile, metal, shoe factories and electrical household
Apart from some bioenergy, Moldova has very modest energy
resources in its own territory, and is dependent on imports
of coal and natural gas. In 2016, the consumption of primary
energy was 159 PJ (petajoule), of which 82 per cent was
based on imports. The production of electrical energy was
5.8 TWh. The production system is dominated by thermal power
plants that use imported energy, primarily from Russia and
Ukraine. A hydroelectric power plant on the river
Dnestr(Nistru) contributes less than 2 percent of produced
power. A lot of imported natural gas is used for heating,
besides some wood. In order to reduce import dependence,
work is being done on the development of alternative energy
sources such as solar energy, wind power and geothermal
Moldova's economy was closely associated with the other
Soviet republics during the Soviet era, and the first time
after independence the trade pattern was strongly influenced
by this. Gradually, a lot has changed. In 1995, 67 percent
of Moldova's imports came from the USSR, while 62 percent of
exports went there. In 2002, the figures were 39 per cent
for imports and 54 per cent for exports. Russia was
Moldova's most important trading partner, followed by
Ukraine, Romania and Germany. Food, wine and other
agricultural products accounted for more than half of the
export value. On the import side, coal and petroleum
products were the largest.
Transport and Communications
Road transport is greatest in terms of both passengers
and goods. Calculated in passenger kilometers, road
transport is about twice the size of the railway. However,
on long distances and in international traffic, the railroad
carries more goods than road traffic. In 1992, there were
1150 km of railroad and 20,800 km of roads, of which 16 100
km of fixed tire. Dnestr (Nistru) is navigable, but is now
little used. Chişinău has the country's busiest airport with
several international routes. The airlines are Air Moldova
and Moldavian Airlines.