Since the UN peace plan on Cambodia was signed in 1991,
both government policy and bilateral and multilateral
development assistance have contributed to economic growth.
From 2000 to 2010, the country's gross domestic product
(GDP) increased by an average of eight per cent per year. In
2017, the country's GDP increased by 6.9 per cent, compared
with seven per cent in both 2015 and 2016.
countryaah, Cambodia is still among the world's poorest countries.
Cambodia is in 160th place on the list of countries' gross
national income (GNI) per capita. Of the nine other ASEAN
countries, only Myanmar has a lower ranking (2017).
Agriculture contributes 25.3 per cent of the country's
GDP and employs 48.7 per cent of the working population.
After many years of collective farming, private land
ownership was reinstated with the new Constitution of 1989.
Agriculture is hampered by poor infrastructure and poor
access to fertilizers. Furthermore, it is subject to
frequent drying and flooding.
89 per cent of the arable land is cultivated. Rice is by
far the most important product from agriculture. Total
production was 7.4 million tonnes in 2018, when production
increased by 3.5 per cent. The most important rice areas are
in the Siem Reap province around Lake Tonlé-Sap and in the
province of Battambang. In addition to rice grown including
maize, sugar cane, Cashew, manioc and bananas. Silk is also
produced. Rubber is produced on plantations built by the
French in the 1920s, and is an important export product.
Timber is traditionally an important export product.
Vietnam is the main importer of timber. In the countryside,
firewood is largely used. However, the logging has been out
of control. The government's policy and illegal logging led
to the country's forest-covered area was reduced from 60 per
cent in 2010 to 45 per cent in 2016.
Fish is an important component of the diet. Lake
Tônlé-Sap is one of the world's richest areas for freshwater
fishing, which also takes place in the Mekong and Tonlé-Sap
rivers. In 2016 this fishing amounted to 509 300 tonnes.
Cambodia then had the world's fourth largest freshwater
fishery for China, India and Bangladesh. In addition, fish
farming takes place, which in 2016 amounted to approximately
200,000 tonnes. Offshore 435 kilometers long coast, sea
fishing is conducted. The main ports for supplying the catch
are Sihanoukville and Koh Kong.
Industry, mining and energy
The industry contributes 32.8 per cent of the country's
GDP and employs 19.9 per cent of the working population. The
main industrial activity is the production of clothing and
footwear. In addition, the industrial sector includes the
processing of agricultural products, including rice, and the
production of cement. In Phnom Penh there is extensive
construction activity, especially as a result of investments
from China, Hong Kong, the US and the Netherlands. Since
1979, three quarters of industrial investment has been made
in Phnom Penh.
Cambodia has limited mineral resources, and only
phosphate and gemstones are mined.
Most of the energy has traditionally come from wood, but
after 2011 there has been a strong upswing in domestic
energy production. Cambodia has great hydropower potential,
and after extensive power development, hydropower production
increased from 51 GWh in 2011 to 2,000 GWh in 2015. Several
new coal-fired power plants were also built, which in 2015
produced 2,376 GWh. Despite increased self-production of
electrical energy, the country is still dependent on
imports. In 2016, the country imported 1.6 TWh of a total
energy supply of 7.2 TWh.
Tourism has grown strongly since 2008, when 2.1 million
foreign tourists visited the country. Five years later, that
number had doubled. From 2013 to 2018, the number of foreign
tourists increased from 4.2 to 6.2 million. Most tourists
came in 2018 from China (1.2 million), Vietnam (800,000),
Laos (460,000), Thailand (382,000), South Korea (302,000)
and the United States (250,000). 1.9 million foreign
tourists arrived at Siem Rap International Airport, which is
the nearest airport to the country's main tourist center
Angkor. 1.9 million foreign tourists arrived at Phnom Penh
Transport and Communications
Most of Cambodia's transport system was destroyed during
the civil war. The country has a railway network of 612
kilometers, but only the line between Phnom Penh and
Sihanoukville at 264 kilometers is operational. The road
network also has its center in Phnom Penh, but is poorly
maintained. In total, the road network amounts to 47,263
kilometers, of which 12,239 kilometers have a fixed tire.
Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and Sihanoukville have
international airports. In practice, maritime traffic on the
rivers and lake Tônlé-Sap is the most important domestic
means of communication and covers a total of 3700
kilometers. Phnom Penh River Port is located 330 kilometers
from the mouth of the Mekong in the South China Sea, and can
be reached by vessels of a maximum of 5,000 deadweight
tonnes (dwt). Sihanoukville on the Gulf of Thailand is the
country's most important deepwater port with oil, container
and cruise ship terminals.
Cambodia's exports amounted to USD 11.42 billion in 2017,
while imports amounted to USD 14.37 billion. As a result,
the country had a deficit in the foreign trade balance of
USD 2.95 billion.
The five main export markets are:
- United States (21.5 percent)
- United Kingdom(9.0 per cent)
- Germany(8.6 percent)
- Japan(7.6 percent)
- China (6.9 percent)
The main export products are clothing, footwear, timber,
rice, rubber, fish and tobacco. Clothing and footwear
accounted for 68 per cent of total exports in 2017.
The four main import markets are:
- China (34.1 percent)
- Singapore(12.8 percent)
- Thailand (12.4 percent)
- Vietnam (10.1 percent)
The main import products are petroleum products, raw
materials for the clothing and footwear industry, building
materials, electronics, motor vehicles, cigarettes and